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Biography Born: May 26, 1926 Died: September 28, 1991. Over six full decades, from his arrival on the national scene in 1945 until his death in topics to write speech, 1991, Miles Davis made music that grew from an uncanny talent to hear the future and a headstrong desire to play it. From his beginnings in the circle of credit card terminal paper rolls, modern jazz, he came to intuit new worlds of sound and challenge. While the vast majority of musicians jazz, rock, RB, otherwise – find the experimental charge and imperviousness of youth eventually running down, Miles forever forged ahead, trusting and to write, following instinct until the end. In doing so, Miles became the standard bearer for successive generations of sixth term papers, musicians, shaped the course of modern improvisational music more than a half-dozen times. This biography attempts to explain those paradigm-shifts one after another, through his recordings and best to write a persuasive, major life changes. Where Statement Be In A Paper! The factors leading to that process are now the foundation of the topics a persuasive on Miles Davis legend: the dentist’s son born in 1926 to middle-class comfort in East St Louis. The fresh acolyte learning trumpet in the fertile, blues-drenched music scene of his hometown. The sensitive soul forging a seething streetwise exterior that later earned him the cover graduate assistantship title, Prince Of Darkness. The determined teenager convincing his parents to send him to best topics to write, New York’s famed Juilliard School of Music in 1944, a ploy allowing him to locate and join the band of his idol, bebop pioneer Charlie Parker. It wasn’t long before the headstrong young arrival grew from sideman to leading his own projects and bands of mla research paper citations, renown, from the restrained, classical underpinning of the famous “Birth of the Cool” group (Miles’ first foray with arranger Gil Evans), to best to write a persuasive on, the blues-infused hardbop anthem “Walkin’”, to his first famous quintet (Coltrane, Chambers, Red Garland, Philly Joe Jones) with whom his recordings on muted trumpet helped him develop a signature sound that broke through to mainstream recognition.

His subsequent jump from write on noise pollution, recording with independent labels (Prestige, Blue Note) to Columbia Records, then the Tiffany of record companies, propelled his career further from best a persuasive, a limited jazz audience and a series of late ‘50s albums ( Miles Ahead, Porgy Bess, Miles Ahead, Kind of Blue and a thesis be in a paper, Sketches of Spain ) secured his widespread popularity. Miles’ group shifted and best to write a persuasive, morphed through the early ‘60s until he settled for a thesis statement a four-year run with his classic quintet, a lineup that is still hailed today as one of the greatest and most influential jazz groups of topics a persuasive speech on, all time. Their albums together — from Miles Smiles, ESP and where research paper, Nefertiti , to Miles In The Sky , and Filles de Kilimanjaro — traced a pattern of unparalleled growth and innovation. Had Miles stopped his progress at best topics to write on, that point, he’d still be hailed as one of the card terminal rolls greatest pioneers in jazz, but his creative momentum from the end of the ‘60s into the ‘70s would not let up. He was listening to the world around him — the amplified explosion of rock bands and best topics a persuasive speech, the new, heavy-on-the-one funk of James Brown and Sly The Family Stone. From the ambient hush of paper parenthetical, In A Silent Way , to the strange and topics to write a persuasive speech on, unsettling – yet wildly popular Bitches Brew , he achieved another shift in musical paradigm and a personal career breakthrough. Bitches Brew was controversial, a best-seller and where to order research, attracted another, younger generation into topics to write a persuasive, the Miles fold. Thousands whose musical taste respected no categorical walls flocked to hear Miles, and a slew of fusion bands were soon spawned, led by his former sidemen: Weather Report, Mahavishnu Orchestra, Return To Forever. The studio albums that defined Miles’ kaleidoscopic sound in the ‘70s included a series of (mostly) double albums, from #8230; Brew to 1971’s Live-Evil , ‘72’s On The Corner and ‘75’s Get Up With It . Cover Assistantship! The covers listed populous line-ups that reached up to 11 musicians, adding new names to an ever-widening circle of on-call talent. By the end of 1975, Miles was tired and sick. To Write Speech On! A period of seclusion ensued, full years to sixth examination, deal with personal demons and health issues, bouncing between bouts of self-abuse and boredom.

It was the longest time Miles had been off the public radar – only amplifying the appetite for his return. When Miles reappeared in 1981, expectation had reached fever pitch. A final series of albums for Columbia reflected his continuing fascination with funk of the day (Rose Royce, Cameo, Chaka Khan and later, Prince), and the sounds of topics speech, synthesizer and drum machines (Great Miles Shift Number 8). The Man With A Horn, We Want Miles and Decoy found him still working with Teo Macero and still surrounding himself with young talent, including bassist Darryl Jones (Rolling Stones). In 1985, his album You’re Under Arrest #8212; with unexpected covers of recent pop charters (Michael Jackson’s “Human Nature” and Cyndi Lauper’s “Time After Time”) brought the long Davis-Columbia association to mla research parenthetical, a close. He embarked on to write speech on, a new relationship with Warner Bros. Records and producer Tommy LiPuma, scoring successes with Tutu (written in a large part by his bassist Marcus Miller), Music from Siesta (also with Miller), Amandla (featuring a new breed of soloists, including alto saxophonist Kenny Garrett, tenor saxophonist Rick Margitza, guitarist Jean-Paul Bourelly, keyboardist Joey DeFrancesco, and where a thesis statement be in a paper, others) and Doo-Bop (his collaboration with hip hop producer Easy Moe Bee.) Those titles proved Miles’ farewell, still pushing forward, still exploring new musical territory. Throughout his career, he had always resisted looking back, avoiding nostalgia and loathing leftovers. Topics On! “It’s more like warmed-over turkey,” the eternal modernist described the music of Kind of to order research, Blue twenty-five years after recording it.

Ironically, in 1991, only weeks after performing a career-overview concert in Paris that featured old friends and collaborators from best topics to write a persuasive, as early as the ‘40s, he died from where to order research paper, a brain aneurysm. Like his music, Miles always spoke with an topics a persuasive on economy of expression. And for Miles, it had to to order research paper, be fresh, or forget it. “I don’t want you to like me because of Kind of Blue ,” he insisted. “Like me for what we’re doing now.” LEGACY and the L Legacy logo are registered trademarks of Sony Music Entertainment. Smooth move, exclusive deals and updates are coming soon!

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Harlot: A Revealing Look at the Arts of Persuasion. Harlot is an interactive digital magazine dedicated to exploring rhetoric in everyday life. We invite relevant and engaging contributions from diverse perspectives and in multiple media. Some rights reserved. By providing a history and context for emojis, this essay argues that they are more a means of creative graphic expression than a threat to alphabetic literacy, and that their study contributes to a re-materilaizing of to write literacy. The essay acknowledges that in some instances emojis do help to clarify the intent or tone of alphabetic writing, but emojis, like alphabetic writing, are culturally and contextually bound. Emojis expand expression and in doing so open themselves to re-appropriation, interpretation and even misinterpretation, along with the sixth term examination, affirming possibilities of artistic creation. We were just nerds, goofing around (Fahlman qtd. in Garber). So goes Scott Fahlman's explanation for best, the birth of the where should statement be in, emoticon, the simple combination of punctuation that signals the intentions behind a writer's words. In 1982, a group of Carnegie Mellon researchers were using an online bulletin board to trade quips about what might happen if their building's elevator cable were cut, when they realized that an outsider to the conversation might take them seriously (Garber).

They developed the iconic :) to make sure everyone else was in on the joke. And the rest, as the saying goes, was history. Or were the emoticons word-devil spawn? Did they constitute an attack on language, yet another instance of the erasure of language (MacDonald) what James Billington, the Librarian of to write a persuasive speech Congress, described as the slow destruction of the sixth term examination, basic unit of human thought — the sentence (qtd. in best to write on, Dillon)? While emoticons and emoji, their more elaborate cousins (Wortham), might be evidence of an apparent [generational] decline in young people's vocabulary (Wilson and Gove 265), I'd like to demonstrate that they share more with traditional writing than an alphabet-phile might assume, including origins rooted in the visual and the mercantile, as well as an ancient struggle with communicative unctuousness. Graduate Assistantship! Emojis are not so much destroying linguistic traditions as they are stretching them, opening a gateway to a non-discursive language of on new possibility and even responding to John Trimbur's call for a rematerializing of literacy (263), by reminding us that writing always had and always will have a visual component mediated by research paper a material world. The narratives of emojis, then, are the narratives of topics to write on writing itself.

Scholars have called out the myth of alphabetic literacy's transparency as a denial of writing's materiality and sixth examination papers the role played by larger systems of production (Trimbur), as well as an best topics to write speech assertion of Western superiority (Miller and Lupton). In response to this need to materialize writing, I wish to provide context for emojis, complicating these tiny stamps of humanity and unpacking some of the alphabetic resistances to them so as to position them as an emerging visual language of play, whose study will help us to card terminal paper, think more visually and materially about best topics a persuasive on, writing and encourage us to experiment with the ludic potentiality of a non-discursive form. Almost a decade after the Carnegie Mellon invention of emoticons, emojis (translated as picture characters) emerged in Japan, consisting of both more fleshed-out versions of emoticons (#9786; instead of :) for example), as well as a pantheon of where paper objects, activities, and events ranging from cactuses to cash. In this respect, emoji resemble petroglyphs, petrographs and pictographs—precursors to writing systems, whose meanings and purposes are debated to this day. Emoji origins in teen and commercial culture are indisputable. In an effort to increase his mobile phone company's teenage market share, DoCoMo employee Shigetaka Kurita collaborated with others to topics a persuasive speech, develop emoji characters based on manga art and Japanese Kanji characters. But senders and recipients had to use the same network in order for the characters to where to order paper, display properly (Marsden). Faced with the material constraints of the cell phone and their interest in having the networks communicate with one another, Japanese programmers reached consensus on computer codes for the emoji, which are now part of all mobile web and mail services in Japan. In the mid-2000's, as Google and to write speech Apple realized the broad appeal of the playful icons, they brought them to their Unicode Consortium ( Hitchhikers Guide fans! Think: real-life Babel fish) which establishes standards for the global display of symbols, and in 2010 standardized the codes for 722 emoji.

This move to standardize resembled the efforts of Louis the XIV to standardize typographic forms through the commissioning of the roman du roi typeface, which relied on sixth term examination papers an Academy of Sciences committee to map the typeface onto a grid, as opposed to previous typefaces which had evolved over topics to write on, time and which were hand cut. Mla Research Citations! Trimbur sees the Sun King's commissioning of the committee as an attempt to embody the authority of the scientific method and topics to write a persuasive bureaucratic power (266). Individual engravers would no longer have an influence on card terminal paper the emerging shapes and the sameness of every printed letter would be guaranteed through its adherence to a mathematically reproducible template. Similarly the best topics to write on, move to Unicode embodies and secures technological control and commercial power. On the one hand the use of a uniform code ensures that what senders send is what recipients see, but senders and users must both have the hardware (usually a smartphone, though emojis can be displayed on email) as well as access to an emoji keyboard if they wish to send. Moreover, individuals interested in having an emoji added to Unicode must write a petition that the Consortium reviews. Petitioners must demonstrate that there is a need for a particular emoji.

According to Mark Davis, president of the Unicode Consortium, the credit card terminal rolls, emoji must be in the wild already (qtd. in Brownlee) before it can be accepted into the domesticating control of the Consortium, which will translate it so that it can be read across devices and delivery systems. King Louis's project was doomed to fail, as anyone who has ever sat toying with dozens of typeface choices can attest, and in a somewhat simlar way, the Consortium's standardizing capacity has its limits: emojis, too, have fonts and do not display in exactly the same way across devices. Moreover, emojis continue to topics to write a persuasive on, thrive in the wild, with users sending a variety of images that are not necessarily Unicode-approved. Despite their unabashedly whimsical sides and adolescent appeal, emojis were designed from a pragmatic, efficacious commercial perspective. Emojis allowed users to continue sending pictorial representations (whose use had been on where be in a paper the rise prior to emojis) without increasing message size. Best To Write On! Bandwidth did not need to increase and credit terminal paper speed was maintained as each emoji counted as only topics speech on, a single character. Fueled largely by the constraints of texting, emojis supplant alphabetic language, allowing dexterous users greater speed and ease than alphabetic text and encouraging those who think aphoristically of a picture's worth. In this replacing of text, emojis may be perceived as participating in should a thesis a paper, the protracted struggle between the pictorial and the linguistic that T.J. Mitchell observed, the relationship of subversion, in which language or imagery looks into a persuasive, its own heart and finds lurking there its opposite number (43). At their least poetic, most commercial edges, emojis represent an expedient compression of space and time driven by a desire to save money.

They were born of a need to conserve space, which translated into time, both of papers which were expressed in terms of material value. In occupying fewer bytes, emojis made communication faster and to write a persuasive speech on cheaper for purveyor and consumer alike. And for this they got a bad rap. Cheeky though they appear, emojis did not initiate this movement toward faster, more efficient communication. Cuneiform, the to order paper, first writing, is commonly attributed to accounting systems designed by the Sumerians, in a persuasive, what is now modern Iraq, to track business transactions. We can imagine ancient poets and to order paper priests, even before Plato's famous Phaedrus invective against best to write a persuasive speech on the memory-dissolving threat of cover letter assistantship writing, turning away in disdain from early cuneiform and its mercenary mission and what Craig Stroupe describes as a presumed rhetorical instrumentalism (629).

In the to write speech on, modern era, industry routinely races for paper, faster communication—consider technologies such as the telegraph or the many shorthand systems, which, BTW, is how emojis often are described. Best A Persuasive Speech On! All communications—visual and alphabetic—serves multiple purposes, which are sometimes derailed purposefully, through re-appropriation and card rolls re-design and re-imagination, and sometimes derailed by accident, happenstance and the emergence of best to write speech new forms. Few of us now would recognize Sir Isaac Pitman's shorthand notation system of write on noise pollution 1837: In their heydays, Pitman's approach and best topics a persuasive on other shorthand systems such as Gregg's were understood by a small subset of professionals who had the term papers, proper training in them. They sped up the work of business communication while also relegating that efficient knowledge to a small subset of individuals formally educated in the discourse. Emojis are more broadly intellectually accessible than shorthand systems and topics a persuasive speech on are typically acquired in a post-Fordist fashion, through informal networks rather than systematic training.

Only readers trained in Pitman notation would recognize the system's lines and term examination squiggles; by contrast, readers without formal emoji training would recognize #9786;. I will return to this issue of best a persuasive speech recognition and iconicity momentarily. I don't wish to papers, overstate the universality of emojis, which, like any communication, is both materially and culturally bound. Though emoji discourse is learned casually through use, only those who have access to the technologies that reproduce them (smart phones, for the most part) can use them. In this regard, emojis heighten our awareness of what Trimbur refers to as the materiality of literacy, a recognition that the best a persuasive, production of writing is not a disembodied activity of pure cognitive processes but is instead a physical activity that produces a physical product of credit terminal paper rolls visual material considerations including page (or screen) size and dimension, font style and size, space and other rhetorical considerations of topics on visual design. Trimbur emphasizes the letter graduate, role of typography in reifying this materiality and links it to rhetoric's fifth canon, delivery (263). Best Topics To Write A Persuasive! As with a consideration of typography, a consideration of emoji encourages us to re-visualize writing and to sixth term examination, think about how it is circulated, how it performs work in a world of class, race, gender, cultural and age relations. Most recently, the absence of racially diverse emojis( sparked debates on Twitter and topics on Instagram and a Do Something petition to Apple to where research, add more racially diverse characters. The Apple keyboard, as the BBC reported, had numerous white faces and only two that appeared to be Asian and best to write a persuasive none that were black (Kelion). The call for card terminal, more diverse emoji was dismissed by best topics speech on some in the blogosphere, particularly when Miley Cyrus attempted a Twitter campaign to write pollution, increase emoji diversity, but at the core of the debate was the construction of best speech on race by one of the fastest-growing modes of communication.

White again was being represented as a universal, non-raced race. Oxford University Research Fellow Bernie Hogan observed that Emoji exist first and foremost as a way to augment texts with clear expressive power. If they restrict the sort of people who are used in the images it restricts users' expressive power (qtd. in Kelion). The Apple keyboard, in other words, was limiting the available means of expression, forcing its rhetors into a bleached discourse that threatens rhetorical agency. Material invisibility—even in—especially in—a seemingly playful arena—diminishes everyone. Assistantship! Whether they were persuaded by the racial ethos of the petition or more inspired by the fact that 92% of African Americans own a cell phone and 56#37; own a smart phone (Smith), (constituting a powerful consumer base), is impossible to say, but Apple management has pledged to topics to write speech, racially diversify its emoji options. It may also be recognizing that other purveyors are providing diverse representations and mla research parenthetical citations acknowledging a more complete racial reality. Oju, an African company aimed at liberating Africans from digital exclusion has developed an best topics ojus app for Google, using the where should statement, tagline everyone smiles in the same language and a persuasive on featuring brown-toned faces (Ouja Africa). So while emoji may be coming to reflect a fuller racial discourse, Apple's initial contentment with its limited representations, as well as the dismissals of the calls to diversify its glyphs, suggest that racialized discourse continues and research paper demands perpetual challenge in every arena of exchange.

Who and best to write speech what we represent and recognize reflects and creates our values and lived realities. Small though they may be, emojis resonate with populist power: Over 300 million images are shared daily by Facebook users; 45 million are posted through Instagram (Rock). Write Pollution! For some individuals, emojis provide a necessary corrective to the potential clumsiness forced by technological delivery. Topics To Write A Persuasive! Japanese author Motoko Tamamuro explains that the Japanese tend to imply things instead of explicitly expressing them, so reading the situation and sensing the mood are very important. We take extra care to card paper rolls, consider other people's feelings when writing correspondence, and that's why emoji became so useful in to write a persuasive speech, email and text to introduce more feeling into a brevitised form of communication (qtd. in Marsden). Tamamuro's concerns are similar to card terminal, those early English-language adopters of emoticons—wary of language's missteps and interested in closing as many gaps between intended and received communication. Emojis, like the earlier emoticons, sometimes are aimed at helping readers to interpret all the best topics speech, kinds of language that linguist John Haiman categorizes as un-plain speaking, including sarcasm, simple politeness, hints, understatements, euphemisms, code, sententiousness, gobbledygook, posturing, bantering jocularity, affectation and ritual or phatic language.

Emojis are an attempt to insure that the parenthetical, message we intend is the to write a persuasive, message that is received, that we can shore up the fissures, the lacuna, the gaps, disconnects, discordances and letter graduate assistantship plain old misunderstandings that inevitably emerge when one brain tries to externalize its thoughts for another through words. Best Topics A Persuasive Speech On! Emojis inherit a long tradition of enlisting visuality to do so. In the late 1800's Alcanter de Brahm proposed that writers use a point d'ironie which would look like a backwards question mark. I sent this trivia to sixth examination papers, a colleague in the French department, who noted, with his own ironic and somewhat repulsed tone, The whole point of irony is that it is not pointed out. His comment made me realize that some of the a persuasive, contentions about emoji are disagreements over where we stand with this phenomenon of unplain language. On the one hand, there are writers, readers and contexts that call for plain language, which, according to Haiman is the direction that American language is moving towards.

Emoji could work in parenthetical citations, service of such a move, removing guesswork from what it is that the writer intended. As a researcher reading a transcript, I might very well appreciate understanding that the Carnegie Mellon engineers were joking about a cable failure. In a different context, though, emojis could be at best to write speech on best annoying or even confusing. If I am in a crowded theater when a fire erupts, I do not wish to look up and see a sign that says, EXIT #9786; or even EXIT #9785;. I feel the same way about the happy and sad smile faces that adorned my Rhode Island tax return, though I imagine the person who composed it assumed taxpayers might be charmed to see #9785; after you owe this amount. Or perhaps designers felt that the faces would visually reinforce what filers needed to do; numeric and alphabetic explanations were insufficient.

When I filed and saw the #9785; telling me that I owed money, the card paper, glyph neither clarified nor charmed; it simply sat as unappreciated adornment whose sad face served up a visual poke in the eye. Like most readers, I inhabit multiple interpretive contexts. If I'm about to swallow Advil, I want to know, with certainty, whether I should take it with food or not, and how long I should wait before taking more. If I'm reading a poem about someone who fell in topics speech on, love with an engineer, though, I am more interested in experiencing language and seeing where it might lead my heart, mind and memory. I take my emojis the same way. Emojis occupy a both/and position. Mla Research Parenthetical! It is best topics on most likely that emojis—as with all attempts to stabilize—result in some magnanimous efforts producing both magnificent failures and stunning successes. A Thesis Statement Be In A Paper! So while some composers use emojis to clarify, others use them to mystify and neither necessarily succeeds all the best a persuasive on, time, because, at the end of the day, humans are what they are: wonderfully complex, connected and individuated creatures, forever striving to reach one another. Unlike the paper parenthetical, more abstract shorthand systems, emoji images are more recognizable and so would seem to be a more democratic form of best a persuasive on shorthand.

But communication is never that simple. Even if we were able to remove emojis from their material constraints—which we cannot—we would still encounter emojis as the credit card terminal rolls, smiling, frowning, winking poster children of to write a persuasive speech on Of Grammatology , challenging both the phonocentrism and logocentrism of de Saussure because they exemplify non-phonetic writing while signifying both absence and presence. To receive a text with an emoji is to have the sense of presence, made more immediate, more palpable because of term our technological understanding that the writer has just sent a message. Emojis, like alphabetic words, always point somewhere else. But—and here is where we might part company with Derrida—like alphabetic language, they are useful in expressing something other than or beyond metacommentary nevertheless. Letters get received, rescued from their purloined places, and emojis, too, hit their marks, but in a persuasive on, broad clouds, like electrons hovering around a nucleus of meaning. More of our dear readers recognize #9786; as a smileyface than readers would have recognized Pitman’s shorthand · as the, probably even in where research, Pitman’s day. These readers, however, do not necessarily agree on to write a persuasive speech its signification. The apparent iconicity of the #9786; is paper debatable. #9786; does not represent a word. It represents a range of possible sentiments, including I like what you just said; I like you; I am happy, etc. Moreover, smiling itself is best to write a persuasive culturally dependent.

The emoji is not insulated from the papers, maddening or, some would say delightful soap-bar quality of all communication. Emoji Cro-Magnon might have intended the smiley first, foremost and ONLY to clarify the tone of a previous expression so that readers understood that the expression was not to be taken seriously, as in I'm joking here, yet it has since been used to express a range of other sentiments, and may or may not be used to clarify the tone of a previous expression. The emoji #9786; may point us in the direction of lightheartedness, but even among speakers from similar cultures, irony and sarcasm are always possibilities. As ever, context is king. In their desire to shore up the linguistic fissures, emoji users find themselves sharing a lament of writers across time and cultures. We might recall T. S. Eliot bemoaning the shabby equipment, always deteriorating available to the poet in best topics on, East Coker, or Italo Calvino observing that The struggle of literature is in fact a struggle to escape from the confines of language; it stretches out paper parenthetical, from the utmost limits of best topics to write on what can be said; what stirs literature is the call and attraction of what is not in mla research paper citations, the dictionary (qtd. in Gabriele 59). We can juxtapose these frustrations with those of Shyam Sundar who finds inadequacy in language: [t]ext as a medium is particularly dull when it comes to expressing emotions (qtd. in best topics a persuasive on, Wortham). While Sundar's observation is expressed neither as a poem nor as a deep meditation on art, at its core, it joins with Eliot and Calvino in card terminal, its exasperation with the topics, limitations of the alphabetic language. But Sundar is neither poet nor novelist. He is co-director of the Media Effects Research Laboratory at Pennsylvania State University and his solution for escaping the language prison is neither poetry nor prose. Instead, he offers that Emoticons open the door a little, but emoji opens it even further (qtd. in Wortham).

Admittedly, Sundar's reference to dull text might be enough to cover letter, make a humanist or any lover of literature Anyone who has ever wept or laughed or been stirred to action after reading would surely want scare quotes around dull. For our entire lives, texts have been anything but dull. (Well, maybe a few.) But to be fair to topics a persuasive speech, Sundar, he's referring not so much to Shakespeare as he is to a essay, the quotidian texts sent by phone, the dozens or hundreds or thousands of messages sent every day by individuals when they are walking or waiting at the dentist or sitting in class or driving down the Interstate, often in front of me. Best To Write Speech On! He is, in a sense, seeking to liven the language of the everyday. Sundar is reflecting on sixth term papers quotidian language that does not fly in the rarified air of the best to write a persuasive on, published poem or squat on a marble museum pedestal. He wants to change the graduate, register of the daily exchange of Every Texter.

If we accept his solution to the dreariness of the everyday communication, then the register with which we read emoji changes. For a brief Derridean moment, a friend’s emoji-graced message, texted in the middle of the day, constitutes an always-in place meditation on words’ shortcomings, a challenge to the limits of what we think is a persuasive speech on fundamental. That is, from the earliest age we are taught that to know the ABC’s of X, Y or Z is to possess a foundational knowledge. We hail the letter as both the heart and the beginning of all understanding. Placed in to order, this context, the sending of a , in its very presence, suggests “the ABC’s of the matter are and best a persuasive on always will be unfit for the task of communicating what I have to say to you.” There is more to emoji than meets the glance. At the moment, these airy icons may prevent such a heavy interpretation. But it may be worth bearing in mind both that the sender of an credit card paper emoji we cannot quite fathom is topics to write a persuasive on indeed attempting to express the inexpressible, to say that there is something he or she thinks or feels that is beyond the smooth gloss of letters. And if we can at least sense that sentiment coming from someone who is trying to reach us, we can move a bit closer to should be in a paper, them—whether they are family or friends or students or even administrators.

The convenience aspect of emojis may prevent them from being embraced as expressions of care. We cannot deny the speed that emoji usage affords. It is much easier, for Nimble and Chubby Thumb alike, to topics speech, press than to parenthetical citations, use a cellular phone to type out all of the best topics on, words, including a capital letter, in My airplane is arriving. Indeed, the debut of this airplane arrival emoji, one of 270 emoji newly approved by card the Unicode Consortium, prompted New Yorker writer Ian Crouch to observe, only best on, slightly tongue in cheek: it's difficult to credit card rolls, imagine how we lived without [certain emoji characters] for so long. Speech! Within specific contexts, emojis offer instantaneous connection. Letter Assistantship! But this assumed instantaneousness, which we will complicate momentarily, creates another liability for the maligned emoji. Because of emoji ease, receivers of emoji text may take offense at receiving instead of a note, sharing the sentiment of best topics a persuasive President Obama who expressed relief that his daughter had chosen an should statement be in alphabetic path to his affection: Malia, to her credit, wrote a letter to me for Father's Day, which was obviously much more important to me than if she had texted an emoji, or whatever those things are (qtd. in topics a persuasive, Walker). Where To Order Paper! So the ease and speed of emojis have caused them to be rejected as acceptable conveyers of heart-felt affection. Evaluated outside of an efficiency-driven context, moved from the catching of planes to the capturing of hearts, emojis would seem to occupy shakier ground, their purposes less certain, their motives less pure.

The daughter who casually pastes instead of reflecting, drafting and revising a heart-felt letter to her father in a callous quest for Beloved Child Points surely does not deserve the badge. But then neither does an absent-minded I love you or a letter cribbed from a Lifetime Channel movie. Words, in other words, do not guarantee reflection or care or authenticity. And I say this begrudgingly, as someone who, in the event of a fire, would save her trunkful of letters before dashing back in to rescue Great Grandmother’s cut glass candy dish. But I say this also as someone who has dashed off a lazy that's great. (3 . indicating more effort than a lackadaisical!) in a persuasive speech, response to a friend's happy news.

The medium is not necessarily the message; context counts. Without truly knowing the sender's abilities and proclivities, it is difficult to judge the sentiment behind the credit card terminal paper rolls, purpose. Perhaps one day composition students will add another element to their rhetorical analyses of audience, purpose and message; perhaps one day, as they zoom about topics to write a persuasive on, space on air-powered vespas they will puzzle the time a composer spent on task as well. But until thenno, even after then, we might do well to assistantship, examine what emojis do offer, in the here and admittedly very now. Despite the best topics a persuasive, very contemporary, post-Fordist zeitgeist into which the emoji has popped, it nonetheless links us to our earliest efforts at expressionpictograms, petroglyphs and petrographs. John Berger acknowledges the both/and quality of credit card terminal images as the earliest symbols, predecessors to the symbolisms of alphabetic language: What distinguished man from animals was the best topics to write a persuasive on, human capacity for symbolic thought, the capacity which was inseparable from the cover letter assistantship, development of language in which words were not mere signals, but signifiers of best topics speech on something other than themselves.

Yet the first symbols were animals. What distinguished men from animals was born of their relationship with them (9). Emojis reiterate this cleaving/joining movement of symbol-making, but they do it in where, a slightly different way. The earliest emoji symbolsexpressive faceswere most directly representational (or, as a linguist would note, iconic), in much the same way that early cave paintings featured animals. In this way, emojis participate in one of humanity's most fundamental processes: [N]o human society has ever existed without the creative externalization of internal images (Burnett 53). Emojis tap those roots, attempting to link us across time and best to write a persuasive speech cultures to all others who would communicate. A monolingual speaker of English is more likely to understand a Finnish friend’s than kolkkous. Emojis operate at write a essay on noise pollution the level of the non-discursive, potentially filling a gap that separates even speakers of the same language. They inhabit a niche that is beyond the reach of alphabetic text and push us to engage our visual faculties. Mitchell Stephens has noted that In interpreting the [alphabetic] code we make little use of our natural ability to observe: letters don't smile warmly or look intently (63).

For Shyam Sundar, emojis fulfill a human need for a persuasive speech, non-discursive expression: They play the role that nonverbal communication, like hand gestures, does in conversation but on a thesis be in a cellphone (qtd. in Wortham). Rather than having alphabetic text fly solo in conveying a message, emojis expand the possibilities of best topics to write speech what might be expressed. Since their inception, emojis have been swept up by to order users with bigger ambitions for them, and in doing so have made the leap from being users to being rhetors, joining a classic tradition that dates back to Ancient Greece and Rome. Catherine Hobbs explores a history of rhetoric tied to a persuasive, visualization, explaining that Greco-Roman law cases often depended on where to order research paper both the presentation of actual objects as well as orators’ abilities to use visual imagery in persuading their audiences (a scar, a wound, a bloody weapon or a toga) [58], a practice that continues in contemporary courtrooms, admittedly for better and for worse. The desire to argue effectively, to best to write a persuasive on, reach an audience through images and words, has a long and revered history that emojis have joined. Credit Terminal Paper! The rhetorical tradition, so rightly revered among alphabetic purists, has a visual component. Speech! Granted such imageswhether it is the bloodied toga or the tear-streaked cheek, may be instances of Marshall McLuhan's massage, instances of what he described as work[ing] us over (26). Sixth Term Examination! But they may also be ways of making a message more accessible, in much the same way that McLuhan himself used the speech, visual imagery in The Medium Is the Massage as a gateway to his own The Medium Is the Message . Some will question how much time is actually saved by using these pinky-nail pictures, and some will also point out that the speed of exchange depends on all parties speaking emoji. If Nimble Thumb punches out , but her friend doesn't understand and spends most of the morning puzzling out the cover assistantship, possibilities that might mean, the message is purloined, composed but never received, the plane arriving but forever unmet.

No time has been saved; if anything, from an efficiency rather than an best a persuasive speech on exploratory, meditative perspective, time has been wasted. We are again faced with the importance of context and of discourse. Emoji efficacy works only write a essay on noise pollution, if all parties speak the same emoji. Indeed, the creators of emoji's emoticon ancestors shared something with those who find them so threatening: an admirable, if unattainable, desire to stabilize meaning. Moreover, those who use emojis, like writers everywhere, face the bane and delight of trying to ensure that their intended message is received. Emojis are still in their language cradle. Like all discursive and non-discursive language, they too, are culturally and contextually bound. Many American bloggers have puzzled over kadomatsu , an emoji pine decoration, which is more familiar to to write a persuasive on, Japanese writers, who would have seen them placed in homes to welcome a new year. In instances of cultural disconnect, those unfamiliar with the tradition have sent the term examination papers, kadomatsu as a sign of disrespect, mistaking it for a middle finger icon. While some images cross cultural borders, not all do.

There is always more to an imageeven one as seemingly simple as an emojithan meets the eye. In some instances emojis clarify a writer's intended tone or communicate a simple nugget of information, but mostly they are more useful at contributing to an exploration of expressive possibility that experiences the to write a persuasive, same kinds of examination twists, turns and misses of all communication. Consider Fred Benenson's rewritten version of topics a persuasive on Moby Dick : Benenson's crowd-sourced, Kick-Starter-funded rewritten version of Moby Dick , Emoji Dick , was accepted into the Library of graduate assistantship Congress in February 2013. As with any translation, Benenson's act was creative and subjective. (I still read that opening line as phone, mustache face, sailboat, whale, ok.) Indeed, in an interview Benenson himself acknowledged the best to write a persuasive speech, many interpretive choices he had to card terminal, make during the translation: I fully admit that there are large portions of the book that don't make any sense, and there are a number of reasons for that (qtd. in Goldmark). We could view Benenson's efforts as an act of literary apostasy, but we could also see it as a work of art in its own right, a brave foray into challenging and unexplored literary waters in search of an best topics to write speech on elusive and formidable goal. While at least one Emoji Dick commentator predicted that the translation would lead to there seems to be evidence that emojis, if anything are opening paths of communicative exploration. Terminal Paper Rolls! VoidWorks, a Singapore-based-app development studio, has released an app that allows users to emojify any photo by best to write converting pixels into emoji; emoji poetry is credit terminal paper everywhere, and there's a Tumblr blog, Narratives in Emoji ( that includes emoji translations of Les Miserables , The Titanic and topics speech Groundhog Day . Even the lyrics to The Fresh Prince of Bel Air have received their emoji props (Dries). The art world is also enjoying the fruits of emoji labors. The Daily Dot, for example, has translated Grant Wood's American Gothic (Alfonso), and the Twitter hashtag#emojiarthistory yields many other similar translations. In these instances the cover letter assistantship, emojis provide a metonymic self-referentiality, replacing one set of topics a persuasive speech on iconic symbols with another.

These creators have in effect responded to Lawrence Murr’s and James Williams' call to paper, use pictures to 'get the best to write a persuasive speech on, picture' (418). In some instances emoji have themselves been subject to translation, as Justine on YouTube demonstrates in this aural representation of mla research citations them: In their visuality, their connection to on, gestures and their digitized form, emojis fit squarely in the social future called for by The New London Group in their 1996 Pedagogy of sixth term examination Multiliteracies. An international collaborative aimed at developing new pedagogies that would respond to best topics a persuasive speech on, changing literacies brought by increasing globalization, cultural, social diversity and changes in technology, the sixth term, group called for a literacy pedagogy of available designs. The New London Group identified six design elements: linguistic; gestural; audio; spatial; visual and the multi-modal that combines these. Digital communication, increasingly composed on the very small screen, calls for the multi-modal as composers find certain forms of alphabetic composition unwieldy and unsuitable. Best Topics A Persuasive Speech On! In some instances, composers will be able to a thesis statement be in, choose their medium, deciding if what they have to say is best expressed via the page, or if they need the more visual affordances of the computer screen or if they need the speed of a persuasive speech on texting via the tiniest screen of them all. If they choose this tiniest of screens, they may very well conclude that a multi-literate understanding of emojis serves them well.

Almost a decade prior to term papers, the New London Group manifesto, Murr and Williams would reason that since language shapes our perception of reality it is clear that new concepts of language must be developed with the best to write a persuasive speech, emergence of the card paper, visual culture. Just as the practice of language in Western civilization, as served by speech and memory, was altered by the invention of an alphabet and later its encoding in books through monotype, so must it be altered again as a result of the invention of visual tools (415). Murr and Williams explain the futility and even educational cruelty of assigning something like word problems in math as a confusion of brain hemispheres. Science and math are right-brain activities: it does not make sense to emphasize text-based descriptions of scientific phenomena in best topics a persuasive speech, general, or mathematical phenomenon in particular (417). They extend the sixth examination papers, helical logic to the mis-use of computers in the classroom: Here is a visual tool, an best a persuasive example of hypertelevision, a right-brain preprocessor, a supercharger of graphic information and graphic knowledge, which we have merely reconfigured as a high-tech typewriter! (417). As antidote, they advocate a need for some attention to graphic forms, drawing, painting and the visual arts, by to order paper raising our consciousness of symbols, by connecting text and graphics through the topics to write a persuasive speech on, creation of language networks(418). Perhaps work with emojis will provide an entryway for such balance.

Calls for the visual in the composition classroom have a long history. (See for example, Fleckenstein; George; Kress; Selfe; Stroupe; Yancey). The explorations that have already begun in classrooms are beyond the scope of this essay, but it is worth mentioning that emoji work has the potential to support the same kinds of rich learning experiences we seek in composition classes: a recognition of a multi-literate world; a platform for communicative play, experimentation and creativity; a basis for credit card terminal, analysis of cross-cultural communication, identity and representations, and the threads of a re-materialized concept of composing. Emojis have neither destroyed nor rescued words. We continue, as Megan Garber so beautifully puts it, to MacGuyver our way into language. At the end of the day, emojis are just as much a reflection of their creators as words, with just as much potential to express, explore, kvetch and ultimately connect us to others. Though in some instances they supplant words entirely, they also open up new vistas of best a persuasive speech on exchange and on noise pollution creativity.

They are in a sense, the words that got away, and then returned. As smiles and frowns and jetliners. Lisa Lebduska teaches writing and directs the college writing program at Wheaton College in Massachusetts. Focused on the intersections and eruptions among composition, technology and people, her work has appeared in such publications as WPA Journal , CCC , Narrative , Writing on the Edge , and best to write speech Technological Ecologies and Sustainability: Methods, Modes, and sixth term Assessment . Acknowledgements: I wish to thank the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation for providing me with summer research support, including those allowing me to work with Hailey Heston (Wheaton Class of 2018), who found the best to write a persuasive speech on, Library of Congress images used here, and whose photoblog serves up many an image for thought. Berger, Jon. Why Look at Animals?

About Looking. New York: Random House, 1988. 1-28. Mla Research Paper Citations! Print. Brownlee, John. Where Do Emoji Come From? 30 June 2014. Web. Topics To Write A Persuasive Speech! 1 July 2014. Burnett, Ron. How Images Think . Cambridge: MIT, 2004. Print. Crouch, Ian. New Emojis, but No Hot Dog.

Culture Desk. The New Yorker 18 June 2014. Web. 20 June 2014. Dillon, Sam. In Test, Few Students Are Proficient Writers. Should A Thesis Statement! New York Times . New York Times, 3 April 2008. Topics To Write A Persuasive! Web. 20 July 2014. Dries, Kate.

People Have iPhones and They're Not Afraid to Use Them. Buzzfeed . 5 February 2013. Web. 10 June 2014. Eliot, T.S. East Coker . London: Faber and Faber, 1942. Print.

Fleckenstein, Kristie S. Cover Letter Assistantship! Inviting Imagery into Our Classrooms. Language and Image in the Reading Writing Classroom: Teaching Vision . Eds. Kristie Fleckenstein, Linda T. Calendrillo and Demetrice Worley. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002: 3-26. Print. Gabriele, Thomasina. Best Topics A Persuasive Speech On! Italo Calvino: Eros and Language . Fairleigh Dickinson P., 1994. Print. Garber, Megan. How to Tell a Joke on the Internet. The Atlantic Monthly . 24 April 2013.

Web. 16 May 2013. George, Diana. From Analysis to Design: Visual Communication in to order research, the Teaching of Writing. College Composition and Communication . Best Topics On! 54.1. Where Be In A Paper! (2002): 11-38. Print. Goldfield, Hannah. I Heart Emoji The New Yorker . 16 October 2012. Web.

16 May 2013. Goldmark, Alex. Inside the Mind That Translated Moby Dick into Emoji New Tech City . 27 February 2014. Web. 19 March 2014. Haiman, John. Topics A Persuasive Speech! Talk Is Cheap: Sarcasm, Alienation and the Evolution of Language . Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998. Credit Card Terminal Paper Rolls! Print. Hobbs, Catherine L. Learning from the Past: Verbal and Visual Literacy in Early Modern Rhetoric and Writing Pedagogy. In Fleckenstein, Calendrillo and to write a persuasive Worley.

27-44. Cover! Rpt. in Visual Rhetoric in a Digital World: A Critical Sourcebook . Ed. Carolyn Handa. Boston:Bedford/St. Best Topics To Write A Persuasive On! Martin’s, 2004: 55-71. Holland, Jessica. Emoji: A Tiny Graphic Can Be Worth a Thousand SMSes.

The National . Where To Order Research Paper! 7 April 2013. Best To Write A Persuasive Speech On! Web. 19 March 2014. Kelion, Leo. Apple Seeks Greater Racial Diversity. BBC News Technology. 26 March 2014. Web. 10 June 2014. Kress, Gunther. Literacy in the New Media Age . New York: Routledge, 2003.

Print. MacDonald, Susan Peck. The Erasure of Language. Card Rolls! College Composition and best speech on Communication . 58.4 (2007): 585-625. Sixth Term Examination Papers! Print. Marsden, Rhodri.

More Than Words: Are Emoji Dumbing Us Down Or Enriching Our Communication? The Independent . 11 May 2013. Web. Topics! 20 June 2014. McLuhan, Marshall. The Medium is the Massage . New York: Random House, 1967. Research Paper! Print. Miller, J. Abbott and Ellen Lupton. A Natural History of Typography.

Bierut, Michael, William Drenttel, Steven Heller, and best topics speech D.K. Holland, Eds. Looking Closer: Critical Writings on Graphic Design . Vols. 1-2. Where A Thesis A Paper! New York: Allworth, 1994, 1997. 19-25. Print. Mitchell, W. J. T. Iconology: Image, Text, Ideology. Chicago: U. of topics speech on Chicago P., 1986. Print.

Murr, Lawrence E. and James B. Where To Order! Williams. Half-Brained Ideas about Education: Thinking and best topics to write a persuasive speech on Learning with Both the Left and Right Brain in a Visual Culture. Leonardo 21.4 (1988): 413-419. Print. New London Group. A Pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Designing Social Futures. Harvard Educational Review , 1996 66 (1), 60-92. Print. Rock, Margaret.

From Talk to Telepathy. Mobiledia. 8 July 2013. Web. 1 July 2014. Selfe, Cynthia. Toward New Media Texts: Taking Up the write a essay pollution, Challenges of Visual Literacy. In Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition . Eds. Best On! Anne Francis Wysocki, Johndan Johnson-Eilola, Cynthia L. Selfe, Geoffrey Sirc. Utah State P, Logan: Utah, 2004:67-110. Print.

Smith, Aaron. Where Paper! African Americans and Technology Use: A Demographic Portrait. Topics A Persuasive On! Pew Research Internet Project. 14 January 2014. Web. 6 June 2014. Stephens, Mitchell. The Rise of the Image, the term papers, Fall of the Word . New York: Oxford UP, 1998. Print. Stroupe, Craig. Visualizing English: Recognizing the Hybrid Literacy of Visual and Verbal Authorship on the Web.

College English 62.5 (2000): 607-632. Print. Trimbur, John. Delivering the Message: Typography and the Materiality of Writing. Rhetoric and best speech Composition as Intellectual Work . Ed. Sixth Papers! Gary Olson.

Carbonddale: Southern Illinois UP, 2002. 188-202. Best To Write! Rpt. in write, Visual Rhetoric in a Digital World: A Critical Sourcebook . Ed. Carolyn Handa. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s P., 2004: 260-271. Print. Walker, Hunter.

President Obama Is Glad He Didn't Get Emoji for topics on, Father's Day. Business Insider. Parenthetical Citations! 17 June 2014. Web. To Write A Persuasive Speech! 2 July 2014. Wilson, James A. and Walter R. Gove. The Intercohort Decline in Verbal Ability: Does It Exist? American Sociological Review . 64.2 (1999): 253-266. JSTOR . Web 20 July 2014. Wortham, Jenna. Whimsical Texting Icons Get a Shot at Success.

11 December 2011. New York Times . n.p.17 June 2014. To Order Research Paper! Web. Yancey, Kathleen. Made Not Only in Words: Composition in to write speech, a New Key. College Composition and Communication . Where Research Paper! 56:2 (2004): 297-328. Topics A Persuasive Speech On! Print. Alfonso, Fernando III. Reinterpreting Classic Works of Art with #emojiarthistory. The Daily Dot. 13 February 2013.

Babel Fish Diagram. Hitchhiker Wiki. n.d. Web. 1 July 2014. Cyrus, Miley Ray. RT If You Think There Needs to be an where a thesis statement #emojiethnicity Update. 18 December 2012, 7:05 p.m. Tweet. Doctorow, Cory. Crowdsourced Translation of Moby-Dick into Emoji. Boing Boing . Boing Boing, 21 September 2009.

Web. 20 July 2014. Emoji Fortunes. Baker’s Blog. Best A Persuasive! 6 June 2013. Emojify: Turn Pixels into Emoji Emoticons to Make Unique Art Images. Appszoom. Heston, Hailey. Light Bulb of Ideas.

Wandering, Wondering. 29 March 2014. Web. 14 July 2014. Kahn, Justin. Should Statement Be In A Paper! How to Get Emoji Keyboard on iPad. Best Topics A Persuasive On! ipad Notebook: Tips, Thoughts Apps. Web. Letter Graduate Assistantship! . Lee, Eric. The Not-Complete Idiot's Guide to: Alternative Handwriting and Shorthand Systems for Dummies. Best Topics A Persuasive Speech! n.d.

Web. 10 June 2014. Psar, Ira. Write On Noise Pollution! The Origins of Writing. In Heilbrun Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metroploitan Museum of Art. October 2004. Web. 14 October 2014. Women Work in the Typewriting Department of the National Cash Register in Dayton, Ohio, 1902.

Library of Congress. Web. The purpose of all quoted material here is to quote and cite material within the bounds of academic fair use. I have attributed all authors and creators, providing a Works Cited. The copyrighted work used in this essay consists of texts, images and one video. In the case of text, less than one percent of the original has been quoted directly. Images have been used in their entirety.

The images of emoji are commonly used on the internet, nearing the status of alphabetic symbols.

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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and grammar. Best A Persuasive! A resume must be framed and formatted to present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, we’ve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to credit card those looking to format their own resumes. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and topics to write a persuasive speech sample images covering every resume format for your convenience.

Looking for more resume samples? Click the link below. How to Choose the Best Resume Format. Use the chart below to get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for term papers presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Best Speech On! Each resume format has their own set of advantages and to order research paper disadvantages for topics to write a persuasive on different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely. Check out the in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of mla research, information needed to create the best resume for you:

To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by resume style and include industry-specific samples. Topics! Visit each library and find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to card terminal paper present yourself in terms of your promotions and upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for entry to mid level applicants looking to boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if… I want to best to write demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to a job in a similar field. I don’t have large work experience gaps. I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if…

I have multiple gaps in my employment history. I am considering working in write on noise pollution, a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about what should be in included in a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in terms of the skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and speech where the candidate learned or performed those skills . Write A Essay! The candidate and simply lists them at the top of the resume in best topics a persuasive speech, order of most relevant to least relevant skills. Papers! Even the topics to write a persuasive speech on “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to the job you are applying for. “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of mla research paper parenthetical citations, your most relevant skills.” Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and best topics to write a persuasive on hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for periods of credit card paper, time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for best speech a particular position, which is beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in my employment history.

I am in the midst of a big career change into a essay pollution, a new industry. Best Topics! I want to promote a specific skill set. I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to a essay on noise highlight my upward career mobility. On! I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. Paper Parenthetical Citations! I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in best on, included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is sixth term papers literally a combination of the topics speech on reverse-chronological and functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of statement a paper, qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the functional part.) This introductory section is then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. (This is the reverse-chronological part.)

I should use a combination resume format if… I want to showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set. I want to topics to write a persuasive on transfer to where should statement a paper a different industry. I am a master at what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate. I want to topics a persuasive emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to post them in mla research, the comments at best topics to write a persuasive speech, the bottom of the page and one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for you!

PS. Letter Graduate Assistantship! Need that job? Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download. Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and best topics to write on now in school learning social service. How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from social service in a combination or functional resume. Good luck on the job hunt!

Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Best of luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to where research teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in planning and development. I have recently completed a graduate degree in to write, education and have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to now make the shift to elementary age. Card Terminal Rolls! Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for your situation.

Check out our combination format writing guide for more info: For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by them — does the internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at HSBV — from 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them. Best To Write A Persuasive On! Should the internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to letter graduate be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an best to write a persuasive speech army veteran of where should statement, nearly 7 years and best topics now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. Sixth Term! I joined the topics to write speech on army at credit card, 19 in 2006 and got out in topics to write on, 2013. From 2013 until January of letter, this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an best topics a persuasive speech on entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to stay on top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the where be in a paper day while working as a bouncer at various bars and clubs at night.

I am currently looking for an internship as part of to write a persuasive, my degree program so i need to credit terminal paper rolls create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the past 3 years. However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume. I need to know how firm that rule is. Topics To Write A Persuasive! Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to accept advice. A Essay On Noise! Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to focus on your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for. Topics Speech! Good luck on the job hunt and thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isn’t in the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year.

I have never had to write a resume for any of my other jobs so I’m at a loss as to what to do. I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and about half of letter, my sophomore year. Therefore I’m not really sure how to best a persuasive speech approach this and I really need this job. Please help! Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to include your research and writing experience.

Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. Write On Noise! I am over 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start – end dates on my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Best Topics On! Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to credit this country on 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to best topics a persuasive speech on start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Best of luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company.

Now I want to research paper apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager). I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format. To Write A Persuasive! Best of luck!

Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is parenthetical citations likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of luck on the job hunt! I am now trying to rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in best to write a persuasive speech on, NYC (1990-1996). After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. To Order Research! 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009.

Then my family and I moved to Switzerland and just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. I am struggling with how to present my resume. I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the history and topics to write a persuasive speech why I would be a good fit for any given position, but I’m sure my resume is holding me back.

Any ideas. Thanks in advance! If you’re looking to get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the card terminal dates of your work experience. Best To Write A Persuasive Speech! As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: While I was in high school I did my internship at credit card paper rolls, for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for 2 years. I have recently worked at speech on, the National Instituted of Health for a year.

I currently want to go back to finding an mla research paper citations office job or something related and need help deciding what type of to write, resume I should use? Based on the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. Best of luck! If the the position you are applying for letter graduate is also an administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it!

Hi there! This is great. I was just wondering, if I’ve been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in best topics speech, this role? Thanks! List your current position first. Best of luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable.

Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Paper Parenthetical Citations! Good luck on to write speech the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of card terminal paper rolls, flexibility with the resume format, but when in best topics to write a persuasive, doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because you’re lacking in transferable skills, I’d recommend working on your resume objective to get your application started on the right foot. Also consider the a essay soft skills you’ve built during your time working in best topics a persuasive speech, a call center. Many of these could potentially be transferable. Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to someone of letter graduate assistantship, your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the shift back into your previous field!

If you are aiming for a new industry, you can’t go wrong with the classic “reverse-chronological” resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide – Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and best to write speech HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to cover graduate assistantship choose from, and best a persuasive on easy export to where to order research paper MS Word and PDF.

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See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for best topics a persuasive a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs. Write A Essay On Noise! LinkedIn Labs. What are the differences between the major online resume builders? Here's an in depth analysis of what.

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9 Top Qualities of a Successful Call Center Agent. Hiring an excellent call center agent is just as important as having the best a persuasive on, right call center software. Candidates can be screened based on a variety of criteria, such as personality, skill, fit and motivation, during the hiring process. Regardless of your list of prerequisites, it’s helpful to know exactly what makes a successful agent. Here are some of the top qualities of a successful call center agent: An agent’s mission is to provide the highest quality support to customers. To accomplish this, they need to be able to learn and where be in memorize a good amount of information about your company. Topics A Persuasive Speech On! By the time they get up and running, they should at least know the ins and where should be in outs of your product or service and be on board with your brand’s philosophy.

Call center agents should know when they can’t resolve the issue and who to transfer the call to if this is the topics on, case. As time progresses, they should be able to terminal paper, remember answers to topics to write a persuasive, frequently asked questions and troubleshoot with ease. If your candidates do not appear to be the type to be able to a essay on noise, quickly learn and retain information, hiring them could ultimately have a negative impact on your provision of best topics speech on, support. Being a call center agent can sometimes be monotonous. Agents often answer the same questions and parenthetical receive the same complaints day after day. The danger with this is best topics, that agents can become complacent as a result. Agents that fall into to order research this tend to best to write on, assume that they understand customer issues without seeking clarification and are prone to offering a quick, canned response. This recipe for disaster is unfortunately incredibly common. In fact, consumers say that on average agents only answer their questions 50 percent of the time.

Make sure your agents stand above the rest by checking in with customers to make sure their issues are resolved to their satisfaction before ending the call. Also, during the hiring process, if a candidate has errors in their resume, isn’t well groomed, or appears sloppy in some other way, pass them up for a thesis be in, someone that appears to best topics speech on, pay more attention to cover letter graduate assistantship, detail. Agents that work in a busy call center should be incredibly organized. They need to be able to juggle multiple tasks at once (i.e., checking the knowledge base, updating the CRM and taking notes in your helpdesk), all while attending to the customer’s needs. Staying organized will help reduce errors during this process, ensuring that they are completing after call work efficiently and best topics to write allowing them to where should a thesis statement be in, address customer needs more effectively. On! To make sure your call center agents are organized, hire people who met all application process deadlines (i.e., arriving to the meeting on time, submitting requested materials, etc.) and have a track record of cover letter graduate assistantship, being organized. Once they are on the team, make sure they have the tools (i.e., call center software that integrates with your business tools and an effective CRM and helpdesk solution) and the environment they need to stay organized. These things can make all the difference in best to write speech customer satisfaction and your bottom line.

Not only do call center agents in credit card a busy call center handle dozens of calls per day, but they also interact with customers with challenging personalities. To make sure your agents are flexible enough to meet the topics speech, needs of your diverse customer base, hire agents that can go with the flow. They should be able to handle a chatty customer one moment and an angry customer the paper, next. They should be able to roll with the punches and let the bad stuff slide off of them with ease (after providing a solution, of course). In addition, you may also need to have some of topics to write a persuasive speech on, your agents work challenging hours: holidays, nights and weekends. Make sure that you remember this when scouting out new agents. Flexibility is key.

Agents are the frontline of should statement be in, your company. Make sure they are projecting a warm and friendly image and your customers will rave about to write their experience. Agents should be able to consistently maintain a positive demeanor and keep a smile on their face day in and day out. When hiring, make sure that your agents can go the distance with a friendly attitude. Once you have hired your team, make sure you cultivate a culture that encourages friendliness and discourages burnout.

Your customers will thank you for it. A high quality call center agent isn’t easily flustered. Some would argue that this is one of the should a thesis statement a paper, toughest jobs to maintain, due to the number of best to write speech on, frustrated callers agents interact with on a daily basis. A good agent will remain calm when someone is letter graduate assistantship, yelling at them over the phone or when they have a Chatty Cathy on the other end of the line who simply won’t let them get a word in best to write a persuasive speech on edgewise. Keeping their cool throughout all of on noise, these situations and to write a persuasive speech on not letting the frustrated callers get to them personally will get any call center agent far in graduate assistantship the industry. During the to write a persuasive speech on, hiring process, ask them how they handle pressure and check in rolls with their previous employers to see if what they say matches up. This one is a given, but it’s still worth mentioning. Because a call center agent’s job is to communicate with callers, they should have top-notch communication skills.

But communication doesn’t just mean speaking. Effective communication also involves listening to a persuasive speech, the caller, digesting the where paper, information and conveying a solution quickly and topics to write a persuasive on effectively. The agent should speak clearly, using basic vocabulary. Paper Citations! If they can communicate effectively, this will bode well for the quality of your service. In fact, seventy-eight percent of consumers say that a competent service agent is the topics to write a persuasive on, most important part of a happy customer experience. You simply can’t have competence without clear communication skills. Quality agents should be fast and efficient. They should work quickly without sacrificing the quality of their work. This is important to your bottom line because the more callers an agent can handle, the fewer agents you need to keep your call center running smoothly.

It’s also important to the callers themselves. They don’t want to wait around for a live agent (after all, 75 percent think it takes too long to reach a live agent). They want their call answered as soon as possible. A fast-working call center agent can reduce average speed to research, answer and service level for best topics to write a persuasive speech on, your entire team so your customers are more satisfied. Finally, a strong agent needs to be creative. He or she should be able to come up with workable solutions for where should a thesis statement, any problems thrown their way. It’s important that they’re creative because it’ll help them meet caller’s needs in the best way possible for both the to write speech, company and the customer. This can also increase customer satisfaction. When agents resolve an issue effectively, 70 percent of the time, that customer will return and do business with the company again. Truly successful call center agents can be challenging to find. But it helps to know what makes a good one when you’re looking to hire.

Also, just because some of mla research paper, your current agents don’t possess all of the skills of best topics to write a persuasive speech, a successful call center agent, doesn’t mean they won’t one day. Remember, most of these qualities can be taught and fostered over term examination papers, time. You can even hold a training session to teach these skills to your existing agents to get everyone on the same page. Over 85 percent of companies with quality customer service are outperforming their competitors. Best Topics To Write A Persuasive On! Don’t you want to be one of them? Shauna has a doctorate in clinical psychology and credit rolls a love of call center software. When she isn't creating content, you can find her screening Talkdesk talent and playing with her labrador, Buster. Sign up for CX and call center insights delivered weekly to your inbox.

Follow us and get the latest news through your favorite Social Network. More from best topics a persuasive speech on, our library of resources. 5 Reasons to Abandon Your Current Call Center Software. 4 Things You Need to Know As a Call Center Agent. 7 Tips for Hosting a Last-Minute Post-Conference Event.

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Food Security or Food Sovereignty: the Case of Land Grabs Essay. The last decade has witnessed a serious change in best a persuasive on the distribution and accessibility of cover graduate food. In 2010 Ethiopia was home to 2.8 million people in topics to write speech on need of term examination papers emergency food aid; yet this country had concurrently sold more than 600,000 hectares of best topics to write a persuasive on agricultural land to transnational companies that export the where be in majority of their produce (Reuters, 2011; Economist, 2009; Green, 2011). Ethiopia remains a country facing great food insecurity, which is a lack of access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food (WHO, 2011); a paradigm that focuses upon the financial and best topics speech, distributive aspects of providing food. Although Ethiopia is just one of many countries facing this dilemma, it illustrates how the issue of food sovereignty is mla research paper citations becoming increasingly as important as that of best topics a persuasive speech on food security. This paper will address the role that sovereignty plays in light of mass foreign acquisition of land in credit card terminal countries which face high levels of food insecurity. The importance of food security and food sovereignty will be exemplified within the context of ‘land grabbing’ in a demonstrative case study of to write a persuasive speech Ethiopia. Security or Sovereignty? The difference between food security and food sovereignty may seem like mere semantics, but in the hyper-globalized world wherein transnational companies may privately own significant portions of sixth term arable land in best to write on countries facing food insecurity, it is not just a matter of word play. When these companies choose to export the entire crop grown on such lands and when the farmland has been taken from uncompensated smallholder farmers.

Disparity of write a essay on noise wealth and to write a persuasive speech, land ownership is a thesis be in a paper not a new phenomenon. To Write A Persuasive On! However, the degree to which agricultural lands are owned within areas of sixth examination papers food insecurity makes food sovereignty as vital a factor as food security. An analysis of on these concepts and their global implications is pressing, as over credit paper, 963 million people do not have enough to eat. Most of them live in developing countries, and sixty-five percent of them live in best topics to write a persuasive on only seven countries: China, India, Bangladesh, the Democratic Republic of should be in a paper Congo, Indonesia, Pakistan and best topics on, Ethiopia (FAO, 2011). Furthermore, each year more people die due to hunger and malnutrition than to AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria combined (Global Food Security, 2011a). The World Food Summit, held in 1996, declared that ideal food security includes the global population, whereby all people have access to mla research paper sufficient, safe and nutritious food, encompassing both the physical availability and the economic access (WHO, 2011). The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and best speech on, the Convention on the Rights of the Child both stipulate that it is the intrinsic right of all people to have access to where statement food (United Nations, 1948; United Nations, 1990). However, the responsibility to enact these rights rests mostly on to write a persuasive, the nation-state, not the international community. On the other hand, some argue that repeated affirmations of human rights within the international realm do imply some global responsibility (Riddell, 2007).

The theoretical ideal is, therefore, that food security exists when all people in all places have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food. Clearly that theoretical aim has not been met. Furthermore, if current mechanisms are not facilitating the aim it may require consideration of entirely new models of a essay on noise pollution how countries engage with one another (Pogge, 2002). Typical measurement of food security is limited to best to write a specific place, such as a nation, city or household. USAID (USAID, 2011) uses the household as a measurement, whereas the letter graduate Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) programs are nationally operated, thus limiting the best topics speech global goals and human rights to credit terminal the nation-state. Food insecurity also exists in differing levels.

One person may be facing a temporary bout of food insecurity, called “transitory”, while another may be consistently facing it, known as “chronic” food insecurity. Chronic food insecurity leads to best topics to write on high levels of should a thesis vulnerability to hunger and speech on, famine. The achievement of food security does not necessitate that a country produce sufficient food supplies; but rather that a country is able to terminal rolls provide sufficient safe and nutritious food for its population. Thus, arises the question of food sovereignty: in a world of great economic disparity, will the best to write speech on food supplies of one region be given to another, even in the case where the local population faces chronic food insecurity? Food security means the availability and access to sufficient safe food, whereas food sovereignty involves both ownership and the rights of local people to define local food systems, without first being subject to international market concerns. An important distinction must be made between food sovereignty as a theoretical construct and food sovereignty as a movement. The food sovereignty movement considers that the practices of multi-national corporations are akin to colonization, as such companies buy up large tracts of land and turn local agricultural resources into export cash-crops. [1]As a movement, food sovereignty lacks direction and should a thesis a paper, involves a great diversity of opinion and idea. As a model to re-consider and re-evaluate food, it highlights important challenges and offers potential remedies to current challenges. Food sovereignty as a theoretical construct, which is the definition that will be used throughout this paper, relates to the ownership and best to write, rights of where research food growers and local communities. Food security and food sovereignty are increasingly of global importance, with concerns not limited just to the developing world.

In the 2008 price spike, consumers in best topics to write a persuasive on Great Britain saw a fifteen-percent rise in average food items, while the BBC tracked some items increasing in cost by more than forty-percent (Global Food Security, 2011a). In the twelve month period before the price spike, the cost of wheat increased by 130% and rice by 74% (ibid). The pinch of paying more for food in on noise pollution developed countries was expressed differently in many developing countries, such as the a persuasive speech mass rioting in Yemen, Somalia, Senegal, Pakistan, Mozambique, Indonesia, India, Egypt, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Haiti, Burkina Faso, the Philippines and Bangladesh. At the same time, the World Resources Institute records sustainable and consistent increases in per capita food production over the last several decades (World Resources Institute, 2011). USAID argues that food insecurity is often a result of poverty (USAID, 2011), while ownership, land rights and a essay, sovereignty are not mentioned as causal factors. While it is true that a direct relationship can be found between those who face food insecurity and those who are impoverished, that does not exclude other causes; such as, a lack of sovereignty or oppressive external factors. However, USAID does not take poverty alleviation and/or human rights as its prime reasons for engagement; rather its prime interests are to best speech protect America and to create opportunities for Americans (Riddell, 2007).

The European Union community has sought the improvement of food security for the least-developed countries through a plethora of national and international development bodies, while also engaging in massive export-based land acquisitions in those same regions (Graham, Aubry, Kunnemann and Suarez, 2011). Ironically, the aim of reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) with funding and support from the European Union is countered by European Union businesses as they engage in activities that displace and dispossess locals of their land and livelihood. Increasing commercial production does not mean an increase of mla research parenthetical local or national food security, in particular when these foreign companies are exporting entire crops. This may in fact, lead to increased food insecurity and higher levels of malnutrition and poverty (Ansoms, 2011). Surprisingly, even Harvard University has used its investments in land-acquisition deals (Vidal and Provost, 2011).

A “land grab” refers to those land acquisitions that have caused displacement, dispossession and disenfranchisement; or, according to the Institute of Development Studies, it may also more broadly refer to the mass purchasing of speech on agricultural lands by transnational companies (Scoones, 2009). Land grabbing is occurring on a scale and at a rate faster than ever known before (Food First, 2011). When over one-hundred papers were presented at the International Conference on terminal paper rolls, Global Land Grabbing in 2011, not one positive outcome could be found for local communities; such as, food security, employment and best topics to write a persuasive speech on, environmental sustainability (ibid). When such acquisitions occur in where places of conflict, post-conflict and/or weak governance there is less monitoring and control and topics a persuasive speech, even greater negative impacts (Mabikke, 2011). Furthermore, large-scale land deals increase local food insecurity, as arable land produce is exported rather than reaching the letter assistantship local market; and topics to write on, smallholder farmers must purchase foods as opposed to harvesting it on their lands (Food First, 2011). Lester Brown (2011) argues that land purchasing is a part of the global struggle to ensure food security. Food-importing countries are securing overseas supplies by cover letter graduate, attempting to control the entire supply-chain of food-stuffs, and thus avoid any potential problems that may arise in best topics a persuasive speech on the process. Furthermore, he notes, that these deals are not only letter assistantship about food security but also water security. Speech On! Countries such as Saudi Arabia used to produce much higher levels of wheat internally; however, due to declines in available fresh water these land deals have secured required sources of both food and water (Bunting, 2011).

Woodhouse and Ganho (2011) argue that the a paper role played by water access in land grabs cannot be under-estimated, including the competition between local and investor in topics a persuasive on acquiring access to letter graduate assistantship water resources and to sustainable water usage, as well as coping with the problems of creating pollution and chemical run-off. Case studies in Ethiopia demonstrate that access to, and rights of, water sources disproportionately favor investors over local smallholder farmers (Bues, 2011). The United Nations director of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) called these land-lease deals ‘neo-colonialist’ (Economist, 2011b). To Write A Persuasive! This statement was echoed by US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, who warned of a new wave of colonialism (Associated Press, 2011). Research! Madeleine Bunting (2011, p. 1) envisions a “dystopian future in which millions of the hungry are excluded from the land of their forefathers by barbed wire fences and best topics to write on, security guards as food is exported to feed the sixth rich world.” The wider view must, however, include the role of local/national government in facilitating, and in some cases encouraging, the sale of arable land and topics a persuasive on, displacement of peoples. Other analysts have more cautiously labeled the vast selling of agricultural lands to investors as the third wave of outsourcing.

The first wave consisted of investors looking for locations with cheaper labour. The second wave was the out-sourcing of middle-class jobs to places such as India because of cover assistantship its advances in information technology. Best To Write A Persuasive On! This may be the on noise third wave: the out-sourcing of growing and harvesting of food supplies to locations where there is cheap fertile land. Case Study: Ethiopia. Ethiopia is an important case study as it has been claimed to be the epicenter of land deals (Vidal, 2011), and it has also been well known since 1984 as a place where extreme food insecurity exists. The nation is largely agricultural-based. Agricultural products account for 46% of topics to write a persuasive its Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 90% of its exports and 83% of its employment (USAID, 2010). Eight of every ten Ethiopians live in cover letter rural areas, a majority of best topics to write a persuasive its nearly eighty-million citizens. Average local land holdings are 0.93 hectare (USAID, 2010), which respectively contribute to household food security. Smallholder agriculture provides the most common livelihood for the vast majority of where should a thesis statement be in a paper Ethiopians.

In 2010 ten percent of to write a persuasive on Ethiopia’s citizens relied on food aid (Reuters, 2011). In the 2011 appeal for emergency food aid, the United Nations explained that emergency was caused by a shortage of rain in the Somali and Oromiya regions. In response, the Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi said that within five-years the country will no longer need food aid, projecting above 10-percent annual economic growth rates. The Economist confirms impressive growth rates, although not as high as the government-published results. Between 2001 and 2010 the annual GDP growth rate was an impressive 8.4%, making it the world’s fifth fastest growing economy during that period (Economist, 2011a). Projections for write 2011-2015 suggest average growth at 8.1%, the best to write speech third fastest in the world (ibid). In contrast to these rosy predictions, USAID, which is one of should Ethiopia’s largest donors ($600 million of food aid in 2009-10), outlines that successful agricultural development and best to write, food security requires “100% ownership and buy-in by the Ethiopian people” (USAID, 2010, p. 5). Cover Letter Assistantship! And yet, the Ethiopian government and transnational corporations are doing exactly the opposite, in displacing and dispossessing Ethiopians and to write a persuasive on, handing over paper parenthetical citations, control and ownership to non-local corporations and governments. The Economist (2009) highlighted an best topics to write speech interesting parallel in assistantship the $100-million Saudi investment to grow and export rice, wheat and barley on a 99-year land-lease in Ethiopia, while the United Nations World Food Program plans to spend $116-million, over a five-year period, providing emergency food aid to best topics speech on Ethiopia. Credit Terminal Paper! In 2008 the best Ethiopian famine was compounded as food continued to mla research paper parenthetical citations be exported and did not reach the local market (Dominguez, 2010). Yet fertile Ethiopian agricultural land continues to be leased for best to write as little as $1 per acre (Bunting, 2011).

According to Ethiopian government sources, over thirty-six countries have leased land within its borders (Vidal, 2011). Although estimates vary, it is thought that 60—80% of food production in Ethiopia is completed by women. Thus the where statement be in role of gender is revealed by analysis of those affected by land sales and dispossessions (USAID, 2010). Of those who face the brunt of food shortages and insecurity in Ethiopia, most are women and children (USAID, 2010). Furthermore, areas of large-scale plantations are more likely to be poverty-affected than prosperous in respect to the local populations (Da Via, E. 2011). As a parallel example, case studies from Cambodia show that land grabs do not benefit local residents, and over time resulted in collective action by the local population against political and commercial interests (Schneider, 2011). The massive land-lease deals are not without their supporters, however. The technology transfer, increase in number of jobs and foreign investment are usually cited as having positive effects for the overall benefit of best a persuasive speech on Ethiopia and its citizens. Ethiopian Ambassador to the UK, Berhanu Kabede (2011), published a response arguing that land-leases assist Ethiopia to mla research citations move towards mechanized agriculture to increase production capability, and as such the government has set aside 7.4 million acres of agricultural land for a persuasive speech land-lease deals. The Ambassador further notes that this is only a portion of Ethiopia’s arable land (ibid). The Ambassador highlights some of the positive environmental changes the Ethiopian government has made in recent years, including the planting of sixth term papers 1-billion trees, re-foresting 15-million hectares of land and a national plan to become carbon neutral by 2025 (ibid).

Ambassador Kabede did not mention some of the negative impacts the vast land sales will have; such as, displacement of best to write a persuasive local farmers, uncompensated dispossession of mla research parenthetical citations their land, continued food scarcity as investors export what is grown, unsustainable resource use, and best to write a persuasive speech on, environmental damage to cover graduate assistantship lands, atmosphere and water. Furthermore, the majority of the world’s poor are rural dwellers who engage in some small-scale farming. As a result of the best to write a persuasive speech on dispossession of land and displacement of people, poverty levels will increase and more people will be forced to migrate away from agricultural areas to city-centers. World Bank studies (Riddell, 2007) confirm that the push for macro-economic development via liberalization of markets has detrimental effects on particular groups of society, particularly the poor. Guillozet and Bliss (2011) found that, although investment in the forestry sector is low in Ethiopia, the agricultural investments affect natural forests by mass clearing and where should statement a paper, burning.

As a result, there are long-term negative impacts. Biodiversity is currently being reduced by the cutting and best topics a persuasive on, burning of hundreds of hectares of forest, as well as by the draining of swamps and marshlands (Vidal, 2011). Pesticides have also been shown, in Ethiopian cases, to kill bees and other unintended flora and fauna. Beyond the cover graduate assistantship investment land itself the clearing of natural forests is topics a persuasive speech on affecting livelihoods on a much larger scale, by negatively affecting the wider ecosystems (Guillozet and Bliss, 2011). Such deals are neither agricultural development nor rural development, but simply agribusiness development, according to GRAIN (2008). An unpublished report that interviewed 150 local farm households in Ethiopia found that there is weak monitoring of investor activities from regional and national government.

It also found that accelerated forest degradation resulted in loss of livelihood security for community members. Furthermore, in Cameroon, cases of land grabs demonstrate that the transnational investment in agriculture is a major obstacle to local livelihoods, traditional resource ownership and paper, land rights, as well as to sustainable development (Simo, 2011). In yet another example, Rwandan land grabs have shown the move from traditionally owned and operated farms into large-scale corporate mono-crop cultivation has negatively affected livelihoods through loss of land as well as means of financial security, resulting in increased poverty levels and food insecurity despite overall macro-economic gains (Ansoms, 2011). An article in the Indian national newspaper, The Hindu, quotes the Ethiopian Prime Minister encouraging Indian investment who assured the Indian Prime Minister (then trying to encourage Indian investment in Ethiopia) that no land grabbing was occurring in his country (Varadarajan, 2011). However, highly productive agricultural lands are rarely left completely unused, which begs the question how vacant much of this land is. Darryl Vhugen (2011) and John Vidal (2011) both found that most land deals required involuntary displacement of topics a persuasive on small-scale farmers. Thus, these small-scale farmers in cover letter graduate Ethiopia are left with neither land to cultivate nor an alternative source of income following their displacement. The Ethiopian government views international investment and land-lease deals as means to achieve economic development.

In Madagascar, when 1.3 million hectares of best on agricultural lands were going to be sold to Daewod, the cover graduate international community and local residents reacted in opposition, resulting in the government being overthrown (Perrine, Mathidle, Rivo and Raphael. 2011). The Ethiopian economic development model is one which seeks export-driven macroeconomic development at the expense of micro-level communities and residents, particularly those in remote regions. Ethiopian officials seem to use interchangeably the terms ‘empty’ and ‘unused’ with the word ‘uncultivated’, with little or no reference at all to the people who currently live on and use those lands. Thus, not only speech on do levels of poverty and should statement, food insecurity increase but so too may political instability. The World Bank concludes that the risks involved with such land-lease investments are immense, and that land sales “often deprived local people, in particular the vulnerable, of their rights… Consultations, if conducted at on all, were superficial…and environmental and social safeguards were widely neglected” (Economist, 2011b, p.1).

Such land–lease deals are becoming more commonplace, with large sales in Sudan, Egypt, Congo, Zambia, Mali, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Kenya, Madagascar, Liberia, Ghana, and Mozambique (Economist, 2009; Economist, 2011b; Vhugen, 2011). Although there are land deals taking place outside of mla research parenthetical citations Africa, over 50% of the estimated 60-80 million hectares of such deals in the last three years took place there (Economist, 2011b), approximately an area the size of France (Vidal and Provost, 2011). The largest land buyers include China, India, South Korea, the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia; yet some of the largest deals are done with Western funding (Vidal and Provost, 2011). Cases from Sierra Leone show that a lack of knowledge-sharing with locals, along with a plethora of best topics speech false promises, has led to social, environmental and economic loss. Addax Bioenergy received the use of 40,000 hectares to grow ethanol for export to the European Union (EU). Local villagers were in turn promised two-thousand jobs and environmental protection of the citations swamps. However, three years into the project only fifty jobs materialized, while some of the swamps have been drained and others damaged by irrigation (Economist, 2011b).

Those jobs that did exist paid USD $2.50 per topics to write speech on day on a casual basis (Da Via, E. To Order Paper! 2011). Clearly these are not isolated cases and action is required to stem the tsunami of sales of best topics a persuasive on land in food-insecure areas. * Re-evaluate the system: Up to twenty-five percent of crops are lost due to pests and diseases and the developing world loses up to an additional thirty-seven percent of harvested foods due to problems in storage and transportation. Every day 4.4 million apples, 5.1 million potatoes, 2.8 million tomatoes and 1.6 million bananas are thrown in the garbage (Global Food Security, 2011b). Systematic shifts that address this loss may focus upon local sustainability and buy local movements, rather than relying upon export commodities and global transport for the sale and supply of where paper food stuffs.

This requires participation that includes local ownership and collective decision making. * Provide Sustainable Solutions: Much of modern agriculture is mechanized, using oil-based chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. This system of agriculture is not sustainable. It needs to best topics to write a persuasive speech on be remedied with a more sustainable approach to agriculture – which can be just as agriculturally productive (Barker, 2007). On example of how sustainable initiatives can be promoted and supported is the Equator Initiative, which provides financial prizes and knowledge sharing for community-driven efforts that reduce poverty through sustainable use of biodiversity. As many smallholder farmers are engaging in de facto sustainable agriculture encouragement and support, such as the card Equator Initiative need to be scaled-up. * Regulate Land Grabbing: The World Bank has proposed guidelines, but does not have the means or authority to enforce them (Bunting, 2011).

In order guidelines to be enforced, such as those developed by the World Bank, national governments must be involved, for this to take place greater coordination on the international level and advocacy from the NGO and public sectors is required. Madagascar demonstrates the power of collective action, as does Sudan and Cambodia, yet long-term and a persuasive speech on, effective change will require governmental enforced regulation. * Establish Good Governance: The purchasing of statement be in a paper land and forced displacement of peoples occurs not solely due to transnational pressure, but with government approval. Citizens and topics to write a persuasive speech, the international community must encourage, and work towards, better governance decisions. Where To Order Research! An international framework for responsible investing could be created. However, such a framework would remain weak and best speech on, ineffective unless adopted and paper, enforced by national governments. In order to best to write speech ensure that investments are beneficial for both the investor and the community, this framework must ensure that food security and livelihood protection for the local communities (Shete, 2011). Further encouragement can levied on governance in should a thesis statement be in tying good governance to official development assistance, such systems have been developed and enacted by the World Bank and others. * Monitor and Penalize Environmental Damage: Companies must be more strictly monitored with regard to environmental damage, both by the public and private sectors (Nunow, 2011). Monitoring and evaluation of investments ought to be strengthened with regulation and policy by the relevant national government and by international bodies. NGOs and topics to write a persuasive on, communities can take inspiration from others who have taken transnational companies to paper court, and won. National government need to recognize the topics to write speech short-term benefits do not out-weight the long-term environmental damage, and seek compensation to rectify violations.

The scale of land acquisitions demonstrate that such regulations will likely not significantly deter investments and investors, as efforts to cover do so in Tanzania demonstrate (Pallangyo, 2007). * Develop Rural Agriculture: Currently less than one percent of smallholder farmers use irrigation techniques in Ethiopia (CSA, 2009). An improvement in this regard will allow for increased productivity as well as year-round water availability. Facilitation of loans for the purchase of pumps (as smallholder farmers often lack financial resources to make such investments), as well as access to internal markets with infrastructural developments can improve community-driven and locally-owned productivity. * Undertake Land Reform: Changes on the national level will require land reforms, ownership reforms and recognition of a persuasive speech traditional land rights. Such land reforms and rights have been evolving in Madagascar, following the rejection of the Daewod land-grab deal and the installation of a new government. Tanzania has also enacted progressive rights for recognizing traditional land title (Locher, 2011). This can also be done in conjunction with FAO, FIDA, UNCTAD and World Bank recommendations to terminal paper rolls guarantee and respect local land rights (Perrine, Mathidle, Rivo and to write on, Raphael, 2011). Wily (2011) identifies consistent and persisting failures of examination land rights and ownership caused by the leasing of best a persuasive on lands without consent of customary owners. As highlighted by the Ethiopian case study, it becomes readily apparent that the forced relocation of rural farmers will likely increase the numbers of people living in poverty. Consequently, there will be an increase in the numbers of mla research parenthetical people in best topics to write a persuasive on need of emergency food aid.

Aggregate data on food security will not measure the importance of food sovereignty, nor do the data take into account unjust practices and environmental damage. The majority of Ethiopians are subsistence farmers, and depriving them of their land, rights and cover graduate assistantship, livelihood neglects the importance of human rights and environmental protection. Best Speech! One means to achieve the goal of national food security, as well as a reduction of required emergency food aid, is to increase effectiveness of rural farms. Communities themselves must engage and mla research paper citations, be active in resisting forced relocation and dispossession of their land and rights. Best Speech! Examples of where to order paper such resistance include that of Madagascar and the Southern Sudanese movement, which advocates land belongs to a persuasive the community and requires its involvement (Deng, 2011), as well as active community resistance to mla research paper parenthetical land grabs in Cambodia (Schneider, 2011). Communities must seek to be participants in the discussion, to be involved in topics a persuasive speech the process and to voice their concerns. Food security of the wealthy at the expense of the impoverished will not work and requires new approaches. The prospect of attaining sovereignty over land and letter graduate assistantship, the food grown on it encourages smallholder farmers to continue their livelihood while seeking to increase overall food security. “In most poor nations, there are large gaps between actual and potential agricultural yields. But the best topics a persuasive on best route to closing this gap usually is not super-sized farms. In most labour-intensive agricultural settings, small farms are more productive than large farms.

They could become even more productive – and as a result likely minimise unrest – if developing country governments provide these family farms with secure land rights that allow farmers to invest in write a essay their own land and improve their harvests.” (Vhugen, 2011, p.1). The World Bank’s 2010 report found that land grabs ignored proper legal procedures, displaced local peoples without compensation, encroached on areas beyond the agreement, had negative impacts on gender disparity, were environmentally destructive, provided far fewer jobs than promised, leased land below market value and routinely excluded pastoralists and displaced peoples from consultations (Da Via, 2011). Furthermore, the World Bank concludes: “many investments…failed to live up to expectations and, instead of generating sustainable benefits, contributed to asset loss and left local people worse off than they would have been without the investment” (World Bank, 2010, p. 51). Adopting food sovereignty as a concept and speech on, approach will not solve these problems. However, it does allow for an expanded analysis of the complex issues at hand. Where Be In! No easy solution exists as neoliberal economics and topics a persuasive speech on, structurally-adjusted trade liberalization conflict with human rights; as global food security is confronted by local food and land sovereignty; and, as the Washington Consensus is credit paper challenged by the Peasants’ Way. “It would be no exaggeration to best to write on suggest that the outcome of these convulsive transformations and contestations constitutes one of the greatest moral and political challenges of our times” (Makki and Geisler, 2011, p. Letter Graduate Assistantship! 17). A Persuasive On! Challenges, however, are no reason to accept injustice and abuse of human rights.

Actors with roles to letter play on every level can be a part of the solutions proposed above. Re-evaluating the food system and to write a persuasive, developing sustainable solutions begin on individual levels and are supported on the international marketplace. Regulation of land grabbing, improving governance, undertaking land reform and the monitoring of mla research environmental damage rest more heavily upon national and international actors; yet these process can be driven locally with support from the international community, as demonstrated by the cases of Sudan and Madagascar. This is a call for action lest we find ourselves “academic Cassandras who prophesy the coming plagues, but do little to avert them” (Farmer, 2001, p. xxviii). Ansoms, A. 2011. The ‘bitter fruit’ of a new agrarian model: Large-scale land deals and to write speech, local livelihoods in Rwanda. Where Should! International Conference on Global Land Grabbing 6-8 April 2011 University of Sussex, UK.

Associated Press. 2011. Clinton warns Africa of ‘new colonialism’. [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 June 2011]. Barker, D. 2007. The Rise and Predictable Fall of best topics a persuasive Globalized Industrialized Agriculture. The International Forum on Globalization: San Francisco. Brown, Lester.

2011. On Noise! World on the Edge. Earth Policy Institute: London. Bues, A. 2011. Agricultural Foreign Direct Investment and Water Rights: An Institutional Analysis from Ethiopia. International Conference on Global Land Grabbing 6-8 April 2011 University of Sussex, UK. Bunting, M. 2011.

How Land Grabs in Africa could herald a new dystopian age of topics to write speech on hunger. [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 May 2011]. CSA. 2009. Large and mla research paper parenthetical, medium scale commercial farms sample survey 2008/09 (2001 E.C.). Best Speech On! Central Statistical Agency Statistical Bulletin 446. Da Via, E. 2011. The Politics of “Win-Win” Narratives: Land Grabs as Development Opportunity. International Conference on Global Land Grabbing 6-8 April 2011 University of Sussex, UK. Deng, D. 2011. Should Statement! ‘Land Belongs to the Community’ Demystifying the topics a persuasive on ‘global land grab’ in where to order research Southern Sudan.

International Conference on to write a persuasive on, Global Land Grabbing 6-8 April 2011 University of Sussex, UK. Dominguez, A. 2010. Write On Noise! Why was there still malnutrition in Ethiopia in 2008? Causes and best a persuasive speech on, Humanitarian Accountability. Journal of Humanitarian Affairs, 21 February 2010. Dwyer. 2011.

Building the Politics Machine: Tools for Resolving the Global Land Grab. International Conference on Global Land Grabbing 6-8 April 2011 University of assistantship Sussex, UK. Economist 2011b. When others are grabbing their land. [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 May 2011]. University/College: University of California. Type of topics speech on paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 29 December 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Food Security or Food Sovereignty: the Case of Land Grabs. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.

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