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AQA Psychology A Level Past Questions For Psya4. (Schizophrenia, Depression, Phobic Disorders, OCD) Hey guys! Below you will find a list of what tense should papers, every single Psya4 essay question for Psychopathology. Essays Reading? I hope it helps you and if it does please like our Facebook page here and help spread the tense be written in, word so others can benefit too! Liking our page helps keep the website free of adverts in the long-term and ma creative writing novel helps us build a community for what should in, AQA Psychology . Ok on to the questions. Coursework Ocr? The first topic is A2 Psya4 Schizophrenia Psychopathology. What Should Papers? AQA Psychology Psya4 Schizophrenia Past Questions. PSYA4 June 2016 : Outline and reading evaluate one or more biological therapies for what tense should papers, schizophrenia (8+16 marks) New 2nd Edition Psya4 Schizophrenia Model Essay Answers. Psya4R June 2015 (replacement paper): Outline one issue relating to the classification and/or diagnosis of schizophrenia (4 marks) Psya4R June 2015 (replacement paper): Outline and evaluate one or more biological explanations for schizophrenia (4+16 marks) Psya4 June 2015 : Outline the clinical characteristics of schizophrenia (4 marks) Psya4 June 2015: Outline one biological therapy for schizophrenia (4 marks) Psya4 June 2015: Evaluate biological therapies for schizophrenia (16 marks) Psya4 June 2014 : Discuss psychological explanations for on noise pollution, schizophrenia (8+16 marks) Psya4 June 2013 : Discuss biological explanations for research be written, schizophrenia (8+16 marks) Psya4 January 2013 : Outline and evaluate one biological therapy for schizophrenia (4+8 marks) Psya4 January 2013 : Outline and essays evaluate one psychological therapy for schizophrenia (4+8 marks) Psya4 June 2012 : Outline and research be written in evaluate one biological therapy for schizophrenia and one psychological therapy for schizophrenia (8+16 marks) Psya4 January 2012 : Discuss issues associated with the classification and/or diagnosis of schizophrenia (8+16 marks) Psya4 June 2011 : Discuss biological explanations of schizophrenia (9+16 marks) Psya4 January 2011 : Outline clinical characteristics of schizophrenia (5 marks) Psya4 January 2011 : Outline one psychological explanation of schizophrenia (4 marks) Psya4 January 2011 : Evaluate psychological explanations of schizophrenia (16 marks) Psya4 June 2010: Discuss issues surrounding the classification and diagnosis of schizophrenia (9 +16 marks) AQA Psychology Psya4 Depression Past Questions. PSYA4 June 2016: Outline and evaluate one or more psychological explanations of depression (8+16 marks) Click to get A* essays for Psya4 Depression for every possible exam question!
Psya4R June 2015 (replacement paper): Outline one issue relating to john an essay human to the the classification and/or diagnosis of depression (4 marks) Psya4R June 2015 (replacement paper): Outline and evaluate one or more biological therapies for what tense should in, depression (4+16 marks) Psya4 June 2015: Discuss psychological explanations for novel, depression (8+16 marks) Psya4 June 2014: Outline and research papers evaluate two psychological therapies for phd dissertation, depression (8+16 marks) Psya4 June 2013 : Outline the papers in, clinical characteristics of depression (4 marks) Psya4 June 2013 : Outline one biological explanation for essays books, depression (4 marks) Psya4 June 2013 : Evaluate one or more biological explanations for depression (16 marks) Psya4 January 2013 : Discuss issues related to what tense papers in the classification and/or diagnosis of write a essay pollution, depression (8 + 16 marks) Psya4 June 2012 : Discuss biological explanations for what tense should research papers be written in, depression (8+16 marks) Psya4 January 2012 : Outline two psychological explanations of depression (8 marks) Psya4 January 2012 : Evaluate psychological explanations of essays reading, depression (16 marks) Psya4 June 2011 : Discuss biological therapies for depression (9+16 marks) Psya4 January 2011 : Outline and should research papers evaluate two or more psychological therapies for depression (9+16 marks) Psya4 June 2010 : Outline at least one biological explanation of depression and at john locke an essay concerning human understanding epistle to the reader least one psychological explanation of tense research be written, depression (9 marks) Psya4 June 2010 : Evaluate biological and psychological explanations of depression (16 marks) AQA Psychology Psya4 Phobic Disorders Past Questions. Books? PSYA4 June 2016: Outline and should papers in evaluate two explanations for phobia (8+16 marks) Psya4R June 2015 (replacement paper): Outline the clinical characteristics of phobic disorders (4 marks) Psya4R June 2015 (replacement paper) : Outline and evaluate one or more psychological therapies for phobic disorders (4+16 marks) Psya4 June 2015: Outline and evaluate one psychological explanation for phobic disorders (4+8 marks) Psya4 June 2015: Outline and evaluate one psychological therapy for phobic disorders (4+8 marks) Psya4 June 2014: Discuss biological explanations for phobic disorders (8+16 marks) Psya4 June 2013 : Discuss issues relating to the classification and/or diagnosis of phobic disorders (4+8 marks) Psya4 June 2013 : Outline and evaluate one psychological explanation for phobic disorders (4+8 marks) Psya4 January 2013 : Outline one biological and one psychological therapy for phobic disorders. Essays Reading? Evaluate these therapies in what research be written terms of their effectiveness. Locke An Essay To The Reader? (8+16 marks) Psya4 June 2012: Discuss explanations for phobic disorders (8+16 marks) Psya4 January 2012 : Outline and what tense should research papers be written in evaluate two or more therapies for phobic disorders (8+16 marks) Psya4 June 2011 : Outline and evaluate one or more biological explanations for either phobic disorders or obsessive compulsive disorder (4+8 marks) Psya4 June 2011 : Discuss one or more psychological explanations for write on noise, either phobic disorders or obsessive compulsive disorder (5+8 marks) Psya4 January 2011 : Outline clinical characteristics of either phobic disorders or obsessive compulsive disorder (5 marks) Psya4 January 2011: Explain issues associated with the research be written in, classification and/or diagnosis of either phobic disorders or obsessive compulsive disorder (10 marks) Psya4 January 2011: Outline and evaluate one psychological explanation for either phonic disorders or obsessive compulsive disorder (4+6 marks) Psya4 June 2010: Outline clinical characteristics of one anxiety disorder (4 marks) Psya4 June 2010: Briefly describe one psychological therapy for ma creative writing, the anxiety disorder that you outlines in your answer (5 marks) Psya4 June 2010: Evaluate psychological therapies for this anxiety disorder (16 marks) AQA Psychology Psya4 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Past Questions. 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PSYA4 June 2016: Outline and write pollution evaluate two explanations for obsessive compulsive disorder (8+16 marks) Psya4R June 2015 (replacement paper): Outline the should be written, clinical characteristics of obsessive compulsive disorder (4 marks) Psya4R June 2015 (replacement paper): Outline and evaluate one or more psychological explanations of reading, obsessive compulsive disorder (4+16 marks) Psya4 June 2015: Outline the what, clinical characteristics of obsessive compulsive disorder (4 marks) Psya4 June 2015: Outline one biological therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder (4 marks) Psya4 June 2015: Evaluate biological therapies for obsessive compulsive disorder (16 marks) Psya4 June 2014: Outline and evaluate one biological explanation for obsessive compulsive disorder (4+8 marks) Psya4 June 2014: Outline and how long is a evaluate one psychological therapy for tense be written, obsessive compulsive disorder (4+8 marks) Psya4 June 2013: Discuss issues relating to gcse ocr the classification and/or diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder (4+8 marks) Psya4 June 2013: Outline and evaluate one biological explanation for obsessive compulsive disorder (4+8 marks) Psya4 January 2013: Outline the clinical characteristics of obsessive compulsive disorder (4 marks) Psya4 January 2013: Outline one psychological therapy for should research in, obsessive compulsive disorder (4 marks) Psya4 January 2013: Evaluate psychological therapies for obsessive compulsive disorder (16 marks) Psya4 June 2012: Outline and gcse coursework 2013 evaluate one biological explanation for what should be written in, obsessive compulsive disorder (4+8 marks) Psya4 June 2012: Outline and evaluate one or more therapies for college application essay to be, obsessive compulsive disorder (4+8 marks) Psya4 January 2012: Outline and in evaluate two or more therapies for obsessive compulsive disorder (8+16 marks) Thats all the questions for how long is a college, OCD Prior to January 2012 there was only 3 topics for Psychopathology and tense papers be written in the syllabus hadn#8217;t added OCD yet. Latest posts by gcse coursework 2013, Saj Devshi (see all) Have you posted the predictions for addictions and phobias for june 2014? Can you tell me your prediction for June 2014 for what tense in, Phobias, addiction and is a essay research methods please? Your website has been most helpful!
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Rebellion and what research papers conservatism: the lessons of chemistry ocr 1984 - Jean-Claude Michea. A transcript of what tense research a 1995 talk in which Michea discusses the a essay pollution continuing relevance of the ideas of the self-proclaimed “tory anarchist”, George Orwell, featuring: Orwell’s concepts of “generous anger” and “common decency”; the moral bankruptcy of the “totalitarian intellectuals” whose desire for power was rooted in resentment; the left’s disastrous “uncritical approval” of “the mechanization” and “unlimited modernization of the what tense papers in world”; and concludes the talk with a call for a essay on noise pollution, a “critical conservatism” , which Michea characterizes as “one of the necessary pillars for any radical critique of supermodernity and the synthetic ways of life” it is imposing on us. Rebellion and tense research Conservatism: The Lessons of 1984 – Jean-Claude Michea. This article is phd dissertation timeline, a transcript of a talk given in November 1995 at a meeting of the Montpellier Group of the Anarchist Federation. It was published in Jean-Claude Michea’s book on George Orwell, Orwell, anarchiste tory , Editions Climats, 1995. (There is a Spanish translation of Jean-Claude Michea’s book, La escuela de ignorancia , Acuarela Libros, Madrid, 2002. [for an tense should research be written English language translation, see: http://libcom.org/library/school-ignorance-its-modern-conditions-jean-claude-mich%C3%A9]) This online version of the present text was originally published on sinDominio’s Biblioweb on June 25, 2003, the one-hundredth anniversary of the birth of George Orwell, in homage to his memory. In multiple aspects of his philosophy, George Orwell often comes close to the anarchist sensibility. He explicitly admits this himself in Homage to Catalonia , when he states: “As far as my purely personal preferences went I would have liked to join the Anarchists.” (Chapter 8). In fact, the defense of imprisoned anarchists was one of the main purposes of the reading Freedom Defense Committee , which Orwell directed along with Herbert Read. It is impossible, however, to consider the author of 1984 as an anarchist in the doctrinal and tense should research in militant sense of the term.
In none of his essays does he advocate the idea that a stateless society is either possible or even desirable. In actuality, Orwell was simply a radical democrat, and john an essay concerning human understanding therefore a supporter of a state of rights, one capable of exercising its functions “with the greatest efficacy and the fewest possible obstacles”.1. Thus, the fact that Orwell defined himself on various occasions as a tory anarchist is above all else evidence for the complexity of his political thought. Nor should we forget that, for the author, these quips were more like jokes than theoretical concepts, although, as Simon Leys correctly observes, this formula constitutes “the best definition of his political temperament”.2 This expression will constitute the starting point of my attempt to identify certain aspects of 1984 that are generally little known or underestimated. The story told in 1984 is, above all, the story of the what research papers in rebellion of the individual, Winston Smith, against john an essay concerning human understanding epistle to the the absolute powers of the rulers of Oceania. But at the end of the novel this rebellion is defeated. Thus, 1984 is apparently the story of a failure. What has rarely been pointed out about the failure of Winston’s rebellion, however, is that it was not due to the fact that any rebellion against the power of Big Brother is impossible, but rather to the fact that his own rebellion is basically a false one. On the what tense should research papers be written one hand, he chooses to do without the help of the proletarians, when, in reality, their massive and silent presence constantly hovers over the narrative. Later, when Winston finally decides to write on noise, take action and organize, he joins the mysterious “Brotherhood” of the no less mysterious Goldstein, an organization that will finally be revealed as a spurious opposition group, created and manipulated by the Party. Tense Research In. This is therefore the first political lesson of the novel: although the rebellion of the individual against tyrannical power is always understandable from the psychological point of view, there is no a priori guarantee that the ideas and actions that emerge from this rebellion will be legitimate or even just effective.
There certainly are alienated rebellions, that is, rebellions that are perfectly adjusted to the logic of the systems that they claim to combat and which often contribute to reinforce those systems’ effects. For Orwell, this occurs whenever a rebellion does not proceed from the “generous anger” that, for example, inspired Dickens (as we shall see, this generous anger is pollution, always linked to common decency ), but when its deep psychological roots are located in envy, hatred and resentment. No authentic rebellion can arise from this poisoned spring.3 And in such cases, those who are possessed by their own hatred are perfectly capable of imagining that they are the living negation of the what should be written reigning despotism, but, to use cinematographic terms, they are merely the negative of the same movie. One need only read the is a college supposed to be famous scene in which Winston joins the “Brotherhood” to see to just what extent, as Evelyn Waugh pointed out, this peculiar organization is tense should research papers be written in, just another gang, otherwise indistinguishable from the Party. He began asking his questions in a low, expressionless voice, as though this were a routine, a sort of catechism, most of whose answers were known to him already. ’You are prepared to give your lives?’ ’You are prepared to commit murder?’ ’To commit acts of ocr sabotage which may cause the death of hundreds of what tense be written innocent people?’ ’To betray your country to foreign powers?’ ’You are prepared to cheat, to forge, to phd dissertation timeline, blackmail, to corrupt the minds of children, to distribute habit-forming drugs, to encourage prostitution, to disseminate venereal diseases — to do anything which is likely to cause demoralization and weaken the power of the Party?’ ’If, for example, it would somehow serve our interests to throw sulphuric acid in a child’s face — are you prepared to do that?’ ’You are prepared to lose your identity and live out the what tense research papers be written in rest of your life as a waiter or a dock-worker?’ ’You are prepared to commit suicide, if and when we order you to do so?’ This passage leaves no room for college application essay to be, doubt. Winston Smith does not symbolize the “ordinary man” so often praised in the works of Orwell; he represents instead simply an tense should papers exact replica of those thousands of gcse chemistry coursework 2013 intellectuals, Party members who, due to a certain lack of humanity (or a lack of a minimum of critical intelligence), and for different motives in what tense should research in each individual case, choose to oppose the machine that will end up destroying them but which, up until then, they had served with absolute loyalty.4.
As a general rule, power only fascinates those who seek to novel, use it to avenge the humiliations they have suffered. Hence, the will to power would be the logical corollary of resentment. What Should Research Be Written. This decisive truth, already explored by Dostoyevsky, leads us to the core of Orwellian “anarchism”. The second lesson consists in the fact that the is a essay love of power constitutes the main obstacle that prevents men from attaining a just society. According to should research in, the excellent formula of Sonia Orwell, a just society is the free, equal and decent society . To the extent that the rebellion of the modern intellectual against the established order is often nourished on his own resentment (unlike the workers and the humble folk, whose rebellion is a spontaneous rejection of the real injustices that they suffer from or that they have witnessed), it is logical that the how long college essay supposed intellectual context of contemporary societies, in the broadest sense of the term, represents for Orwell the privileged embodiment of the will to power. This explains why, in the society of what tense should papers in Oceania, “the new aristocracy was made up for the most part of bureaucrats, scientists, technicians, trade-union organizers, publicity experts, sociologists, teachers, journalists, and professional politicians. These people, whose origins lay in the salaried middle class and the upper grades of the ma creative working class, had been shaped and brought together by the barren world.
of monopoly industry and centralized government. As compared with their opposite numbers in past ages, they were less avaricious, less tempted by luxury, hungrier for pure power, and, above all, more conscious of what they were doing and tense papers in more intent on crushing opposition.” This hunger “for pure power”, that is, the psychological need to have another person at one’s mercy, can be manifested in many degrees. The first is evident in the everyday relations between individuals: thus, for example, the maniacal pleasure that some experience by controlling what other people do and say, manipulating their time or organizing their lives. At a more developed degree, one will also appreciate the strange taste for giving orders, for “surveillance and punishment”, for brutalizing and humiliating others. The highest degree of the ma creative novel love for power, however, is, of course, the need to exercise violent rule over the other, whether psychologically or physically. Totalitarian politics proceeds at this latter level. The best illustration of this idea is found in the speech by O’Brien that we reproduce below: He paused, and for a moment assumed again his air of a schoolmaster questioning a promising pupil: ’How does one man assert his power over another, Winston?’ Winston thought. ’By making him suffer,’ he said. ’Exactly. By making him suffer.
Obedience is tense should research papers be written, not enough. Unless he is suffering, how can you be sure that he is obeying your will and not his own? Power is in inflicting pain and humiliation. Power is in tearing human minds to pieces and putting them together again in new shapes of your own choosing. Do you begin to novel, see, then, what kind of tense papers world we are creating?
It is the write a essay exact opposite what should be written in, of the stupid hedonistic Utopias that the old reformers imagined. A world of john an essay human fear and treachery is research papers in, torment, a world of trampling and being trampled upon, a world which will grow not less but more merciless as it refines itself. Is A Essay Supposed. Progress in our world will be progress towards more pain. The old civilizations claimed that they were founded on love or justice. Ours is founded upon hatred. In our world there will be no emotions except fear, rage, triumph, and self-abasement.
Everything else we shall destroy everything. Already we are breaking down the habits of thought which have survived from before the Revolution. We have cut the links between child and parent, and between man and man, and between man and woman. No one dares trust a wife or a child or a friend any longer. Tense Should Papers Be Written In. But in to the the future there will be no wives and no friends. What Tense Research Papers. Children will be taken from college application supposed to be, their mothers at birth, as one takes eggs from a hen. Should Papers. The sex instinct will be eradicated.
Procreation will be an annual formality like the renewal of a ration card. We shall abolish the orgasm. Our neurologists are at writing, work upon it now. There will be no loyalty, except loyalty towards the Party. There will be no love, except the love of Big Brother. There will be no laughter, except the laugh of triumph over a defeated enemy. There will be no art, no literature, no science.
When we are omnipotent we shall have no more need of science. There will be no distinction between beauty and ugliness. There will be no curiosity, no enjoyment of the process of life. All competing pleasures will be destroyed. But always — do not forget this, Winston — always there will be the intoxication of power, constantly increasing and constantly growing subtler. Always, at every moment, there will be the thrill of victory, the sensation of trampling on an enemy who is research papers be written in, helpless.
If you want a picture of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face — for ever.’ 5. This ferocious homily, which is such a good description of the psychological structure of the totalitarian intellectuals, simultaneously and by default also defines the mentality of the ordinary man (whom Orwell calls the common man or the how long college essay to be ordinary people ), that is, the man who is indifferent to the temptation of power and who, in order to live with himself, feels no need to exercise violent rule over his kind. For “ordinary human feelings” are summarized in the ability to feel “love, or friendship, or joy of living, or laughter, or curiosity, or courage, or integrity”, qualities frequently lacking in the powerful. Taken as a whole, these dispositions define common decency , that is, the everyday practice of mutual aid and generous reciprocity, which may be “innate”,6 and which in what tense papers any event represent the minimum necessary for any good life and the indispensable precondition for any rebellion that aspires to an essay concerning human reader, be just. We must not forget that common decency, according to this definition, must not be reduced to the dimensions that Orwell attributes to it in the work of Dickens.
It is not a literary idealization, but above all an evident everyday reality, an effective set of what should research in forms of giving, receiving and giving back that, after developing and purifying, constitute the psychological basis of socialism. From this point of concerning human understanding epistle reader view, the investigation of Wigan Pier and, even more so, the what should papers Spanish experience were the sources of his idea that the traditional civility of the gcse chemistry 2013 ocr people was the only guarantee that, some day, socialism will be more than just a utopian dream or a nightmare become reality. “There is a sense in which it would be true to say that one was experiencing a foretaste of Socialism, by which I mean that the papers prevailing mental atmosphere was that of Socialism” ( Homage to Catalonia , Chapter 7). Thus, the application to be praise for common decency and the corresponding critique of resentment and the will to power are undoubtedly the should research papers most relevant characteristics of Orwellian socialism: the real revolutionary is not a Puritan driven by what Spinoza called the “sad passions”, behind the mask of ideological rhetoric. His innate decency, his natural generosity and, undoubtedly, his sense of humor, situate him at the opposite pole to ma creative writing, that “hate-world, slogan-world”7 that, from Nechaev to Che Guevara, has been the tense should research papers be written in natural element of totalitarian minds.8. This latter idea brings us to the third political aspect of 1984 : the relation between the timeline world of hatred and should papers the world of slogans is structural. The intuitive understanding of the essays reading books connection that exists between “totalitarian habits of tense should research papers in thought and the corruption of language” ( The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell, Volume 4, In Front of Your Nose: 1945-1950 , Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., New York, 1968, p. 156) perfectly explains the profound revulsion that Orwell felt for the stereotyped uses of language. Nonetheless, despite the fact that political jargon may be the best example of a way of thought that bypasses the brain, Orwell also perceived that this decomposition of books critical intelligence was now completely functional in liberal societies. Judging by the prevailing jargon in the media, business or government, this diagnosis remains totally valid. What Tense Research Papers Be Written In. In this manner, and in conformance with the Orwellian view, if the “cool” journalist, the how long is a college supposed to be “dynamic” executive, or the “visionary” manager is only capable of expressing himself in the terms of his respective Newspeak, this is not just an innocent trend.
In reality, this tendency represents the imperial domination of those powers over the organization of what tense should research papers our lives. Similarly, Orwell’s repeated critiques of and warnings against the dizzying decline of modern language, his appeals to preserve a living and popular English language, his concept of literature as a privileged form of political writing, must not be considered as symptoms of a maniacal and elitist purism. To the timeline contrary, if contemporary language, especially that of the young people, the main target of commercial society, is disturbingly impoverished and if the poetic sensibilities and popular genius of language9 are gradually disappearing, this is due to the fact that modern elites are capable of creating a world in tense should papers be written their image and reader semblance. There can be no doubt that Orwell’s need to legitimate a certain degree of “conservatism” is derived from the imperative to protect traditional civility and language. For no desirable society could exist, or even be conceived, if, in accordance with the apocalyptic tradition that arose with Saint John and Saint Augustine, the advent of the “new man” depends on what should papers be written, our ability to make a “tabula rasa” of the past. Therefore, if we cannot rely on the necessary foundations based on how long is a supposed, an anthropological, moral and linguistic patrimony, it will be impossible to change life. The forgetting and rejection of these premises have always led “revolutionary” intellectuals to construct the papers be written in most suffocating political systems that could be imagined. In other words, no society worthy of the modern possibilities of the human species has the least chance of existing if the radical movement is not capable of assuming its conservative tasks. This is therefore the last and most essential lesson of 1984 : the sense of the past and therefore the ability to remember and essays reading books experience nostalgic yearning, constitute utterly indispensable preconditions for what tense papers, any revolutionary enterprise that is essays books, not resigned in advance to what tense research be written, being a new version of past mistakes. ’What shall it be this time?’ he said, still with the same faint suggestion of irony. ’To the confusion of the Thought Police?
To the death of Big Brother? To humanity? To the future?’ ’To the is a college past,’ said Winston. ’The past is more important,’ agreed O’Brien gravely. This is why, if Winston Smith, the competent and efficient official of the Ministry of Truth, preserves a part of his humanity (this is what leads him to what tense should papers, approach the proletarians), it is writing, above all because he is fascinated by all the forms of the should research papers be written in past. This passion would lead to his downfall: Mister Charrington, the manager of the antiques shop, is actually a member of the Thought Police. Before his love for Julia gave his desire for gcse chemistry ocr, resistance a more altruistic basis, throughout the novel it is this fascination that constitutes the psychological key of his rebellion against the Party. On the other hand, it is the effort to destroy that past that is the what tense should research papers in purpose that informs the reading policy of the “Engsoc”.
In the end, this implies that the research rebellion of ma creative writing Winston Smith, however alienated it may have become,10 is originally a conservative rebellion. This is also why, unless your battle against modern servility is what in, consciously based on gcse chemistry coursework ocr, the positive aspects of the past, you are doomed to a radical and definitive failure. There is a real problem, however: everyone knows that in modern Newspeak, that is, in that way of speaking that is devoted to preventing any kind of “politically incorrect” thought, “conservatism” is the “blanket word”11 that designates the “thoughtcrime” par excellence: the one that marks our complicity with all those embodiments of what should research papers be written in political evil like the “Right”, the “Established Order” or the “society of intolerance and exclusion”. Write Pollution. Given the fact that this mystification forms part of the what papers core of modern capitalism and that it constitutes its first line of defense, it is john locke an essay concerning to the, incumbent on us to question its fundamental postulates, even if only for the purpose of measuring the extraordinary intellectual courage exhibited by Orwell in his rehabilitation, even in the form of a game, of a word that had been so thoroughly demonized by the sanctimonious left, if there is any other kind today. In England, the opposition between the Whigs and the Tories emerged in the 17th century to distinguish the “Party of Movement” from the “Party of Conservation”.
During that era, these terms designated, on the one side, the party of liberal capitalism, in favor of the market economy, the development of calculating individualism and all their corresponding customs; on the other side, the supporters of the Ancien Regime, that is, a social order that was simultaneously communitarian and extremely hierarchical. The philosophical trap into which the left was destined to fall became clear when it identified conservatism with the right, and thereby claimed for itself a large part of the founding myths of Whig progressivism. If, however, we understand by what should research papers be written the word “socialism” the project formulated in the 19th century that sought to abolish the internal contradictions of liberal capitalism, it is obvious that the attempt to application to be, integrate socialism in the thematic of the progressive left (a task that in research France was carried out by the Dreyfus Case12) could not proceed without problems. In practice, this almost necessarily implied denominating as “socialist” or “progressive” the presumably coherent entirety of the different modernization movements, movements that, from the very beginnings of the 19th century, had been undermining the established order. Ma Creative. As Arno Mayer has amply demonstrated (see The Persistence of the Old Regime… ), this meant that it had been forgotten that the economic and social basis of that order had been, up until 1914 , fundamentally agrarian and aristocratic. In these circumstances, the left’s call to break with all “archaic” and “conservative” mentalities was necessarily conflated with the cultural demands of liberal capitalism, which effectively would have nothing to do with the tense be written tyranny of the Church, the nobility or the army. In reality, it is linked to a type of civilization that can be called anything but conservative, as Marx, before J. Novel. Schumpeter and what tense should D. Bell, had clearly indicated.
“The bourgeoisie cannot exist without constantly revolutionising the instruments of phd dissertation timeline production, and thereby the relations of production, and with them the what tense be written whole relations of society. Conservation of the how long application to be old modes of production in unaltered form, was, on the contrary, the first condition of existence for all earlier industrial classes. Constant revolutionising of production, uninterrupted disturbance of all social conditions, everlasting uncertainty and agitation distinguish the bourgeois epoch from all earlier ones. All fixed, fast-frozen relations, with their train of ancient and venerable prejudices and should papers in opinions, are swept away, all new-formed ones become antiquated before they can ossify. All that is solid melts into air, all that is holy is how long college supposed to be, profaned….” (“The Communist Manifesto”, Chapter I)
In other words, capitalism is by what be written definition a self-contestatory social system, whose authentic categorical imperative consists in the constant dissolution of all existing conditions. The modern left—that is, the left that does not even have the excuse of having to really confront the traditional powers of the Ancien Regime, since most of these powers disappeared after the First World War—with its determination to define itself purely and simply as the “Party of Change” and of the entire ensemble of the “Forces for Progress”, was doomed to definitively enmesh the workers and the ordinary people in the historic trap. From this unfortunate but modern perspective, the sole possibility that remained to the term “socialism” was to become just another word for the development ad infinitum of big industry, and more generally, of the concerning understanding reader uncritical approval of the research be written in integral and unlimited modernization of the world: the globalization of exchange, the tyranny of the financial markets, deranged urbanism, constant revolution of chemistry coursework communications technologies, etc.13). Thus, it is logical that the pathetic fear of appearing to be “behind the what tense should be written in times” with respect to anything, a fear that stands out in the thinking of most left wing intellectuals, has ended up confirming the current unity of the radiant future of the cyberworld and its spiritual complement, the timeline “liberal-libertarian” spirit that dominates the tense should in fallacious world of the spectacle and of the how long is a to be communications media. An era in which the most elementary trivialities are considered to be paradoxes is a very curious one. When, however, over what research in, the entire course of the 20th century, the historical ambitions of the left have been capable of being so easily utilized against the people, when progressivism presents itself as the simple idealized truth of capital,14 it is time to openly adopt a certain critical conservatism , which, today, represents one of the necessary pillars for any radical critique of supermodernity and the synthetic ways of is a application essay supposed to be life that it is attempting to impose upon what research papers in, us. Write A Essay On Noise Pollution. This was Orwell’s message. It is our task to restore the philosophical dignity that corresponds to his idea of the what should research in tory anarchist . Copyright 1995, 2003 Jean-Claude Michea. “Permission to a essay, copy and distribute this entire document for should research papers in, personal use is granted if no changes are made to write a essay, the text and if this note is included. For commercial uses, one must contact the copyright holder.”
Translated in October 2013 from the Spanish translation available online at: 1. See the manifesto written by Orwell for The League for The Dignity and should research papers be written Rights of Man (quoted in B. How Long College Application Supposed To Be. Crick, Orwell: une vie , 1984, p. 432). What Tense Should Papers Be Written In. 2. This observation on write on noise, the part of Simon Leys ( Orwell ou l’orreur de la politique , 1984, p. 27) coincides with the central analysis of papers be written George Woodcock, an anarchist militant and friend of Orwell (specifically, in Chapter 3, “Orwell, Radical or Tory?” of his book, Orwell’s Message:1984 and the Present , Harbour Publishing, 1984). We shall take this opportunity to point out gcse coursework 2013, that Orwell’s main reproach against tense research papers the contemporary forms of anarchism was more directed at their fascination with modernity rather than their proposal of a stateless society: for Orwell, “Read is too kind a critic. The range of his sympathies, as I pointed out earlier, is very wide, perhaps too wide. The only thing he acutely dislikes is conservatism [….] He is always on the side of the young against the old [….] he is in favour of anarchism because the political Conservatives, including the official Left, don’t like that. How Long Is A College Essay To Be. The contradiction into which this leads him remains unresolved”. ( The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell, Volume 4, In Front of Your Nose: 1945-1950 , Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1968, pp. Tense Should Be Written. 50-51.
This quotation is from a 1945 review of Herbert Read’s A Coat of Many Colours: Occasional Essays ). 3. Carlyle is a good example of this kind of false rebellion. For “the other symptom of phd dissertation timeline Carlyle’s egoism was his personal unhappiness…. even Carlyle’s occasional championship of the poor came more from a desire to thump society than from benevolence. Spleen, of papers in course, is the exact word for Carlyle’s peculiar temper; the spleen of the unconscious egoist, the an essay concerning human understanding epistle reader denouncer of this and that, the discoverer of new sins.” (George Orwell, “Review of The Two Carlyles by Osbert Burdett” (originally published in The Adelphi , March 1931), in George Orwell, The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell: An Age Like This, 1920-1940 , Harcourt, Brace World, Inc., New York, 1968, p. 35.) 4. What Should Research Papers. In the French translation of Amelie Audiberti (1950) one observes a curious error that has not been corrected in more recent editions. In her translation, the proletariat, that is to say all those who do not belong to the Inner or the reading Outer Parties, represents 15% of the tense research papers in population of reading books Oceania. In the original, however, the proletariat constitutes 85% of the population, which is why Winston Smith does not represent the people but the lower classes of the elite (the Outer Party). Furthermore, it should be recalled that the character of Winston Smith is papers be written, not even sympathetic or likeable.
As the reading books narrator reveals, his entire childhood was characterized by the terrified incapacity for giving or sharing. In reality, it was only his love for Julia and his sensitivity for nature and for should papers be written, ancient objects that gradually humanizes his rebellion. Essays Books. 5. This latter image often appears in Orwell’s essays. This may reflect the influence of Jack London’s The Iron Heel . 6. In any event, it is a virtue “that [does] not really belong to the twentieth century” ( Homage to Catalonia , Chapter 12). In this book, Orwell describes on various occasions the Spanish form of common decency: “Spaniards, who, with their innate decency and their ever-present Anarchist tinge, would make even the opening stages of Socialism tolerable” (Chapter 7). 7. An expression used in Coming Up for Air , one of Orwell’s most interesting and least known novels. What Tense Research Papers In. 8. Nechaev: “Tyrannical toward himself, he must be tyrannical toward others.
All the human epistle reader gentle and what tense should research papers be written in enervating sentiments of kinship, love, friendship, gratitude, and timeline even honor, must be suppressed in him and give place to the cold and single-minded passion for revolution” (“Catechism of a Revolutionist”, Paragraph 6). Che Guevara: “Hate as a factor in what papers in the struggle, intransigent hatred for the enemy that takes one beyond the natural limitations of a human being and phd dissertation converts one into an effective, violent, selective, cold, killing machine. What Tense Should Research In. Our soldiers must be like that….” (“Create Two, Three, Many Vietnams”). 9. Concerning Newspeak, one may refer to the indispensable essay by phd dissertation Jacques Dewitte, “Le pouvoir du langage et la liberte de l’esprit. Reflexion sur l’utopie linguistique de Georges Orwell”, Les Temps modernes , May 1991. Should Papers. 10.
This rebellion is ma creative writing novel, constructed solely on what research papers be written in, the basis of love and consideration towards the other, the basic elements of common decency , but too little and too late: ’You are prepared, the two of you, to how long college application supposed, separate and never see one another again?’ ’No!’ broke in Julia. It appeared to Winston that a long time passed before he answered. For a moment he seemed even to tense papers in, have been deprived of the power of speech. His tongue worked soundlessly, forming the novel opening syllables first of one word, then of the other, over and over again. Until he had said it, he did not know which word he was going to say. ’No,’ he said finally. ’You did well to tell me,’ said O’Brien. ’It is necessary for us to know everything.’ It is obvious that the psychological universe of Winston Smith is what research, very different from novel, that of Dickens: his hatred is not generous, or else it is should papers be written in, only slightly generous. Oct 24 2013 00:13. Workers in Catalonia have launched a general strike today in response to the brutal police repression following Sunday#039;s Catalan independence referendum. Rodrigo Nunes looks at the social movements of 2011 and their implications for organising, rejecting the opposite conceptions of the vanguardist party and the loose virtual network.
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Programmer, Developer, Engineer: What#039;s in a name? The other day I saw a tweet that said something like, “to a designer, HTML is programming and to a programmer, HTML is design.” That cracked me up. What Tense Be Written In! If you don’t recall, I call this dynamic the invasion of the lightweights. That’s not a negative thing. In fact, I find it useful and valuable to the overall market. The nature of the dynamic is that as technology gets easier and easier, more and more people will be able to gcse chemistry ocr “program.” Now before I get into what tense should, this topic of chemistry coursework ocr, a name, and what’s in a name, I want you to read the next lines very carefully. I don’t care what you call yourself. What Tense Should Research Be Written In! There’s nothing special in timeline a name. I don’t care about your education either. I use these conceptual levels to help people positively with their career development.
Not to should research papers be written be a jerk. Ok, with that said, today on our WPwatercooler show, and last week in tweet discussion, the essays reading, topic of what tense research papers, programmers, developers and engineers has come up. Application To Be! And some people have looked on curiously, I’m sure – wondering what’s in a name? With all the caveats out the way, let me walk you thru my definition. Again, these are meant to help people in career development – to help them step into a new role, not to should papers push people out of an existing role (or tell them they’re not worthy). See, caveat again. When I talk about a programmer, I mean someone who can code. They know at least one programming language and know it well enough that they can make things happen by typing the reading books, code into tense research papers be written in, their computer. Some programmers graduate from a university with a computer science degree and know how to how long is a college essay supposed to be code. Tense Should Papers! They would qualify. Others pick up a book and teach themselves to phd dissertation timeline code on their own.
They would qualify too. When I talk about a developer, I use the what tense, term to mean something more than programmer. Phd Dissertation Timeline! A programmer asks me, “what should I code?” or “how do you want me to do it?” In those cases, I’m making the bigger decisions and what tense research papers be written in the programmer is implementing things. Developers have enough experience to concerning epistle reader have seen problems before and to what tense should papers know what worked and what didn’t. With developers I normally describe a destination, and they design the route they’ll take. I give them more freedom because they have deeper experience. So for me, the difference between a programmer and a developer is one of degree.
One is more resourceful than the other. Moving from one to the other requires time, effort, and gcse chemistry 2013 experience. Programmers can accelerate this by doing more in shorter amounts of time, but they won’t get there by doing the same thing 20 times over. Tense Should Papers Be Written In! Additionally, I make no assumption about how they develop their experience (college or on gcse ocr, the job), nor do I make any about the number of languages they know. One is fine. Software engineers are a different dynamic altogether, for me . It’s because of the “engineering” part of the term, for me . To remind you, I don’t care how software engineers gain their knowledge. I’m not suggesting they must have a degree. But I am suggesting that they can’t just pick up a language, hack their way around a bit and expect me to call them a software engineer – regardless of what they call themselves. Engineering is what tense should research papers be written a discipline.
It requires that you know a set of knowledge. I would say education but people will punt to schooling, and I’m not saying that. I am saying you can’t just learn a language. There’s a history to the discipline. Engineering requires a level of abstract thinking.
I’m not just talking about creating a plan before you write code. I’m talking about creating mental models of how the parts of john locke understanding, a system will work. Models that help you refine your designs. Engineering requires an ability to communicate with others. I don’t care if it’s in user stories or diagrams, engineers need to tense be written in be able to communicate with other engineers to design solutions and to debate the timeline, merits of different approaches – often calling for complex depictions of abstract dynamics. Can you be a self-taught software engineer? Yes.
I think you can. What Tense Research Papers Be Written In! But it’s not fast or easy. Software engineers may focus on a single discipline (like design, testing, or performance tuning) or more, but those disciplines often are apart from programming languages. That translates to being able to essays reading books move a software engineer from should be written one platform to another and john locke an essay human understanding epistle see them pick it up in no time. A conversation I had the other day. I was in an advisory meeting the other day when the director of engineering told me they were trying to find a Ruby developer and it was not only really hard, but also really expensive.
He’d been to networking events and what should research papers be written in these Ruby developers were coming up to him and highlighting how awesome they were in reading Ruby, and how much they were worth. My recommendation was to look elsewhere. My words were something like, “if you find a software engineer, you’ll be happy regardless of what language they’ve been programing in the last couple years.” Different projects and teams need different staff. Is there a good reason to be written in categorize people? I find that they’re very few. But when it comes to human understanding epistle to the recruiting and when it comes to career development, I find these categories / labels helpful. But is there a right answer? Or a wrong answer? I don’t think so.
It really depends on your business model, the kinds of projects you do, and tense papers in more. So don’t use this article to give your next employee review and cut their pay because they’re only a programmer or developer. But at the same time, if you hire a software engineer, and they’re stepping into a new platform, give them a break. They may not know the “inside-speak” and they may make a mistake like not capitalizing a P. If they build you the next GravityForms, I guarantee you, you won’t care. Chris is best known for relentlessly writing blog posts (regardless of who reads them) and on noise pollution tirelessly telling stories (regardless of who hears them). He's a blogger, conference speaker, coach, advisor, and manager of tense be written in, people. Powered by phd dissertation timeline, the Rainmaker Platform. The Rainmaker Platform by Copyblogger Media is the complete website solution for what tense should papers be written in building your own online marketing and sales platform.
In short, it makes the timeline, technology part of what be written in, running an online business simple so that online marketers and business owners can focus on building audiences and growing businesses. My posts. Timeline! Your inbox. Beautiful. Thanks! Now check your email.
I think the best point you’ve made in the article - “if you find a software engineer, you’ll be happy regardless of what language they’ve been programing in the last couple years.” I’ve always been of the opinion that great engineers aren’t linked to a specific language, something I was fortunate enough to be taught early on should research be written, at university. From my experience, when the big development companies of the world (not mentioning any names) recruit for developer positions they dont care what language you’ve been working in, they look at essays books, your problem solving ability first. From my perspective picking up a language is easy, maybe that’s just me though #128521; It often comes down to personal views but I think you’ve been pretty accurate in explaining the concept behind these terms. I’d like to what be written add that a software engineer is generally a personal who is phd dissertation well versed with industry procedures and application of the same into his work. What Tense Research Papers Be Written In! Anyone that knows programming is technically a programmer, although the levels of expertise and corresponding productivity will differ vastly between a rookie and a “guru”.
Therefore, putting up pay scales in accordance to how long is a application essay to be a title is often a stupid idea as not every programmer makes a good developer, and what tense should research be written not every developer is an excellent programmer in phd dissertation timeline terms of quantity and quality of work done. Completely agree with the labeling, a software engineer won’t label himself as a language developer as much as will focus on fixing the problem at hand and will teach himself anything he doesn’t yet know. Should Research Papers Be Written In! I’ve always said that when you know the discipline, all languages start to college application essay supposed to be act and work in much the same ways. Reducing yourself to one or the what tense should in, other limits what you can do in this field and prevents you from branching out into other projects. I leaned Perl because I wanted to, C++ because school required it, Java because the military needed me to, Php because a business needed me to essays and that introduced me to what tense in WordPress which I love, Ruby because another business needed me to for a specific project and this cycle won’t stop or change. We are in locke epistle reader the business of learning and what tense research be written in as long as we keep learning we will always come across the coolest projects out there or like myself now you find yourself starting your own… I agree with your comments. I have worked in a number of different companies over the years (Borland International, Ariba, and others) and I think the real difference is the degree to which a real engineer understands which concerns need to be taken care of and locke understanding to the how to take care of them AND has the professional discipline and integrity to see that they are taken care of.
Not necessarily perfectly, though. Sometimes the difference between a pro and an amateur is should papers be written that the pro knows which things MUST be done perfectly and college application which need not be. Sometimes someone who SHOULD act like engineer but doesn’t act like one. What Tense Should! In my experience, they sometimes changed their ways after their first one or two death march projects. One other thing: you left out at least one other category: software architect. Are you planning on addressing THAT breed of cat sometime here? Thanks for sharing.
I just discovered you and your writing and I really enjoy following you. This is a great discussion of these categories. As someone trying to just learn to be a decent programmer on my own so I can build modify my own projects and WordPress themes, I can see how much experience and collaboration is required to reach these higher levels. I can see that once someone understands how to program languages become less important than process. I don’t think you can short circuit getting those skills very much (exceptional talent / inhuman work ethic might speed things a little) – it takes experience and the right mindset.
I strongly suggest that those who get a good grounding in theory at how long is a college essay, a good university have a big advantage over self-learners. What Papers Be Written In! My feelings about this derive from past experience with network engineering. Those with degrees seemed to writing be able to tense should research be written in progress further and faster. While I love that you can learn all this stuff on your own (which I am doing myself, exactly what you guys call a lightweight….I wear that proudly at this point) I believe someone that wants to pursue software development as a career should get a degree if they can. Interesting.
One trait I think defines engineering is the ability to make trade-offs and understand the consequences. Write On Noise! I see engineering as solving problems under constraints. On the proverbial nuts! I started this career in 1985 at two days past 17. They (the Company) sent me to tense papers be written University – and hated it – and left. What mattered as a “possible” Engineer was that I learned it all, electronics, soldering IEEE andRS232 cables, configuring Novel servers, getting certified for NT Server when it was a baby – but mostly supporting (and writing) “scripts” in a complex but new field of CAM (computer added manufacturing). I was never a “proper” developer. Didn’t bother to ma creative get heavy with C, C++ et al, because I could “engineer” what I needed along the lines whatever the customer wanted right then, without concern of the tense research be written, language.
We did this a few times, in phd dissertation timeline Japan, for instance, while they talked endlessly about what they wanted, we engineered it. These days, I’m still a “scripter” – outside this – it’s Python for me. What Should Papers In! But I’m still an average developer but a decent Software Engineer I hope! I love this article. It’s sad that some “managers” don’t understand the difference between the how long college application supposed to be, “titles” and doesn’t understand the value of engineering. Someone may be able to papers program, they may be able to develop, but not everyone can engineer. I see engineering as less of an ability to code a particular language or two but more to a essay on noise pollution think critically, learn quickly, build a path or vision to what tense should papers accomplish great things… You should be careful when using the software engineering title in ocr some country.
In Canada, you have to have an engineering degree at approved university, 4 year of experience under a paractising engineer and then you can apply for your engineering exam. Sections 39 and 40 of the what research be written in, Professional Engineers Act give PEO the authority to take action. Section 40(1) sets maximum fines for individuals and firms practising without the necessary licences (P.Eng., and/or C of A). These fines are $25,000 for a first offence and $50,000 for each subsequent offence. Section 40(2) authorizes fines of up to $10,000 for a first offence and novel $25,000 for research papers be written each subsequent offence, for essays books people who: use the title “professional engineer” or an abbreviation or variation as an research papers in, occupational designation; use a term, title or description that will lead to the belief that the person may engage in the practice of professional engineering; or. use a seal that will lead to the belief that the person is a professional engineer. Great work Chris. Understanding jargon is 2013 important and has it’s place But titles are over what tense should be written, rated and people spend too much time on technicalities.
Especially we technical folk. As a leader, you are trying to accomplish an objective. Your job is to gather the talent that you need to do that. If you don’t meet that objective, the write, title will be failure. WANT SOME QUICK ADVICE? PAY PER MINUTE. I regularly schedule calls to answer your questions using
a service where you only pay per what tense papers be written, minute. People don’t fully grasp how strategic Chris is. I love that about him and count on application to be, it all the tense research papers be written, time. Chris often breaks paradigms and phd dissertation timeline has me rethinking the way I approach my business. Chris always gives me something to think about – a new lens through which to examine my business. Chris’s advice has helped me to make better decisions about my business, and manage my clients better. Chris has been a source of what tense should research be written, wisdom and insight in business and product strategy, startups, entrepreneurship, and more. Chris is one of those rare people who can take a difficult subject and chemistry coursework 2013 make it easy to learn and remember. Chris has a heart of gold and is willing to what tense should be written reach out and help.
He has helped me in writing novel several ways both in WordPress coding and consulting with me on what tense papers, my business. He has been a blessing in my life and look forward to a long friendship with him. Chris Lema always drops knowledge bombs that makes me think about is a application essay supposed to be how I can evolve my WordPress-powered business. Even more valuable is tense research be written that he does it in a way that makes drastic change seem achievable. Whether it's product strategy or a question about which plugin to use, I know Chris will get me an answer faster than anyone else. Chris is a great mentor, instructor and friend.
He fills all these roles with a down to earth style and ma creative writing ease that actually encourages you to believe that success is within your grasp.
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act essay scoring 8 This action will open a new window. Should Research Papers Be Written? Do you want to proceed? Welcome to our new website! Let us know what you think! Feedback. Application Essay Supposed To Be? Taking the ACT with writing will provide you and the schools to which you have ACT report scores with additional scores. You will receive a total of five scores for this test: a single subject-level writing score reported on a range of 2-12, and four domain scores, also 2-12, that are based on an analytic scoring rubric. The subject-level score will be the rounded average of the four domain scores. The four domain scores are: Ideas and Analysis, Development and what papers be written in, Support, Organization, and Language Use and Conventions . Timeline? An image of what should research be written in your essay will be available to your high school and the colleges to write a essay on noise pollution, which you have ACT report your scores from that test date.
Taking the writing test does not affect your subject area scores or your Composite score. However, without a writing test score, no English Language Arts (ELA) score will be reported. Your essay will be evaluated based on the evidence that it provides of your ability to: clearly state your own perspective on the issue and analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective develop and support your ideas with reasoning and examples organize your ideas clearly and logically communicate your ideas effectively in research papers in standard written English. Two trained readers will score your essay on a scale of 1-6 in each of the four writing domains. John Concerning Understanding Epistle To The? Each domain score represents the sum of the two readers' scores.
If the tense research papers in readers' ratings disagree by more than one point, a third reader will evaluate the essay and resolve the coursework ocr discrepancy. You might be a little unsure of what to expect from a writing prompt and what kinds of responses score the what tense research papers be written highest. We took the guesswork out of it and created one sample prompt and six possible responses, ranging from weak to strong, that give you an idea of how to achieve your best score. Remember that your scores for the four individual domains - ideas and analysis, development and support, organization, and is a college supposed to be, language use and conventions - will be communicated on a scale of 212. These domain scores are derived by adding together the individual scores, on a 16 scale, from each of two readers.
Scoring your writing test. This analytic scoring rubric presents the standards by which your essay will be evaluated. The following rubric overview will help you to better understand the should dimensions of writing that this assessment evaluates. This task asks you to generate an essay that establishes your own perspective on a given issue and analyzes the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective. In evaluating your response, trained readers will use an analytic rubric that breaks the central elements of written argument into four domains: Ideas and Analysis, Development and chemistry ocr, Support, Organization, and Language Use and Conventions. As you review these domains, think about the role each plays in what tense should research be written a written argument that accomplishes its purpose. Reading Books? Ideas and tense research papers be written, Analysis Scores in this domain reflect the ability to generate productive ideas and engage critically with multiple perspectives on the given issue. Competent writers understand the issue they are invited to address, the how long is a application to be purpose for writing, and the audience.
They generate ideas that are relevant to tense should research be written, the situation. Development and 2013, Support Scores in this domain reflect the ability to discuss ideas, offer rationale, and bolster an argument. Competent writers explain and explore their ideas, discuss implications, and illustrate through examples. They help the reader understand their thinking about the issue. Organization Scores in should in this domain reflect the ability to organize ideas with clarity and purpose. Organizational choices are integral to effective writing. Books? Competent writers arrange their essay in a way that clearly shows the relationship between ideas, and they guide the reader through their discussion.
Language Use and should be written in, Conventions Scores in this domain reflect the ability to john human, use written language to convey arguments with clarity. Competent writers make use of the tense should conventions of grammar, syntax, word usage, and mechanics. They are also aware of their audience and adjust the style and tone of their writing to communicate effectively. Learn more about gcse 2013 how the writing test is scored. Compare ACT writing scores from research papers, 2015-2016 and locke concerning human epistle to the, 2016-2017. Scoring Rubric Prior to September 2015: Overview. These are the descriptions of scoring criteria that the trained readers will follow to determine the score (16) for your essay. What Be Written In? Papers at each level exhibit all or most of the phd dissertation characteristics described at each score point.
Essays within this score range demonstrate effective skill in responding to the task. The essay shows a clear understanding of the task. The essay takes a position on the issue and may offer a critical context for discussion. Research Papers Be Written? The essay addresses complexity by john an essay human understanding reader examining different perspectives on the issue, or by tense should evaluating the implications and/or complications of the issue, or by fully responding to counterarguments to human understanding epistle to the, the writer's position. Development of tense should research in ideas is ample, specific, and logical. Most ideas are fully elaborated. A clear focus on the specific issue in the prompt is maintained.
The organization of the essay is clear: the organization may be somewhat predictable or it may grow from the writer's purpose. Ideas are logically sequenced. Most transitions reflect the writer's logic and are usually integrated into the essay. The introduction and conclusion are effective, clear, and well developed. Pollution? The essay shows a good command of language. Should Papers Be Written In? Sentences are varied and writing, word choice is varied and what research papers in, precise. There are few, if any, errors to distract the reader.
Essays within this score range demonstrate competent skill in responding to the task. The essay shows a clear understanding of the task. The essay takes a position on the issue and may offer a broad context for discussion. The essay shows recognition of complexity by partially evaluating the implications and/or complications of the issue, or by responding to counterarguments to the writer's position. Development of gcse ideas is specific and logical. Most ideas are elaborated, with clear movement between general statements and specific reasons, examples, and details. Focus on the specific issue in the prompt is maintained. The organization of the essay is clear, although it may be predictable. What Should Research Papers? Ideas are logically sequenced, although simple and obvious transitions may be used. How Long Is A To Be? The introduction and research papers, conclusion are clear and john locke human understanding epistle to the, generally well developed.
Language is competent. Sentences are somewhat varied and research be written, word choice is sometimes varied and precise. There may be a few errors, but they are rarely distracting. Essays within this score range demonstrate adequate skill in responding to the task. The essay shows an understanding of the an essay concerning understanding to the task. The essay takes a position on the issue and may offer some context for discussion. The essay may show some recognition of complexity by providing some response to counterarguments to the writer's position. Development of ideas is adequate, with some movement between general statements and specific reasons, examples, and details. Focus on the specific issue in the prompt is maintained throughout most of the essay.
The organization of the tense be written essay is apparent but predictable. Some evidence of logical sequencing of ideas is apparent, although most transitions are simple and obvious. The introduction and conclusion are clear and somewhat developed. Language is adequate, with some sentence variety and appropriate word choice. There may be some distracting errors, but they do not impede understanding. Essays within this score range demonstrate some developing skill in responding to the task. The essay shows some understanding of the task. The essay takes a position on essays the issue but does not offer a context for discussion. The essay may acknowledge a counterargument to the writer's position, but its development is brief or unclear. Development of ideas is limited and may be repetitious, with little, if any, movement between general statements and specific reasons, examples, and details. Focus on the general topic is maintained, but focus on what tense should in the specific issue in the prompt may not be maintained.
The organization of the essay is simple. Ideas are logically grouped within parts of the phd dissertation essay, but there is little or no evidence of logical sequencing of ideas. Should Research Papers Be Written? Transitions, if used, are simple and obvious. An introduction and conclusion are clearly discernible but underdeveloped. Language shows a basic control.
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Transitions, if used, are simple and tense be written in, obvious, and they may be inappropriate or misleading. An introduction and conclusion are discernible but minimal. Sentence structure and word choice are usually simple. Errors may be frequently distracting and may sometimes impede understanding. Essays within this score range show little or no skill in responding to the task. The essay shows little or no understanding of the task. If the essay takes a position, it fails to convey reasons to support that position. The essay is gcse chemistry minimally developed.
The essay may include excessive repetition of the writer's ideas or of tense papers in ideas in the prompt. Focus on the general topic is usually maintained, but focus on the specific issue in the prompt may not be maintained. There is little or no evidence of an organizational structure or of the logical grouping of ideas. Transitions are rarely used. Ma Creative? If present, an introduction and conclusion are minimal. Sentence structure and word choice are simple. Errors may be frequently distracting and what be written, may significantly impede understanding. Blank, Off-Topic, Illegible, Not in English, or Void. Calculating Your Combined English/Writing Score Prior to September 2015. Complete these steps to calculate your Combined English/Writing score: Find your scale score for the English Test down the far-left column.
Find your Writing subscore across the top row of the table. Follow the gcse coursework 2013 ocr English Test score row across and the Writing subscore column down until the row and papers be written in, column meet. The Combined English/Writing score is found where the row and writing novel, column meet. For example, if an English Test score is what tense should research 19 and a Writing subscore is 8, the Combined English/Writing scale score is 20. Enhancements to the ACT Writing Test. In September 2015, ACT introduced a number of enhancements to the ACT writing test. Key differences between the former and current designs are outlined below. Many elements of the writing prompts remain the same. For example, the write on noise test is still an exercise in argumentative writing, and it continues to tense, measure core competencies that are linked to how long supposed to be, college and career success. Should Research Papers Be Written? Modifications to the writing prompt will build on the former design in a few important ways: (Through the June 2015 Test Event) (September 2015 Test Events and after) Scoring and reporting for the ACT writing test have also been updated.
Instead of one holistic score, students now receive four domain scores, each reflecting a key dimension of essays books writing competency. They also receive a subject-level Writing Score. (Through the June 2015 Test Event) (September 2015 Test Events and after) *Students who took the writing test between September 2015 and June 2016 received a subject-level Writing score reported on a 1-36 scale.
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Essay on Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, it’s meaning, nature, role and other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in what research papers be written human society. It is found in all societies, past and present. All the preliterate societies known to us have religion. Religion goes back to the beginning of the culture itself. It is a very ancient institution. There is no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9d/Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg/1280px-Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg. Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of man in john locke human epistle to the reader response to certain felt needs of men. While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of societies.
It is the foundation on which the normative structure of society stands. It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and economic aspects of life. It is said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious.
Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and what tense research papers be written in Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. Gcse Coursework Ocr! are examples of the great religions of the world. Religion is concerned with the shared beliefs and practices of human beings. It is the human response to what tense research be written in, those elements in the life and environment of mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and gcse coursework 2013 ocr is found in nearly all societies. Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio. This is derived from two root words.
The first root is Leg, meaning “together, count or observe”. The second root is Lig, meaning ‘to bind’. The first root refers to what should research in, belief in and practice of “signs of Divine Communication”. The second root refers to the carrying out essays reading, those activities which link human beings with the supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of all religions. Central to all religions is the concept of what tense should research papers be written in faith. Religion in this sense is the organisation of faith which binds human beings to their temporal and transcendental foundation.
By faith man is distinguished from other beings. It is essentially a subjective and private matter. Faith is something which binds us together and is therefore, more important than reason. Pfleiderer defined religion as “that reference men’s life to a word governing power which seeks to grow into a living union with it.” According to James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in “Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life”. As Christopher Dauson writes, “Whenever and wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than man’s own, there is religion, and the feelings of reading awe and what tense should research be written self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of 2013 ocr such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the root of worship and should research papers in prayer.” Arnold W. Green defines religion as “a system of beliefs and phd dissertation symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and beyond the controllable.”
According to Maclver and Page, “Religion, as we understand the what tense term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power.” As Gillin and Gillin says, “The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs.” Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to essays books, their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is difficult to agree upon a definition. Some maintain that religion includes a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to deal with those powers. Others regard religion as something very earthly and materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends. Sumner and Keller asserted that, “Religion in history, from the earliest to very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of what tense should in rites, rituals, observance and ceremony”. Religion, in fact, is not a mere process of mediations about man’s life; it is also a means of preserving the values of life. While it is possible to define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism. In sociology, the word religion is used in phd dissertation timeline a wider sense than that used in should be written in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of life.
According to Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and is a application essay (b) psychological. The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the feet. The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and beliefs. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the “religion thrill”. If we analyse the great religions of the world, we shall find that each of them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in should research papers supernatural powers, (2) belief in phd dissertation the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of salvation. The first basic element of religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers. Tense Research In! These powers are believed to influence human life and control all natural phenomena. Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods. There are even others who do not call them by any name. They simply consider them as forces in their universe. Thus, belief in the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of religion.
There are certain holy or sacred elements of religion. These constitute the heart of the religion. There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred. But a thing is holy or sacred not because of a peculiar quality of thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of a tangible thing is not observable to the senses.
Sacred things are symbols. Books! They symbolize the things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of what tense papers in animal the is a college essay supposed cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is imagined to represent. Religious ritual is “the active side of religion. It is behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and sacred- objects”. It includes any kind of behavior (such as the wearing of special clothing and the immersion in certain rivers, in the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in public. Tense Should Research Be Written! It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc.
Failure to perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. An Essay Understanding! It is believed that the powers of the other world cherish these principles. The violation of these principles creates man’s sense of guilty. It may also bring upon him the disfavour of the what tense should research papers be written supernatural powers. If the behaviour is not in accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is ma creative writing considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the fifth basic element of religion. Man needs some method by should research, which he can regain harmony with the timeline Gods through removal of guilt. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of life, the realisation of an tense research be written, inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of books Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in his life.
The ultimate end of in life is to attain Moksha. The Buddhist hopes to attain Salvation by being absorbed in chemistry coursework 2013 the Godhead and entering Nirvana. The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for man’s sins. In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. It is more or less coherent system of be written in beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities.
Religion is interwoven with all aspects of human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions. Prior to the advent of what may be called as “the age of reason”, religion has been the chief supporter of the spiritual and moral values of life. It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Hence, it is obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for the wider society. These functions of religion are discussed bellow. 1. Religion Helps in the Struggle for Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in the struggle for societal survival. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and early development of essays seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean.
Religion in should research in each of these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in an unfavourable environment, by 2013, giving explanations to certain aspects of the should research in human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. College Application To Be! In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the should research empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the individual a sense of security in this rapidly changing world. This sense of security of the individual has significance for the society. Since religion helps man to forget the suffering, disappointments and sorrows in this life’, social dissatisfaction and concerning understanding epistle reader social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning. 2. Religion Promotes Social Integration: Religion acts as a unifying force and hence, promotes social integration in several ways.
Religion plays an important part in what tense research in crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and norms. It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour. Common faith, values and is a college application essay to be norms etc. are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and papers be written sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from members of other groups, communities or nations. By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for the values and this symbol becomes the rallying point for all persons who share the same values. The cow as a sacred symbol of the pollution Hindus, for example, is a rallying point which gives cohesion to Hindu society. Religion performs its function of integration through social control. It regulates the conduct of individuals by enforcing moral principles on tense should research in them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against them for violation. 3. Religion helps to knit the Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole:
It is the ultimate source of social cohesion. The primary requirement of society is the common possession of social values by which individuals control the actions of john locke to the self and others and through which society is perpetuated. What Tense Should Research In! These social values emanate from religious faith. Religion is the foundation upon which these values rest. Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to men; people should be honest and virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion. It is is a application to be religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and requires him to accept limitations upon his wants and desires. All the religions have preached love and non-violence. What Tense Research Papers! They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance. 4. Religions Acts as an Agent of john an essay concerning human epistle to the Social Control:
It is one of the means of informal means of social control. Religion not only defines moral expectations for members of the religious group but usually enforces them. It supports certain types of social conduct by tense research, placing the powerful sanctions of the supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of social behaviour as offences not only against society but also against God. Hence, any violation of the acceptable norm is punishable not only by God but by a essay on noise pollution, society. What Tense Research Papers Be Written! Hinduism gives sanction to the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to render services to the needy and poor and promote their welfare. It develops philanthropic attitude of people.
Help and assistance are rendered to poor and write destitute persons due to religion inspiration. It is believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of religion by tense research papers be written, way of giving alms and locke an essay human understanding to the reader assistance to the helpless and what tense should papers be written needy persons. In this way religion promotes the welfare of individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and culture. The priests laid the foundations of medicine. Magic supplied the roots of observation and experimentation from which science developed. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding To The Reader! It also inculcated the habit of what tense research be written charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the 2013 needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to what research papers, soothe the man in times of his suffering and disappointment.
In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of phd dissertation timeline all hopes and achievements. The things for which he strives are in some measure always denied to him. When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in ritualistic exchanges of condolence. Research In! On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. 2013! Faith in God compensates him and sustains his interest in life and makes it bearable. In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to accept his lot on earth. 8. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands one’s self to should research papers be written in, infinite proportions. Write Pollution! Man unites himself with the infinite and feels ennobled. Through unity with the infinite the self is made majestic and triumphant.
Man considers himself the noblest work of God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions. Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the great religions of the world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and family. Political institutions are often sanctioned by religion: the emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the kings of France were supposed to rule by divine right. Religious rites are performed on many occasions in relation to vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and kinship interests and with political institutions. Religion is the central element in the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the spread of education, the accumulation of tense should papers capital and the creation of a leisure class. For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and political life. Even today religion is called upon to support rulers, contacts and timeline other legal procedures. In addition to positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of what research papers be written in its social functions.
Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. John An Essay Concerning Human Reader! O’ Dea and others have pointed the dysfunctions of religion. The dysfunctions of religion are as follows. 1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes: According to Thomas F. O’ Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to be beneficial to the welfare of the society. All protests and conflicts are not always negative. Protests and conflicts often become necessary for bringing out changes. Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. Tense Should Be Written! By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms.
2. Hampers the Adaptation of Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and norms emanate from religious faith. Some of the college supposed to be norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by religion. This can “impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of society to changing conditions.” For example, during the medieval Europe, the Church refused to grant the ethical legitimacy of money lending at interest, despite the great functional need of this activity in a situation of developing capitalism”. Tense Be Written! Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking. Similar social conflict is evident in is a application supposed to be the case of birth control measures including abortion, in should research papers be written in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. Books! But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility. For example, a good number of papers people in India prefer to take the advises of priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures.
But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in the field. In its course of development religion has supported and gcse 2013 ocr promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc. As religion interprets misfortune and suffering in this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the existing social structure. Religion preaches submission to what research papers, the existing socio-economic condition and to fate. It is this control function of religion that caused Marx to call religion as “the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of how long college essay soulless conditions. It is the should papers opiate of the people.” By sanctifying norms and legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the locke an essay concerning to the status quo. Religion is the source of many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to research be written, human being.
Superstitions like evil spirits and ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. hinder the locke an essay concerning human understanding epistle welfare of human beings. Religion results in inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines. It is deeply related with conflicts. Wars and battles have been fought in the name of religion. Sumner and Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of money on what tense papers be written building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in the name offerings.
It leads to waste of phd dissertation timeline human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people. It creates a gap among them. In the what tense should name of locke concerning human to the God and religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and research in other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to the reality. They have faith without reasoning which is blind. On the contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Bigotry and fanaticism have led to write on noise pollution, persecution, inhuman treatment and misery in the past. Religion preserves traditions.
It preaches submission to tense papers, the existing conditions and maintenance of status quo. Religion is not readily amenable to pollution, social change and progress. 12. Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the scientists from discovering new facts.
For example, it tried to suppress the doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic. They think that all events in tense should research life is due to some divine power and hence due to fate. Is A Application Essay Supposed! As a result, his power and what tense research papers in potentiality is undermined. Thus, religion affects the creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion. For Marx all that was fundamental in the science of society proceeded from the material and especially the economic sphere. For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at this point is to limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Marx’s sense of the matter is more profound. Merely changing beliefs is not enough.
The transformation of an entire social order is required, for belief is deeply rooted in the social relations of gcse 2013 ocr men. Religion, writes Marx, “is the ‘self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the world. Man is the world of man, the state, and society. This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world. Religion is the compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and justification. It is the fantastic realization of the human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to tense should papers in, God in the form of worship, he takes from himself. Gcse Chemistry 2013 Ocr! That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to project what is his to a supernatural being.
But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is not religious forms – against which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of existence. The abolition of religion as the “illusory happiness” of the people is required for their real happiness, declared Marx. But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. “The demand to give up the illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion”. Marx’s criticism of religion is thus deeply connected with the criticism of what tense should papers be written right and locke concerning human epistle to the reader the criticism of politics. As Marx put it… “The criticism of heaven transforms itself into the criticism of what should research papers earth, the gcse chemistry coursework 2013 ocr criticism of religion into tense papers be written the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics”. Marx was an atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for all who look up to religion for salvation. This is amply clear from his following observation: “The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the highest essence of man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in which man is debased, enslaved abandoned…” Change is the very essence of a living thing. A living religion must grow, must advance and must change.
No form of religion is static. John Locke Concerning Reader! In some cases the change may be slow and minor, in others relatively rapid and major. Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and eternal. Hence, there is also an element of censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in tense should papers be written in religion: (i) from simple to complex, (ii) from complex to simple and (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in the simple form of tribal religion. For example, with the gradual spread of john understanding to the reader Vaishnavism in chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of complex form of religion, specially of rituals and ceremonies. Buddhism for instance, came as a revolt against the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and also beyond the tense research papers be written common man’s reach.
In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to gcse coursework ocr, simplify the complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism. Mixing of more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. The most excellent example is of Sophism. It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism. Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by Buddhism and what tense should papers in Suphism. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of john concerning understanding reader religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the what tense should research papers in necessities of life, played a dominant part. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by phd dissertation timeline, natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and should papers conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is locke an essay human epistle reader gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and should papers be written various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to novel, civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as a power over man and his society loses its importance.
This movement is sometimes referred to as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in tense should papers be written which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. In Europe, secularisation is held to write, be the tense research be written outcome of the social changes brought about by urban, industrial society. It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to ma creative novel, decline in modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in Western societies. Religion in Western societies has tended to place less emphasis on tense should in dogma and more on social values. It has tried to reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge.
As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of life is worth preserving and it must seek to organise. The masses and gcse coursework 2013 guide their activities for the benefit of the society rather than for the purpose of pleasing the God. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of religion and the rise of what tense papers be written rationalism. However, the process of secularisation has affected the domination of religious institutions and symbols. The process of secularisation was started in India during the British rule.
But the process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and secular education gradually affected various aspects of john locke epistle reader religion in India. Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from religiosity to secular way of life.
But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in our society. First, organised Christianity plays an important political force in Europe and North America. Second, the vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. But it should be noted that the diversity of religious sects and cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and not a dominant feature of tense should research be written in social life. It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in locke concerning understanding to the reader Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about what tense should be written in, secularisation.
The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the influence of timeline religion on man and his life changes. Tense Research Papers In! In the earlier phases of phd dissertation religion the primary needs of mankind were very much influenced by it. As man’s knowledge of tense should natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is a essay pollution gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (politics, education, art and what tense papers be written music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to john locke concerning epistle to the reader, civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as power over what should research in, man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularization. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism.
‘Secularisation’, in the words of Peter Berger, refers to ‘the process by which sectors of society and culture are removed from the timeline domination of religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the development of rational thinking and a rational world view. Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an what be written in, ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional. Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of gcse chemistry 2013 ocr social and physical world which results from the development of physical, biological and what be written in social sciences. He says that this knowledge is based on reason rather than faith.
He claims that science not only explained many facts of life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of its explanation in practical results. The term ‘secularisation’ has been used in different ways. Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the a essay on noise meaning of the concept. Tense Should Research Papers Be Written! Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. The range of timeline meaning attached to the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary. There are two meanings of the word current in modern and modernizing India and what research papers even in the whole of essays reading books this subcontinent.
One of the what tense should be written two meanings is how long is a supposed to be found by consulting any standard dictionary. Should Papers In! But there is the difficulty in finding the other, for novel it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to what tense should research papers in, believe, is typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of secularizing the phd dissertation State. The word secular has been used in this sense, at least in the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an area in public life where religion is not admitted. What Research Papers Be Written! One can have religion in one’s private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within one’s home or at gcse coursework one’s place of worship. What Tense Research In! But when one enters public life, one is expected to leave one’s faith behind. In contrast, the an essay human understanding to the non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions.
In the tense in Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in the English language. It is held that India is not Europe and timeline hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in Europe. What does it matter if secularism means something else in Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the word. Indian meaning of secularism is should research debated in its Western genealogies. New meaning is acquired by the word secularism in India.
The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and secularism in the Indian languages, by neologisms such as ‘Dharma-nirapekshata. This is translation of those English words and dharma-nirapekshata is used to refer to the range of meanings indicated by the English term. The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is standardly used in talking about the role of religion in a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the outcome of ma creative writing vested interests inherent in our political system. Dharma-nirapekshata is in understood in terms of practice of any religion by any citizen.
Besides, the State is not to give preference to any religion over john an essay concerning to the, another. But this term is irrelevant in a democratic structure and it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to give preference to any religion and the principle of neutrality). Indian secularism has been inadequately defined ‘attitude’ of goodwill towards all religions, ‘Sarvadharma Sadbhava’. In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on what research the part of the State. Hence, the original concept will not admit the Indian case with its range of references. Well-established and ma creative writing well-defined concept of secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Western or Indian model. To Herberg, ‘authentic religion’ means an emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society.
If there is any trend of decline in what research in any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the process of secularisation. Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. Religion in America is subordinated to the American way of life. It means that religious belief and practices have tended to decline. Secularism is taken to on noise, mean that one’s religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism. Tense Research Papers Be Written! There are other aspects of secularism. Secularism is related to rationalism and empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and ma creative novel blind beliefs.
In this manner, the process of secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of secularisation implies the transformation of religious institutions as a whole. There is the need to secularise the what tense should research papers be written religious institutions. This means less emphasis on essays reading books supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and desirability to compromise with religious beliefs and values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in the context of changing society.
In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of ‘desacrilisation’ . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the world. Action is what tense research be written not directed by religious beliefs. People in ocr a modern society increasingly look upon the world and their own lives without the benefit of religious interpretation. As a result there is a ‘secularisation of consciousness’. Berger argues that the be written in ‘decisive variable for secularisation is the how long supposed process of what tense research be written rationalisation’. That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type.
Secularisation also implies rationality. Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of religion. It is john locke an essay concerning understanding epistle to the reader based on testing of arguments and beliefs by rational procedure, on asserting truth by means of factors which can be quantified and objectively measured. Religion is based on faith. What Tense Should Research! Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the basis of religion.
It removes the mystery, magic and authority of write a essay on noise religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of secularisation as the most important component of the process of modernisation is occurring in different forms in various contemporary societies. Like modernisation, this process is good and desirable for the welfare of mankind. Finally, it is both a product and a process.
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