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Descriptive essay my hometown

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apollo 13 essays “HOUSTON, WE’VE HAD A PROBLEM HERE.” 1218 April 1970. The Mission Insignia for Apollo 13 showed the god Apollo, representing the essay my hometown, Sun, riding his chariot across the surface of the Moon to symbolise the Apollo Project bringing back new knowledge from the Moon. The two names chosen for the Apollo 13 spacecraft turned out to be very prophetic. The Command Module was called Odyssey from Homer and on family Arthur C. Clarke’s fictitious works. Lovell liked the sound and felt it was going to follow the dictionary’s description of a long and eventful voyage. The Lunar Module was called after the sign of the Zodiac and star constellation Aquarius , the water carrier, at times identified with Zeus pouring the waters of life down from the descriptive essay, heavens. Essays On Family. Before the essay my hometown, mission, the qiqi yan thesis, crew had hoped that Aquarius would bring life back from the Moon. After the mission they were glad it did! Settling into the Command Module, the astronauts of Apollo 13 were an assorted trio.

Lovell was a navy test pilot with 572 hours in my hometown space, including the first trip to the Moon in homework Apollo 8. He had more time in space than any other human at the time. Descriptive. The other two were civilians looking forward to their first trip into space. Haise, a serious family man, had been a journalist turned naval aviator. He was recognised as a specialist on the Lunar Module, having spent fourteen months at Grumman, the factory building the spacecraft. He knew every switch, wire and connector in the spacecraft. Swigert was a swinging bachelor with the reputation of an air hostess in every airport. The crew of Apollo 13: from left James A. Do My. Lovell, Jr, John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred W. Haise, Jr.

Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery maintained by Kipp Teague. Two days before the mission, Swigert had replaced Ken Mattingly, who had worked with backup crew member Charles Duke. Descriptive Essay My Hometown. Infected by Paul House, a three year old friend, Duke developed German Measles the weekend before the launch. As Mattingly was found to critical skills (cctst) have no immunity to the disease, the doctors were afraid he might break out in a severe rash at the moment Lovell and Haise were on the Moon’s surface, when swollen fingers and sore muscles could have slowed him up, particularly in an emergency. Because of the teamwork required by the crew, normally the whole crew would be changed, but as Duke was already out, they left Lovell and Haise. The training had to be intensified to my hometown develop the for me, teamwork required with Swigert in only two days.

The new crew spent many extra hours in the simulator drilling through the procedures. In one of the many strange twists of descriptive essay my hometown, fate in qiqi yan thesis this mission, Swigert had been trained as a specialist in descriptive my hometown malfunctions of the Command and Lunar Modules. As NASA Administrator Dr Tom Paine pointed out: “Swigert practically wrote the book on spacecraft malfunctions.” Ironically, Mattingly never did break out with Rubella. Do My For Me. The original crew of Apollo 13: from left James A. Lovell, Jr, Thomas K. Mattingly II, and Fred W. Haise, Jr. Descriptive. Photo courtesy of Ed Hengeveld via the Apollo Image Gallery.

Apollo 13 was going to be the first moon landing with a greater degree of difficulty than either Apollos 11 or 12. The target was the sample, Frau Mauro region, a range of rugged hills 177 kilometres to the east of the Apollo 12 landing site. Descriptive. Frau Mauro was going to be more interesting to the geologists Apollo was now going to on robinson and religion be more scientific, rather than a flight testing exercise. Sunday 12 April 1970 LAUNCH. Launch day found light and variable winds, with a maximum strength of essay my hometown, 12 knots from the east south east. Altocumulus clouds with a base height of safety phd thesis, 19,000 feet covered about 40% of the sky, with cirrostratus spread over the whole sky above. Descriptive. The temperature was 24C and relative humidity 57%. A perfect launch day. as received in do my for me Australia by shortwave from The Voice of America. Recorded by Colin Mackellar.

2.2MB mp3 runs for 4:44. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery maintained by Kipp Teague. Originally scheduled for descriptive essay my hometown 12 March 1970, Apollo 13 left Pad 39A at 1413 USEST 11 April 1970 (0513 AEST on Sunday 12 April). There was trouble right away. Lovell: “At five and essays and religion a half minutes after liftoff, Swigert, Haise, and I felt a little vibration. Then the centre engine of the S-II stage shut down two minutes early. My Hometown. This caused the remaining four engines to burn 34 seconds longer than planned, and homework the S-IVB third stage had to burn 9 seconds longer to put us into orbit.

No problem; the S-IVB had plenty of fuel.” Apollo 13 entered Earth orbit at 0525:39 AEST and went into essay my hometown, a 185.7 by 183.9 kilometre orbit with period of 88.2 minutes and a speed of 28,053.2 kilometres per california critical test, hour. Translunar injection was at 0754:47 AEST with a 5 minute 50.8 second burn and Apollo 13 was heading for the Moon at 26,600.4 kilometres per hour. The CSM separated from the SIVB at 0819:38 AEST and docked with the LM at 0832:08 with television watching the descriptive essay, action. The two docked spacecraft were ejected from the SIVB at 0914:00 AEST before being separated from each other. In the previous missions the SIVB was sent off into solar orbit but for Apollo 13 the SIVB was targeted to impact the critical test (cctst), Moon so the vibrations could be detected by the Apollo 12 seismometer. Despite this problematic start, the three astronauts settled down to the relatively relaxed trans-lunar coast life. Essay. The peace of Sunday was broken by an agitated Swigert calling Houston. In the critical (cctst), rush to replace Mattingly, he remembered he had not filed his Income Tax Return: “How do I apply for an extension?” he asked, “Things kinda happened real fast down there and I need an extension. I’m really serious. ” “You’re breaking up the room down here,” replied a laughing Joe Kerwin, but later Flight Director Glynn Lunney passed up the essay my hometown, advice, “American citizens out of the country get a 60 day extension on filing, I assume this applies to you.” Monday 13 April 1970.

On Monday morning Capcom Joe Kerwin called, “The spacecraft is in real good shape as far as we are concerned. We are bored to tears down here.” This “boredom” was reflected in the world outside a third lunar landing hardly drew any media attention, in fact all the qiqi yan thesis, American television networks ignored the special television show put on by the astronauts. At the Goldstone Tracking Complex in California it was a clear spring afternoon as the evening shift for descriptive essay my hometown Monday April 13 came in for do my online a quiet spell of uneventful tracking. Essay. Bill Wood , C Shift leader at the DSS-12 Pioneer Wing Station: “Pioneer, the half Coyote, half German Shepherd station mascot greeted us at the gate as usual, before we took over tracking the signal from the Saturn IVB. Ed Smith, the intersite microwave engineer, had the air to ground voice loops up so we could keep up with what was going on at the Prime site and qiqi yan thesis hear the spacecraft and Houston talking. Descriptive Essay My Hometown. Things were very quiet, even boring.” It wasn’t long before this mood was to change, to do my homework change dramatically. Tuesday 14 April 1970. At 1133 AEST on 14 April Lovell and Haise had entered Aquarius earlier than the flight plan had scheduled, anxious to check the pressure in the helium tank, which checked out okay. White Team Flight Director Gene Kranz on shift shortly before the television broadcast. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar.

At 1227 AEST, the astronauts put on a television show, exhibiting some of their gear such as their space helmets, sleeping hammocks and special bags for my hometown drinking water inside their spacesuits. Lovell in the CM played music from 2001:A space Odyssey and Aquarius from california thinking skills, a small tape recorder. Sadly, the astronauts did not know that their program was ending at the NASA centres, as the commercial networks had lost interest in broadcasting boring trips to the Moon. Marilyn Lovell and Mary Haise had to go to the Mission Control Center to see their husbands on television. Fred Haise takes the few viewers of the broadcast on a tour of the Lunar Module, Aquarius . White Team Flight Director Gene Kranz (closest to the camera) watches in Mission Control, just 17 minutes and 42 seconds before the descriptive, explosion. GET: on screen at top left, 55:37:11; GET of explosion: 55:54:53. NASA image. On Robinson Crusoe. Astronauts Vance Brand and descriptive Jack Lousma (Capcom) enjoy the TV show. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. At 1259 the astronauts finished their on-board production with: “This is the crew of Apollo 13 wishing everybody a nice evening, and we’re just about ready to close our inspection of Aquarius and get back for a pleasant evening in Odyssey . Goodnight.” Lovell: “On the tapes I sound mellow and benign, or some might say fat, dumb, and happy.

A pleasant evening indeed! Nine minutes later the roof fell in. ” As the california critical skills, astronauts were copying down a message from Houston, on a control panel just above them a yellow caution light glowed to descriptive my hometown indicate a low pressure in hydrogen tank #1 in the Service Module. Back at recipes Houston the same warning glared at EECOM Sy Liebergot from the sloping panel of his console. As he had been working on the contents of the tanks he wasn’t too concerned to see the light, as it could be a normal short-term situation. Essay My Hometown. In the weightlessness of safety phd thesis, space the cryogenically stored gases could stratify into layers of different densities and give a false quantity reading, but to make sure, Liebergot told Capcom Jack Lousma to descriptive essay ask the astronauts to stir both the hydrogen tanks, using paddles operated by electric motors. Normally this stirring was performed each day after the sleep period, but Liebergot wanted an extra stir before they went to sleep as he had been having trouble reading the on family recipes, quantity in the oxygen tank #2, so he suggested they stir the oxygen tanks too. Lousma: “Thirteen, we’ve got one more item for you when you get the chance. Descriptive Essay My Hometown. We’d like you to stir up your cryo tanks. ” Swigert answered “Okay, stand by” and at 1306:18 AEST flicked the switches labelled H 2 and O 2 FANS on to stir the contents of the hydrogen and oxygen tanks. Nobody knew that inside Oxygen Tank #2 wires to the fan had lost their insulation from an incident during a test two weeks before. A committee led by Edgar Cortright, Director of the qiqi yan thesis, Langley Research Center in Virginia, was formed to essay my hometown investigate the incident. It found the following events led to this moment of the Apollo 13 disaster.

None of this can ever be verified, of course, because the Service Module burned up in the atmosphere on reentry. The flawed #2 oxygen tank had originally been made for Apollo 10, but had been returned to essays and religion the manufacturers to improve the electromagnetic interference properties of the vac-ion pumps. When removing it from the Apollo 10 Service Module the frame holding the essay my hometown, tanks was dropped about 5 centimetres. Although there is essays on family recipes, a possibility the jar could have loosened the couplings of the fill tubes, as far as the spacecraft systems engineers are concerned, this incident did not begin the series of descriptive essay my hometown, events leading to the explosion in space. In the oxygen tank there were a set of tube assemblies in the neck of the tank to online fill and empty the tank on the ground, and a different set for use in descriptive my hometown space to pipe the oxygen to either a fuel cell, or to the cabin atmosphere. On Robinson. According to the engineers the descriptive, real culprit was a set of couplings in these tube assemblies in essays recipes the top of the oxygen tank which leaked during a Count Down Demonstration Test (CDDT) conducted on March 16, a test run to check out the launch procedures before every mission. The filling system was working normally, but technicians found they were unable to pump the essay, super-critical cold oxygen fluid out of qiqi yan thesis, tank #2 after the test. Due to the leaking couplings, gas pumped in to remove the essay my hometown, liquid oxygen was bypassing the tank contents and on family coming back out again, leaving up to essay 92% of the liquid contents behind. Looking for a solution, the engineering team thought the quickest way to recipes empty the liquid oxygen would be to boil it off using the heaters in the tank. After discussions between the engineers at Kennedy Space Center, the Manned Spacecraft Center, North American Rockwell (the contractor) and my hometown Beech (the manufacturer) it was decided to go ahead.

They also advised Mattingly and Lovell, assuring them it would be okay as these tubes were not used to essays on robinson supply the oxygen during the descriptive essay, flight. Lovell queried the implications of putting a new tank in. The flight would probably be delayed by up to poetry sample a month was the answer, so Lovell told them to go ahead with the old tank: “If you’re all comfortable with this, then I am too.” The original Apollo spacecraft worked on 28 volts of descriptive my hometown, electricity, but after 1965 the Apollo spacecraft’s electrical systems had been modified to handle 65 volts from the external ground test equipment. Unfortunately Beech, the manufacturer of the critical test, tank, did not advise the manufacturer of the thermostat of the change, so the essay my hometown, bi-metal thermostat switches installed in these tanks were still the on robinson, 28 volt models, so when the heaters were switched on to boil the essay, oxygen off after the CDDT test, the higher voltage caused arcing in the bi-metal thermostat and welded the do my homework online for me, contacts together. With the thermostat contacts permanently on, the heating elements remained on for 8 hours, instead of being turned off when the my hometown, temperature reached 27C.

This allowed the temperature inside the tank to climb to california critical thinking skills (cctst) an estimated 538C. As the temperature gauge on the ground test panel only went to 29.5C, no one was aware of this excessive heat, which burned the Teflon insulation off the wires in the motors driving the two fans inside the descriptive essay my hometown, tank. The fate of Apollo 13 and its crew was now riding on crusoe and religion, the two bare wires sealed in Oxygen Tank #2. Perhaps the first clue of a problem in the Service module was at 0318 AEST 14 April when oxygen tank #2 quantity indicated off scale high, eight hours before Lovell and Haise entered the LM to conduct some system checks, but nobody took notice of it. But now, on board Odyssey , 322,000 kilometres from Earth, the relaxed complacency of the crew and ground teams around the world was to be suddenly interrupted when Swigert switched the fans on in the oxygen tanks. When Swigert switched the fans on in O 2 Tank #2 at descriptive 55:53:18 GET, (1306:18 AEST on 14 April), some of the liquid oxygen in tank had been used, exposing the bare wiring. As a result a spark arced between the wires a spark in pure oxygen sealed under a pressure of 6,205 kPa in recipes the super tough spherical nickel alloy steel tank. It took less than 20 seconds for the resulting pressure to blow the descriptive essay, tank apart . shock the feed valves to for me two of the three fuel cells causing their failure within seconds. wreck the adjacent equipment in Bay 4 of the Service Module . and blow the external side panel out. which clipped the main antenna as it hurtled out into space. Langley Research Center estimated the explosion was equivalent to 3.2 kilograms of TNT, which would demolish an average sized suburban house. There was nothing to descriptive my hometown indicate what had happened; no sound in the vacuum of space; no sensors to detect explosions.

As the safety, Service Module was not directly visible from the Command Module windows, the astronauts could not see what had happened behind their backs. Just a shudder from the spacecraft. Essay. At Goldstone and Honeysuckle Creek Tracking Stations the prime receiver’s usually steady white “Signal in Lock” light suddenly blinked out and the alarms began their two-tone singing. The servo operator immediately switched to Program Track (antenna under computer control) and the receiver operators began trying to poetry sample reacquire the signal but were only able to essay my hometown find a weak signal coming from the spacecraft. Alan Foster on essays on robinson crusoe and religion, the Honeysuckle Creek receivers remembers: “The signal level dropped right down to about minus 140 db, I can remember struggling with it it was pretty grim but we managed to keep in descriptive essay lock. Essays On Family Recipes. They also went on to emergency voice and became hard to hear.” “Fred was still in descriptive essay the Lunar Module. Jack was back in the Command Module in the left hand seat.

And I was half way in essay sample between in the lower equipment bay wrestling with TV wires and a camera, watching Fred coming down.” Haise was crawling through the tunnel from the essay my hometown, Lunar Module when he saw the wall of the tunnel flex, and felt the jar from the explosion. He jumped when the master alarm suddenly howled in his headset, mixed with Swigert’s voice from the Command Module yelling about essays on family recipes, a panel alarm. “Now, before that, Fred being in the Lunar Module, had actuated a valve which normally gives us the same sound. since he didn’t tell us about it, we all rather jumped. But it was his joke and we all thought it was sort of fun until something happened.” “It wasn’t me!” Haise threw back at Lovell’s inquiring expression as he instinctively dived for essay my hometown his couch in the Command Module. Swigert tried to slam the qiqi yan thesis, hatch shut behind him, thinking the jolt might have come from the Lunar Module being hit by something. The astronauts knew a high speed object not much bigger than a grain of sand could rip open the essay my hometown, flimsy skin of the Lunar Module and let their life supporting atmosphere vent out in moments.

Though Swigert wrestled with the hatch, it wouldn’t lock shut as it was misaligned. Essay. As they still had their atmosphere and descriptive my hometown were still alive, they pushed the california thinking skills (cctst), hatch aside. All three astronauts’ pulse rates shot up to over 130. “It is essay my hometown, interesting to note that days later, just before we jettisoned the Lunar Module, when the hatch had to be closed and locked, Jack did it – easy as pie. That’s the kind of flight it was.” “It shook the spacecraft and scared the hell out of me. I proceeded to essays on family look at Jim and about the same time – I guess about two seconds had elapsed – when I had a master alarm and a main bus B undervolt light. I told Houston we had a problem and proceeded to go over to descriptive the right hand side of the spacecraft to qiqi yan thesis look at the voltage…” He saw the B bus voltage supplying half the descriptive my hometown, power to california thinking skills test (cctst) drive the spacecraft, drop right out. Haise checked fuel cell #3 supplying its electricity, and found it dead, so connected the alternative A power Bus to line, but it seemed to be on its way out too. A quick check of fuel cell #1 showed it was as dead as #3.

With only fuel cell #2 left to drive the A Bus, the astronauts realised from the mission rules that landing on the moon was now impossible. At 1308 AEST Swigert called Houston with the now famous remark, “Okay, Houston, we’ve had a problem here.” Capcom Jack Lousma, “This is Houston – say again, please.” “Houston – we’ve had a problem. We’ve had a Main B Bus undervolt,” Lovell explained. “Roger. Main B undervolt. … Okay, stand by, Thirteen, we’re looking at it.” Capcom Lousma answered for the Mission Control team. In the Apollo 13 spacecraft, launched at 1313 hours (spacecraft time), it was 9:08 pm on April 13 . At Honeysuckle Creek it was 1308 hours (1:08 pm) on April 14. Essay My Hometown. At Houston it was just after 2100 local on a pleasant clear evening. With three friends, Andy Saulietis had rigged up a telescope connected to on family a black and white television set on a roof of the Manned Spacecraft Center. Descriptive Essay. They were studying a slowly fading pinpoint of do my, light approaching the Moon – the Saturn IVB rocket following Odyssey , blinking as it tumbled along.

While they watched, a bright spot appeared in the middle of the screen and over essay my hometown the next ten minutes grew into quite a bright ball. No one connected the flare with Apollo 13 they vaguely thought it was a defect in their television monitor. They left the rooftop quite oblivious to what they had witnessed – the oxygen tank on qiqi yan thesis, Apollo 13 exploding, and in ten minutes spreading into a gaseous sphere over descriptive my hometown 48 kilometres wide, glowing in the sunlight. Inside the Mission Control Center none of the do my online, Flight Controllers sitting at their consoles were aware of what had happened either, until some of them began seeing abnormal indications coming down their telemetry channels – strange readings from temperatures, pressures, voltages, and the status of various pieces of essay, equipment. They were overwhelmed by reports of loss of the High Gain Antenna, spacecraft computer restarts, random thruster firings, and multiple system failures. It took them over fifteen minutes to figure out that there had been some sort of explosion, but they were still hopeful the mission was going to proceed to a normal lunar landing.

EECOM Sy Liebergot, the Flight Controller in charge of the Command and Service Module’s electrical and environmental systems, was now squarely in the hot seat: “Our data suddenly went ratty, some of it went static. I heard the announcements from the spacecraft and was already scanning my readouts. California Skills Test. Nothing made sense. I called Kranz, ‘We may have an instrumentation problem, Flight. Let me go ahead and check,’ which was my way of putting Kranz off, and he knew that.” “Rog.” Kranz replied. Hear Sy Liebergot’s EECOM loop starting just six seconds before the explosion. He asks about the cryo stir, and then we hear a burst of static as lock is lost on the High Gain Antenna.

We hear the team beginning to descriptive my hometown troubleshoot the problem. This recording is part of longer audio on a disc included with Sy’s book, “Apollo EECOM: Journey of a Lifetime” available from CG Publishing/Apogee Books. This audio clip is also available on Sy’s website. Used with kind permission of, and with thanks to, Sy Liebergot. 1.1MB mp3 / 2 minutes 12 seconds.

Clip starts at 055:54:49GET. Charlie Dumas (left) speaks with Gerry Griffin at the EECOM console. Sy Liebergot, smoking a pipe, is at right. Road Phd Thesis. From 16mm NASA footage several minutes before the explosion. Essay My Hometown. Screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Essays On Family. Liebergot never saw the pressure spike in the oxygen tank that caused the explosion: “You look away, you blink, and my hometown it’s gone. That’s exactly what happened.

We were doing the cryo stir and I was just looking to the right of the oxygen tanks at the hydrogen tanks where the changes usually showed up first. Everybody was looking at the hydrogen, which was about two inches over. When I looked back the spike had already gone. My backroom guys, Dick Brown, electrical system expert, and George Bliss and Larry Sheaks, my environmental control systems experts, were trying to essay sample figure out what was going on as well. To begin with we figured we just had a fuel cell problem and concentrated on that. Pretty soon we knew the descriptive essay my hometown, tank was gone, so I asked for an estimate of how long we had on the remaining tank.” Liebergot had little to work on, only displays of nearly fifty parameters all showing out of limit readings on his console. This was so sudden, without any warning, that he felt overwhelmed. No amount of training or mission experience could prepare him for this crisis. Initially he knew that the two dead fuel cells drew their oxygen from the same source, and as the third cell was still working, at first he didn’t suspect the qiqi yan thesis, oxygen tanks.

He was working on descriptive essay my hometown, a Fuel Cell #3 leak, and trying to essays crusoe and religion isolate it. Also, he was still trying to figure out why two fuel cells would fail. Then he saw that oxygen tank #2 was showing empty. Descriptive Essay My Hometown. Its contents had all gone! Half the oxygen for the cabin atmosphere and the spacecraft power for the mission had gone in two minutes – just vanished. They hadn’t even reached the moon. All their training and simulations had always relied on backup systems to keep the mission going, nobody had been game enough to introduce a complete failure of all the power systems into the simulations.

As one of the Flight Controllers said later, “This was so far down the line, if anyone had asked us to simulate it ahead of time we would all have said he was being unrealistic.” “I had all the feelings that went with not having the answers to the problem and not seeing any way out of it. It happened too quickly – it was a cascading failure which means the original failure got masked by the subsequent failures it created. We were never trained for california thinking skills (cctst) a cascading series of problems leading to a catastrophe. That’s not training. Descriptive Essay My Hometown. It was like saying the structure of the spacecraft was going to fail.” A minute or so after the explosion Alan Glines, the communications engineer (INCO), reported to Kranz that the signal from the spacecraft had switched to the smaller omni antennas, which was probably due to the side panel hitting the big antenna on its way past. The weaker signal combined with the erratic behaviour of the spacecraft caused the recipes, receiver operators at Goldstone and descriptive essay my hometown Honeysuckle Creek and the other stations difficulty in essays on robinson and religion holding onto descriptive my hometown the weak, fluctuating signal for the rest of the mission.

Then Lovell announced the safety phd thesis, voltage on the A Bus was beginning to drop. Descriptive Essay. An uneasy silence fell on homework for me, the voice loops… “Okay, Houston, are you still reading Apollo 13?” Lovell couldn’t contain his anxiety any longer. Essay My Hometown. “That’s affirmative,” replied Lousma, “We are reading you. We’re trying to come up with some good ideas here for you.” He looked appealingly at Kranz: “What can I tell them?” Kranz did not have an answer. Nobody had an answer. Capcom Jack Lousma apeaks with the crew onboard Apollo 13 after the explosion. Astronaut John Young is seated next to him. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Lovell couldn’t understand why his ship was reeling drunkenly about the essays on family recipes, heavens.

The thrusters were firing away trying to bring the essay my hometown, spacecraft under control, but unknown to either the astronauts or the flight controllers at the time the poetry essay, explosion had knocked some of the thrusters out. Lovell took over manual control, but found no matter how he tried, he could do no better than the automatic pilot – the spacecraft seemed to have a mind of its own, always trying to descriptive essay my hometown veer away from the course. He decided to look out of the window in case he could see something outside. As he swung himself onto the left seat and on family peered out, the essay, sight that met his inquiring eyes formed a knot in his stomach – the do my homework for me, sun was shining on a powerful stream of gas spurting out my hometown, of the side of the Service Module. Sixteen minutes after the essay, explosion, at my hometown 1322 AEST, Lovell remembers, “I happened to look out of the left hand window, and critical (cctst) saw the final evidence pointing toward potential catastrophe. ‘We are venting something out into the . into space,’ I reported to essay my hometown Houston.” “Roger, we copy you are venting,” acknowledged Lousma. In Mission Control a report of gas venting into space spread among the consoles like wildfire, and put a whole new dimension on the situation. Liebergot: “I ignored that, I couldn’t deal with that.

I needed to go and find what I could do about skills (cctst), it. ” Fuel cell #2 was still producing electricity but when Lovell looked back at essay the oxygen pressures again Tank #2 was still reading zilch, but now Tank #1 was only half full, and dropping! They were going to lose all their oxygen – they weren’t going to have enough to bring the ship back home to Earth! This was it! Lovell knew they were in trouble. But how serious was it?

Was it only oxygen gas squirting out into sample, space? How long did they have? He immediately sensed that their next moves would be crucial to their survival, and their lives would depend on maintaining communication with Houston, and for essay my hometown that they needed power. There were only for me 15 minutes of battery power left in the Command Module, and that was needed for reentry into the Earth’s atmosphere. The Earth was over 90 hours away . Lovell: “The knot in my stomach tightened, and all regrets about not landing on the moon vanished. Now it was strictly a case for survival. I had seen the film Marooned and I must admit that the parallel crossed my mind.” He looked across to Haise, the LM expert and pilot, “We’re going to have to use Aquarius to my hometown get home.” Back in mission control, Liebergot also saw oxygen tank #1 contents disappearing before his eyes – the qiqi yan thesis, pressure dropping from 6,068 kPa down to 2,760 kPa in my hometown less than three minutes. Qiqi Yan Thesis. Two thirds of the electrical power generation system was dead, and there was only descriptive my hometown three hours of life left. Looking into the immediate future, he felt momentarily sick in the stomach. California Critical Thinking. He grabbed the security handles on his console to steady himself down.

Was he going to descriptive essay be the california critical thinking skills test (cctst), first flight controller to lose a spacecraft and its crew out in space? “In all my life I have never felt so alone, as I did then. I didn’t have the answers. It seemed we were on the point of losing everybody and everything.” What had to be done before the Command Module completely died? Would this crippled combination of a dead Command Service Module and a Lunar Module only designed to go down to my hometown the lunar surface and back with two people cope with demands and manoeuvres they were never designed for? There was little time left to make any plans. Everybody was facing problems that seemed to safety be leading to descriptive essay more problems. except the Lunar Module systems people they were standing by with a fully operational spacecraft, powered down waiting to arrive at the moon. Road Phd Thesis. It wasn’t long before they realised the Lunar Module was going to be involved.

During the Trans Lunar Coast phase of the mission, the Lunar Module was powered down to conserve power, except for some critical systems kept warm by thermostatically controlled heaters powered by the Service Module batteries fed through the Command Module. Descriptive Essay My Hometown. Now they had lost the poetry sample, power to the relays that controlled the transfer of the power source to the Lunar Module batteries – so they could not turn the descriptive essay, power on in the Lunar Module from its batteries in the descent stage. That was the essays recipes, first big problem to essay be overcome. Strangely enough a year earlier, on 25 April 1969, during an Apollo 10 simulation the simulation team had failed the fuel cells in almost the same spot, and the simulation ended with a dead crew. It was decided that this failure was a bit unrealistic and poetry essay sample the incident was forgotten as the essay, Apollo program forged ahead. Fortunately some of the more conscientious Lunar Module flight controllers had worried about their simulation failure, and decided to look into the problem.

Jim Hannigan, branch chief of the Lunar Module flight controllers, assigned Donald Puddy to pick a team to work on road phd thesis, the problem. Essay My Hometown. Bill Legler, one of the key members of the team (who had been present during the Apollo 10 simulation) worked out some procedures that could reverse the power flow to go from the Lunar Module back into the Command Module and energise the power transfer relays. These emergency procedures had never been completed and incorporated into the official procedures, but with the thinking, Apollo 13 situation these preliminary procedures were recovered and dusted off. They gave the Lunar Module controllers a head start. The engineer in charge of the electrical and environmental systems of the essay my hometown, Lunar Module was Bill Peters, “I had just unplugged from the console and only taken two steps away when Bob Heselmeyer called out essays recipes, ‘You’d better come back here, I think something’s going on.’ I figured out pretty quickly it looked like a major disaster, and one of the plans in cases like this was to close all the descriptive essay, telephone lines in and out on robinson crusoe, of the Control Center so just in case I called my wife real quick and told her not to expect me home that night – turn on the TV to find out descriptive my hometown, why – and hung up.” At the Goldstone tracking station a team was quickly formed to analyse the telemetry information they had just recorded, particularly the last few moments before the explosion. Bill Wood , lead USB Engineer: “We were able to read all bits up to signal loss by essays on robinson crusoe, recording the data at a high speed of 60 inches per second and descriptive my hometown playing it back at 3½ inches per second. Then we rolled the chart paper onto the control room floor and counted the frames of homework online for me, data by eye to essay find out what each parameter was reading up to the signal loss, and what things looked like right after the signal was reacquired. My recollection was that the engineers found a pressure spike in the oxygen tank that exploded.” The telemetry showed the pressure shot up to 6,950 kPa for two seconds before dropping to zero in the next two seconds. Then Larry Sheaks called Liebergot to poetry sample tell him that the oxygen surge tank in the Command Module was losing pressure. The surge tank was usually used for descriptive reentry only, but was used as a buffer to road phd thesis keep the oxygen levels steady.

The EECOM from Milt Windler’s Maroon shift, John Aaron, was quietly shaving at home when the phone shrilled. It was Arnold Aldrich, his office manager, at Mission Control. Essay My Hometown. “Arnie said ‘Hey, John, these guys are working some kind of problem and I know your specialty is road safety, instrumentation patterns and they think this is essay, a telemetry problem, but I don’t know.’ So I said to Arnie, ‘Go and read me some parameters off displays such and essay such, then go to displays such and such and read those out to me. He did all that and I said ‘Arnie, that is not a telemetry failure there is no pattern there that fits. Tell those guys they’ve got a real problem and descriptive my hometown I’ll be right there. By the time I came in, I got in on the tail end of analysing what had happened there, and started convincing the essays on robinson crusoe and religion, guys that they ought to power down the Command Module and save the batteries, because we were using battery power to troubleshoot the problem, and I knew these were the essay my hometown, same batteries that were going to bring us home. That was pretty traumatic because the Command and Service Module was never designed to be powered down in space and we didn’t have any procedures to power it up from scratch. Qiqi Yan Thesis. Normally it was powered up over a period of days on the pad before you launched, using a lot of power.” Forty six minutes after the descriptive my hometown, explosion George Bliss informed Liebergot that there was only 1 hour 54 minutes left in O 2 Tank #1, when the last fuel cell would die. Then there would only be the Command Module’s reentry batteries left – and they were needed for reentry. The unthinkable had happened and there was no back up or redundant system to pull them out of this one.

They were facing a major disaster in space. California Thinking Skills Test. Liebergot announced on the intercom loop: “Flight, the pressure in O 2 tank 1 has dropped all the essay, way down to 297 (psi) (2048 kPa) and we’d better think about getting into the LM.” Flight dynamics chief Jerry Bostick was sitting in the Trench listening to the drama deepening on the console behind him, and thinking skills (cctst) began to think of getting the spacecraft back as soon as possible. He and his team soon discarded the essay my hometown, immediate turn-around (direct abort which would bring them home in 34 hours) using the road, main SPS engine because the LM ‘lifeboat’ would have to be cast off, and doubt about the integrity of the Service Module – that is, how much damage had been done to the internal systems of the Service Module? Was the engine damaged? Even if it wasn’t, there was no electricity to operate the engine controls such opening or closing valves. The alternative was to carry on essay, and sling around the Moon. This was going to take up to four days – could they keep the astronauts alive for homework such a long period? That was up to the LM systems controllers. The Trench waited for the Flight Directors to make up their minds. Ken Mattingly slid alongside Lousma and plugged his headset in.

He wanted to help his mates if he could. Descriptive. Kranz said this was his toughest call on Apollo 13. “My team was pretty much split down the middle. Many of my systems controllers wanted to on robinson crusoe and religion get home in the fastest fashion possible.” By now there were two teams gathered around the consoles discussing the emergency and descriptive essay the chatter was getting out of hand so Kranz stood up and yelled around the room, “Okay all flight controllers cut the chatter. I want every member of the on robinson, White team to settle down and descriptive essay my hometown get back on the voice loops – the qiqi yan thesis, rest of you shut up.” Still damp from my hometown, being called from a shower at home, Chris Kraft had arrived by crusoe, now and joined the intercom conversation at his Director’s console, just before thirty three year old Glynn Lunney was due to descriptive take over the next shift. Leader of the Maroon team, Milt Windler, also joined the group. Safety. Lunney had been discussing the return options with Bostick and descriptive my hometown an intense discussion developed between the Flight Directors on the best course of action, ending with Kranz addressing Kraft, “Our only california critical skills test (cctst) real option is to go around the Moon.” Chris Kraft, Astronaut Jim McDivitt, and Robert Gilruth in the back row of the MOCR. Behind them is the glass window of the descriptive essay, VIP viwewing room. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Kraft agreed, “When do you want to do the burn?” The decision was made, and the Flight Dynamics controllers in the Trench breathed a sigh of relief and began to work out a burn procedure for a trajectory to sling around the Moon and return home.

So 53 minutes after the explosion, an emergency plan began to evolve. Astronauts Gene Cernan (left), Deke Slayton (coat) and Ed Mitchell look on as Jack Lousma sits as his Capcom console. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. “I was already in a back room of the Control Center when we got the report that there was a problem. We were due on shift at safety about 10:00 pm (USCST) that night. The spacecraft crew were supposed to descriptive essay go to sleep and we were supposed to sit there and watch a sleep shift. I went in and plugged in on robinson crusoe with Gene; I knew the spacecraft crew had reported a bang and descriptive some venting, so there was a suspicion there was some kind of problem, but people still weren’t sure how serious the problem was. There were a set of confusing indicators we had lost the essays crusoe, oxygen in descriptive one tank so we lost the fuel cell that was plugged to crusoe it, and that fuel cell was plugged to the B electrical Buss. The RCS thrusters were split between main Bus A and Main Bus B, so we had lost half the my hometown, thrusters which gave us these attitude control problems. We became involved in closing off the fuel cells, one at a time, to try to isolate a leak within the fuel cells, but once you shut them down, you can’t get them back, and I remember doing that as a last resort.

We had a number of situations to california critical skills test deal with. We were on a non free-return trajectory. My Hometown. Up until Apollo 13 we had used trajectories that would loop around the Moon to return approximately into the entry corridor. Here we were not going to on family recipes come back to any safe kind of Earth entry at all. We were also at a point where it would have been very expensive in terms of propulsion to turn around and descriptive my hometown come back without looping around the homework online for me, Moon. That was considered for a while, but the only way we knew how to do that was to dump the descent stage of the Lunar Module and my hometown use all of the essays crusoe, Service Propulsion fuel, but the my hometown, two problems with that were we couldn’t power the Service Module up any more, we were only down to batteries, so we couldn’t sustain a power load to run the Service Propulsion engine, and we didn’t want to road phd thesis dump the descent stage of the Lunar Module because it was our lifeboat where most of the descriptive, batteries, water and so on were stored. Parallel with all this going on with the guidance people was what are we going to do to power the Lunar Module up. We knew we had to get it powered up enough to take care of the manoeuvre later, but we also began to realise that the way the telescope worked for aligning the platform in the Lunar Module that it probably wouldn’t work by itself while it was attached to the Command Module out in free space. We realised we had to essays get an alignment from the Command Module guidance reference system, the inertial platform, and transfer it over to descriptive the Lunar Module which was a lot of number plugging by the crew members, followed and checked by the people on the ground. This of course happened some time after we got the Lunar Module powered up.

We got the Lunar Module powered up but as we went through it we were trying to figure out on family recipes, what we didn’t have to bring up because we knew we were going to be power limited and water coolant limited to get home. The Lunar Module was designed for two men for two days and we knew we were at least four or five days from home with three people. We knew we couldn’t stay powered up at these levels so we had to descriptive figure out a way to cut the power down. We also knew we had limited amounts of consumables on qiqi yan thesis, board. We got the Lunar Module configured so it could do a passive thermal control. Instead of a rolling manoeuvre, which we normally used, we rotated the essay my hometown, vehicle ninety degrees every hour so we could get equal sun (heating) and cooling on the vehicle.

As we could watch this on the ground the crew didn’t have to worry about it. Phd Thesis. Once we got in that position we said we’re on this non-free return, why don’t we trim that out and descriptive essay get the vehicle on a free return so if anything happens later we are least heading for the reentry corridor. So we did this 40 foot per poetry essay sample, second manoeuvre that put us on descriptive essay, a free return trajectory. After that we began to try to take power off everything that we didn’t need and we began to lay out in detail the options for how big or small a manoeuvre we would do at seventy nine and a half hours into the mission, after we got around the Moon. We settled on a manoeuvre that wasn’t quite maximum but would get us back by about 142 hours.

We had also figured out how to husband the crusoe, consumables. By the end of my shift about ten hours later we had put the vehicle back on an Earth return trajectory, the inertial guidance platform had been transferred to descriptive the Lunar Module, and we kept the Lunar Module reasonably powered up for the burn planned for two hours after we had turned the corner at the Moon. We had a plan for what that manoeuvre would be, and we had a consumable profile that really left us with reasonable margins at the end.” Glynn Lunney (left) and Milt Windler, take stock of the situation. Behind them, in the background, is Robert Gilruth. Deke Slayton is in the foreground.

From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Here’s a view of the MOCR during Glynn Lunney’s shift, after the california (cctst), accident. Panorama assembled from 16mm NASA footage by CM. Gene Kranz and his White Team continued their shift for an extra hour before handing over to Glynn Lunney and the Black Team, and went to the back of the building to study data from the spacecraft. Kranz decided to step out my hometown, of the Houston shift sequence and head a Tiger Team to essays recipes concentrate on the engineering and procedures to descriptive get the crippled spacecraft and its crew back home. “The key thing here was I didn’t form the Tiger Team the Tiger Team to a great extent always existed. During the safety phd thesis, Apollo Program we flew with four mission control teams, and one team was always designated as the Lead Team and in case of any mission difficulties it was that team’s responsibility to establish the descriptive, game plan, the qiqi yan thesis, recovery plan, do the descriptive my hometown, trouble shooting and that just happened to fall into my team. We had many problems here we had a variety of survival problems, we had electrical management, water management, and we had to figure out how to navigate because the stars were occluded by the debris cloud surrounding the spacecraft.

Basically we had to turn a two day spacecraft into a four and a half day spacecraft with an extra crewmember to get the crew back home. We were literally working outside the design and qiqi yan thesis test boundaries of the spacecraft so we had to invent everything as we went along. There were many lead people, but the three people I would name were Arnie Aldrich who handled the checklist, John Aaron with the power management, and descriptive my hometown Bill Peters who looked at the Lunar Module and tried to figure out how it could be most effective as a lifeboat.” There were no official procedures to refer to even the emergency procedures didn’t cover losing all three Command Module fuel cell power sources and poetry sample using the descriptive, Lunar Module in lieu of the Command Module. At 1456 AEST on 14 April Lovell and safety phd thesis Haise had already decided to descriptive essay my hometown climb into the Lunar Module, “Without much discussion from the ground, both Jim and I decided to head for the LM. At this point we only safety had one choice and took it,” Haise explained. Swigert was left to descriptive essay my hometown wind down the qiqi yan thesis, Command Module. Descriptive Essay My Hometown. The last oxygen tank was nearly empty.

Capcom Jack Lousma told the california thinking test, astronauts, “Thirteen, Houston. We’d like you to descriptive essay my hometown start making your way over to the LM now” Swigert replied: “Fred and Jim are in on robinson crusoe the LM.” Lovell had joined Haise in the LM, who was already throwing switches to bring the power up when Swigert yelled down the tunnel, “Houston wants the LM powered up.” Haise advised Houston, “. and Jack, I got LM power on.” GUIDO Will Fenner (green shirt) at the Guidance console as the navigation platform is transferred from Odyssey to Aquarius . From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. My Hometown. Swigert said he had never seen the LM activated so fast, but it still wasn’t fast enough. He had to turn the essays on robinson, reentry battery in descriptive essay the Command Module on essays recipes, to keep the navigation guidance system going until the crucial settings were transferred to the Lunar Module system. Just as Lovell set up a good alignment at my hometown 1513 AEST, the last Fuel Cell #2, died. Lovell: “Getting that transfer was the first big turning point.” The concern is evident on the face of astronaut John Young as he stands beside Capcom Jack Lousma. Behind him is astronaut Tom Stafford.

From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Crusoe And Religion. Houston told Swigert to close the Command Module down. The power had to be turned off in a carefully planned sequence so it could be brought back up ready for reentry. At 1553 he turned off the last switch, looked around the lifeless cabin no cosy lights, no friendly voices from the radio, no gurgling from pipes or whirring of fans their cheerful home of a moment ago was just dark and essay my hometown dead 333,125 empty kilometres from Earth, and racing away from it at qiqi yan thesis 3,380 kilometres per hour! He floated into the Lunar Module, and said to Lovell and Haise, “It’s up to you now.” He suddenly felt lost. He was trained for the Command and Service Module, a position normally busy right through the mission. Now he could only watch the other two expertly bringing the Lunar Module to life. Descriptive My Hometown. The last few hours had been fast and furious, crammed with momentous life threatening events; now it was just waiting. for what? Haise said that he lost all track of qiqi yan thesis, time during those hectic five hours, full of descriptive, rapid-fire events.

It was more like a dream than reality because of the jolt from the security of comfort and qiqi yan thesis order to the onslaught of unexpected events and fleeting images and feeling very vulnerable to my hometown the hostile environment of qiqi yan thesis, empty space. Dead tired, he was the first to descriptive my hometown drag himself into the Command Module to sleep soundly for the next five hours. RIGHT ACROSS THE CONTINENT, FROM PERTH TO SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA PITCHES IN TO HELP APOLLO 13. “At the time of the explosion I was operating the do my homework for me, ranging system, which measured the distance and speed of the descriptive my hometown, spacecraft, when I heard Swigert send his problem call, and then listened as the qiqi yan thesis, flight controllers sent a barrage of instructions up to the spacecraft, punctuated by terse responses from the astronauts. Once we had acquired on the smaller omni antenna, my equipment was managing to keep locked on essay, the spacecraft signal, but my finger was hovering beside the ‘acquire’ button in case of drop-outs.

At that stage we did not know it was a life-threatening situation, we thought it was a communications problem with the spacecraft. The first indication of the on family, seriousness of the crisis to us at descriptive my hometown Honeysuckle Creek was when Mission Control in Houston called the Operations Supervisor at on robinson Honeysuckle Creek and descriptive asked, ‘How long would it take to get Parkes up?’ Parkes was the CSIRO’s radio telescope used during the Apollo 11 mission. It was not called up for the Apollo 13 mission because the astronauts now used a big portable umbrella antenna for road communications from the my hometown, lunar surface. I knew the essays on robinson, situation was really serious as you don’t just casually ask to use the 64 metre radio astronomy antenna at Parkes without making high level arrangements with plenty of warning.” In Mission Control the low signal levels from the spacecraft were causing concern. Chris Kraft, Director of Flight Operations, “We wanted to make sure that we got a good telemetry signal, and Parkes was one of the places where we knew we could get it.” “Parkes isn’t committed to this mission,” Mike Dinn informed them. “Oh, then Mr Kraft will be calling your Director on essay my hometown, the phone shortly, “ Houston replied. Honeysuckle Creek Station Director Don Gray : Don Gray, Station Director, in essays his office at Honeysuckle Creek. Photo: Hamish Lindsay. “I was sitting in my office listening to this conversation on the net, and in moments the phone rang. Chris Kraft said to me ‘We have a serious problem on the spacecraft; it looks like we are going to have to descriptive power down and will need all the antennas we can get.

Do what you can to get Parkes up as soon as possible.’ First of all I called Tom Reid, the Director at Tidbinbilla, to organise a crew to go to Parkes, then I rang John Bolton at Parkes to find he was already aware of the problem and was prepared to change the antenna over to support the NASA signals.” At the poetry essay, Deep Space Station at Tidbinbilla the descriptive, request took Station Director Tom Reid by surprise: “What are you talking about? It takes weeks of negotiations between the CSIRO and NASA Headquarters, agreements and money and and religion budgets.’ Then I got a black phone call , ‘Hey look, we’ve got a problem on board the spacecraft this is a serious thing, think again about how soon you can do it – never mind about budgets and money.’ The contractor’s people responded magnificently, got themselves down to descriptive my hometown Parkes luckily the equipment was still there, it just wasn’t configured. NASA hastily flew out Bob Taylor, one of the Goddard engineers, to be there, as he knew the system.” Dr John Bolton, Director of Parkes. Critical Test. Photo from a 1967 ABC publication, via John Sarkissian. “I was listening to the conversation between Houston and my hometown James Lovell, and as had been my habit, had thoroughly digested the flight plan. I realised that the essays on family recipes, only solution was to occupy the LM and use its facilities. The very low power (signal from the spacecraft) and the fact that the journey would be in essay my hometown Parkes coverage time meant we would certainly be called in.

I rang Tom Reid, the road safety, Director of Tidbinbilla, with whom I had an excellent relationship, to ask for descriptive essay my hometown the NASA crew to be sent in; I rang Taffy (Dr. E.G. Bowen) to let him know what assistance I would need from Sydney; and then Charlie Chenhall (RP Workshop Supervisor) to qiqi yan thesis organise supplies and aircraft. Descriptive Essay My Hometown. Fortunately Radhakrishnan (Venkataraman Radhakrishnan, Director of the Raman Research Institute, Bangladore, India) was conducting a special experiment on the telescope and a number of engineers were on hand. Do My Homework Online For Me. They dismantled and carried Rad’s equipment down the ladder of one of the feed legs, while Parkes staff used the descriptive my hometown, lift to sample get the my hometown, NASA gear to the focus. We accomplished in 10 hours what normally took close to a week.” Bruce Window , Tidbinbilla USB Supervisor: “It was about 6 pm. I was working on shift at Tidbinbilla when we were cranked up straight away to get to Parkes in a hurry in a light aircraft, a Cessna 337.

It was a hairy trip. At the same time the homework for me, CSIRO had been given the message and they had taken their feedcone off and had started to descriptive essay my hometown assemble our feedcone. We arrived in the dark, drove out to the site, by phd thesis, which time the CSIRO had flashed up all their part of the equipment. On that first day we had got the voice but we hadn’t got all the links through to my hometown Honeysuckle. I can remember holding the essay sample, cable and shouting in frustration, I had the stuff in my hand but I couldn’t do anything with it! Predictions were the descriptive essay my hometown, problem (the information where to point the antenna), they were a big problem early on. We just had to rely on predictions from NASA. John Bolton and his boys had to work around them as much as they could.

We didn’t get any really good data from Parkes that first night. They were relying heavily on us because of the improved quality of on robinson crusoe, signal they were able to up the bit rate by one step with our signal from what they were getting from the 26 metre dishes (such as Honeysuckle) that was why they needed us at Parkes. We worked 16 hour days.” “I was relaxing at home when I had a phone call from the shift supervisor at the time to say there was a problem, so I immediately went in to find that Apollo 13 really was in essay my hometown trouble. Next there was a call from the qiqi yan thesis, Network Manager in descriptive my hometown the United States to crusoe say they wanted two things immediately they wanted to activate the lines to Parkes, and the second one, which was a bit more difficult, was to get some kind of descriptive essay my hometown, broadband communication between the Carnarvon OTC Earth station and the Carnarvon Tracking Station. They wanted everything they could get. I worked out I still had a few friends left in qiqi yan thesis the PMG (Post Master General’s Department) in Western Australia who could help us out. Essay. So, by 4 o’clock in the morning I dragged one of my friends out of bed, and he said, ‘Oh, I think I have got an OB (Outside Broadcast) link we could use, I’ll see what I can do give me a call back in an hour.’ When I called him back he said, ‘Yes, I’ve organised it, two OB vans will be leaving the depot in Perth for road phd thesis Carnarvon at 8 o’clock this morning, as soon as the guys get to work.’ There was no mention of money, or anything like that, it was a matter of essay, let’s do it and sort things out afterwards. At the same time I got cracking with the PMG. California Thinking Skills (cctst). Because we already had circuits into Parkes, there was a probability most of it was still working. I called people out of bed and descriptive they found most of the link was there, and pretty soon after the Tidbinbilla guys arrived we had the poetry essay, links up.” Trevor Gray , PMG technician: “We worked non-stop through the night to get the links going. Descriptive Essay My Hometown. After Apollo 11 we had trouble with the connections exploding when we switched the equipment on because of the high voltage and moisture getting in, so we had left the equipment switched on, but then all the electronic valves had deteriorated, and we were frantically trying to find the road safety, sick valves and change them before we could get the links going.”

Wilfred Laing , Senior Technical Officer at the Redfern Microwave Terminal in Sydney was interrupted by the phone ringing: “It was the City South Control to say they needed Parkes up in a hurry. I rang through to Parkes to find they were already setting their end up. Somebody must have had a premonition because only a few days before we had put up a temporary link from descriptive, Parkes to Sydney via Orange just in case it may be required. We dropped everything we were doing with the state networks and concentrated on the Apollo circuits.” Meanwhile out in space the astronauts found that as soon as they brought the essays and religion, Lunar Module communications system on line it clashed with the Saturn IVB rocket following them, as they were both transmitting on the same frequency.

Because the Apollo 12 mission had left a seismometer on the moon, the Saturn IVB was organised to my hometown crash on the moon for seismic readings, and phd thesis extra batteries had been added for communications to last until impact. Normally, this should occur well before the Lunar Module was fired up. So with both the Saturn IVB and Lunar Module transmitters on the same frequency it was the same as having two radio stations on the same spot on descriptive essay, the dial of your radio. Which one does it try to lock onto? Bill Wood at the Goldstone Tracking Station, “The Flight Controllers at Houston wanted us to move the signal from the Lunar Module across to qiqi yan thesis the other side of the Saturn IVB signal to allow for expected doppler changes. Tom Jonas, our receiver-exciter engineer, yelled at me, ‘that’s not going to work! We will end up locking both spacecraft to one up-link and wipe out the telemetry and voice contact with the crew.’ I jumped on the station intercom and strongly requested Bill Sheridan, the Station Operations Supervisor, to tell Houston what would happen, but they just told us to follow instructions. So at that time Houston lost telemetry with the Saturn IVB and voice contact with the spacecraft crew.

Luckily our big 64 metre Mars antenna was already switching over to descriptive essay the Apollo emergency and their narrower beam width managed to homework discriminate between the two signals and the telemetry and voice links were restored. Descriptive. So the situation stabilised from our point of view until it was time for essays recipes us to hand this ‘mess’ over to essay Honeysuckle Creek in Australia.” Honeysuckle Creek was tracking with its smaller 26 metre antenna. Deputy Director Mike Dinn : “This was where the receiver operators earned their money. Essays On Family Recipes. When they fired up the descriptive essay my hometown, LM, we had both signals in essays on robinson and religion the same bandwidth and we had ten receivers that could lock to descriptive one or the other and did! Before the mission I had foreseen the possibility of qiqi yan thesis, our having to cope with the Saturn IVB and the LM together. There was nothing written down in the procedures and I remember calling Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, our technical advisors, to discuss what we might do, and we agreed there would be no difficulty in “pulling” the essay, frequencies apart by tuning the station transmitters appropriately.

I was used to phd thesis this procedure in the Deep Space Network in the early years of lunar and planetary exploration. Anyway, I remember that we acquired the two spacecraft and successfully pulled the two links apart. Then Houston asked us to tune the descriptive essay my hometown, frequency of do my online, one transmitter and essay I immediately recognised this would bring all the safety phd thesis, frequencies back together again. Descriptive My Hometown. I tried to talk Houston out of this, even asking Goddard to tell them, but was unsuccessful, and we had to california thinking test carry out the request. The problems we knew would happen, occurred.” John Mitchell , Honeysuckle USB Shift Supervisor: “Back when Apollo 1 had the essay, fire, during the long suspension period that followed we used to hire a Cessna 210 and poetry essay sample practice handovers and that sort of descriptive, thing. When Mike Dinn was looking for emergency procedures I put up the theory that what happens if the Saturn IVB signal does keep going for essays crusoe some reason? So I proposed the theory of getting the LM to switch off and we practiced that time and time again with the aircraft. I told Mike Dinn that this was the way to go.” From his previous discussions with Goddard, Dinn agreed:

“I advised Houston that the only way out of this mess was to ask the astronauts in the LM to turn off its signal so we could lock on to the essay, Saturn IVB, then turn the do my for me, LM back on and pull it away from the Saturn signal.” “They came back in an hour and my hometown told us to go ahead, and Houston transmitted the instructions up to the astronauts ‘in the blind’ hoping the astronauts could hear, as we couldn’t hear them at that moment. The downlink from the spacecraft suddenly disappeared, so we knew they got the california critical thinking skills (cctst), message. When we could see the Saturn IV downlink go way out to the prescribed frequency, we put the second uplink on, acquired the LM, put the sidebands on, locked up and tuned away from the Saturn IVB. Then everything worked fine.” In the left foreground at the servo console is Brian Bell, behind him is Bernard Smith bending over the System Monitor chart recorder. Descriptive Essay My Hometown. Along the receiver console behind are the receiver operators, Graham Fraser, Ross Barnes, and Jerry Bissicks. Photo: Hamish Lindsay, exact date unknown. In Houston, the thinking skills, Director of Flight Operations, Chris Kraft, came out and grimly told the media, “This is as serious a situation as we have ever had in a manned spaceflight.” People around the essay, world, already blas about moon missions, suddenly became engrossed in this gripping drama from space as the world’s media wound themselves up for this journalists’ manna from the Apollo program.

Everybody was wondering would they come back alive? Director of Flight Operations, Chris Kraft, speaks to the media at a midnight press conference in the MSC Auditorium. Courtesy Spacecraft Films. With no power, the Command Module lapsed into a dark tomb, steadily getting colder and colder. Beads of moisture formed over all the surfaces, crusting the windows. Occasional flashes of qiqi yan thesis, sunlight through the windows pierced the darkness lit only by their torches. Outside, a cloud of vented gases and debris gathered around the spacecraft. My Hometown. Sparkling in essays recipes the brilliant sunlight, they stopped any chance of the astronauts taking sights on stars for their navigation. “The spacecraft was doing things I had never seen before.

The LM was never designed to have a 27,000 kilogram dead Command and essay my hometown Service Module attached to it, so I literally had to learn to fly the vehicle all over again.” Apollo 13 was the second mission that had deviated from the ‘free-return’ trajectory, where the essays on family recipes, spacecraft would automatically sling around the Moon and descriptive essay my hometown return to do my homework for me Earth if anything had gone wrong. Descriptive. When the missions began to aim at the western landing sites the spacecraft took a different path and would not automatically return to do my Earth. Now they had to get back on to a free return trajectory, or they would miss the Earth by descriptive my hometown, something like 70,000 kilometres. The only qiqi yan thesis reliable engine available was the essay my hometown, LM’s descent motor, but that was never designed to push the combined CSM and LM, and there were no procedures to use it in this way or simulations. Although pilots are reluctant to admit it, the computer can control burns much more accurately and reliably than manual control, so the poetry essay, astronauts waited anxiously while Houston figured out the rocket’s burn times. Fred Haise calls Capcom Jack Lousa, to ask about plans for the return flight. Starting at essay 059:17:53GET. Road Safety. This recording illustrates another problem caused by locking the IU and LM transponders to the same frequency. Bill Wood: “The GDS Wing was uplinking to the IU and GDS prime was uplinking to the LM. That would have caused problems receiving both voice and command from the ground. While there was only one 30 kHz voice subcarrier from the GDS Prime, the essay, presence of two uplink carriers would have caused the interference that the crew was hearing.”

Clip starts at 059:59:05GET. The headline on essay, Sydney’s The Sun newspaper, printed just hours after the explosion, tells the descriptive essay, story. Meanwhile Lovell and online for me Haise were wrestling with an uncontrollable spacecraft, trying to stabilise it and get away from the glittering debris enveloping them. Essay. They needed to see the stars to check they were pointing in the right direction for the burn. Do My Online For Me. Every ruse failed. They could only hope the data transferred from the Command Module was still accurate enough. “Roger, Aquarius, You are go for the burn,” Capcom Lousma finally announced. Haise commented, “This was yet untried. I knew, of course, that if we failed to blast into the free return trajectory we were doomed to swing around the Moon, miss the Earth, and go into eternal orbit around it.” First of all Lovell had to remember to essay unfold the Lunar Module’s legs so they wouldn’t get blasted by the descent rocket’s exhaust. Then he carefully followed the burn procedures radioed up from Houston, hunched over skills (cctst) the computer display with his hand on the throttle control. At 1842:43 AEST Tuesday 14 April the engine burned for descriptive my hometown 34.23 seconds, just over the scheduled 30 seconds. “Auto shutdown.” Lovell advised Houston and everyone hung anxiously onto the trajectory displays. Qiqi Yan Thesis. Was the Lunar Module’s motor able to do the job?

Was Apollo 13 coming home? Soon the tracking data showed that the burn was perfect. Apollo 13 was going to round the moon at about 209 kilometres instead of 97 kilometres above the essay, surface and would return to Earth . into the Indian Ocean. “Any old ocean would do as long as it was on the Earth,” announced a relieved Lovell. A long way away from the main recovery forces waiting for them in the Pacific, but at essays recipes least it was back on Earth. The nearest American ship was the destroyer Bordelon , cruising off the coast of Mauritius, but the American Department of Defense sent assurances they could get aircraft to the area. My Hometown. Due to essay the growing confidence in essay the Apollo program, this was the first time mission secondary recovery forces had not been sent to essays on robinson crusoe the South Atlantic, let alone the Indian Ocean. Lovell checked around the instrument panels, and announced the essay my hometown, next major item on his mind: “Okay, Houston, burn’s complete. Essays And Religion. Now we have to talk about powering down.” The next big problem were the consumables it wasn’t much good the spacecraft arriving back on Earth with the astronauts dead from descriptive, asphyxiation. The Lunar Module was only designed for two people for 45 hours, now it was going to have to support three bodies jammed in it for road safety 90 hours.

There just wasn’t enough water or power to last the voyage back to Earth. Lovell figured that the earliest they could get back would be around midnight on Friday; and descriptive essay my hometown he couldn’t see how it could possibly keep them going that long. In the Lunar Module Haise was looking at the situation. There was plenty of oxygen but the electrical power and phd thesis cooling water worried him. Descriptive My Hometown. The LM had no fuel cells, only batteries for two days of normal operation, and the water used for cooling the on family, electronic systems would run out about 5 hours before reentry by his calculations.

Earlier tests had shown that the Lunar Module could survive for about 7 hours without cooling before the guidance system would be the first to succumb to the heat. Haise waited for Mission Control’s assessment. The Tiger Team at essay Mission Control knuckled down to working out qiqi yan thesis, how to cut all consumables down to a basic existence level. “We gathered up in descriptive essay my hometown the back room with Kranz because there was nothing for the Command and Service Module guys to do in real time on the consoles because the spacecraft was dead. Kranz started talking about the strategy, what we were going to do going around the Moon and crusoe when we get back close to descriptive Earth we will power the spacecraft up and do the reentry. and I said, ‘Kranz you can’t do that because you don’t have the power’ and road phd thesis he said, ‘Okay John Aaron, you’re in charge of power if anybody wants any power you go and see John Aaron.’ So I said, ‘Tell you what guys, I’ve got some ideas, but let me put them down a piece of descriptive my hometown, paper and come back in an hour and I’ll show you a way we might be able to qiqi yan thesis do this.’ So they came back in about an hour, and I had sketched out descriptive essay my hometown, a rough profile and I told them, ‘Okay guys, this is all the power we’ve got so we’ll have to do the guidance system and essays on robinson crusoe and religion all this stuff this way. ’ and descriptive everybody started saying ‘Oh my God, you can’t do that - we’ve got to have this, we’ve got to have that’ and that started a whole sequence of the brokerage process between me allocating subsystems and switch turn-ons and circuit breakers and keeping track of the power profile. That went on until we got very close to reentry, and it started taking on more and more refinement, until it finally got to the point that a crew started trying it in the simulators just to make sure these guys could actually do that. It was an endless iteration of brokerages across those days, and do my for me you have to remember all the power analysis was done on arithmetic and essay slide rules we never had any calculators.” Bill Peters, Lunar Module TELMU, or electrical and do my homework for me environmental systems engineer, “We had developed some off-line computer programs that gave a time line power profile output. We were running a load of anything up to 30 amps with the computers up, and descriptive essay my hometown there was no way we could get back with that sort of load. Online. I figured if we could get down to about 12 amps we would be okay.

We only knew this from our ground computations. Actually we had an error in our ground computation that under calculated so those batteries were consuming more than we had calculated. The first time I felt we could make it home was when we went around the Moon and did the real LM power down and the numbers came up on the screen. Before that there was a possibility they would not make it. Descriptive Essay. Once we hit the 12 amps I was convinced we had it made. We had very little powered up, only some communication equipment and the cabin fan to circulate the air. And Religion. John Aaron came to me and wanted me to charge up the essay, reentry batteries in california critical skills test (cctst) the Command Module. We had concocted a scheme where we ran two CSM to LM umbilical cables backwards they were designed for the CSM to send power to the LM to heaters to keep some components warm while travelling to the Moon. This powered the Command Module’s inverters to charge its batteries. My Hometown. I gave them all the fat that I could come up with, as much power as I felt we could afford.” On Earth emergency teams swung into action around the country, from California to New York, where there were 10 phone lines kept open between Mission Control and a room staffed with 70 Lunar Module experts at the manufacturer’s plant in Bethpage, Long Island.

On 14 April the US Senate adopted a resolution urging all communications media and businesses to pause at 2100, their local time, to “permit persons to join in prayer for the safety of the astronauts.” On the same day President Nixon cancelled his appointments and poetry essay drove out to the Goddard Space Flight Centre in Maryland, accompanied by Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins, at essay the time Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, to road find out the essay, details of online, how the mission was progressing. Despite the Cold War, the descriptive essay my hometown, Russians ordered four ships to the splashdown area, and Premier Aleksei Kosygin sent a message, “I want to thinking test (cctst) inform you the Soviet Government has given orders to all citizens and members of the armed forces to descriptive use all necessary means to qiqi yan thesis render assistance in the rescue of the American astronauts.” 6 min 47s / 1.4MB mp3. Essay My Hometown. This is 12 hours after the explosion and the comms is now much better. Starting at 066:35GET. Essays Recipes. Wednesday 15 April 1970. My Hometown. By 1520 on essays on robinson, 15 April the crew in the crippled spacecraft had followed the ground instructions. Lovell, “We shut off all those exotic electronic devices that we would not normally be caught without out there the guidance systems, the computer, the auto pilot.

We only had the radio for essay my hometown communications and a little fan to circulate the recipes, atmosphere.” “For most of the first two days after the explosion we split shifts . Essay My Hometown. I was awake in qiqi yan thesis the LM alone while Jim and descriptive Jack slept in the CSM and vice versa. So there was no crowding during that period. It finally became so cold that we all just stayed in the LM. In zero G, though crowded, it was just a soft nudge if you happened to thinking skills test bump into someone. Essay My Hometown. Most of the time Jack floated in essays on family recipes the back area of the LM crew cabin out of the essay, way, so the area was really not that confining. Thinking Skills Test (cctst). And it was good to have the essay, three of us together in the same vehicle. The added ‘heat of the third body’ helped to raise the essays on robinson and religion, temperature in the LM.” The moonlight was flooding into the spacecraft’s interior and essay my hometown the astronauts were able to put their torches away. They had cut their consumption of water down to 170 grams per day. As Houston told them to save the do my homework online for me, Lunar Module’s water for cooling, Lovell told Swigert to transfer all the drinking water from the Command Module to essay my hometown the Lunar Module, which he did using plastic juice bags, but he sloshed some of the water into his boots, and suffered the misery of cold wet feet for essays on family recipes the rest of the trip. They ate cold hot dogs and wet pack foods, when they ate at all, the Command Module having the descriptive, only water heating system.

All the food and drinks were cold refrigerator cold! They didn’t get very thirsty and road became quite dehydrated. This crew set a record by losing 50% more weight than any other crew, Lovell losing 6 kilograms. As Apollo 13 approached the backside of the Moon the Sun set behind the rim. An eerie darkness enveloped the spacecraft. My Hometown. The glinting, blinding debris surrounding them vanished and the surrounding velvet blackness was studded with an on robinson, illimitable sea of descriptive essay my hometown, bright stars stars in every direction. The thick band of stars making up the Milky Way stretched across the do my homework online, void. The crew then became aware some of the stars were blotted out by descriptive, two sinister black clouds accompanying the spacecraft. Lovell, “I can’t for essays the life of me figure out what that dark stuff is.” Haise, “Yes – did you look at it, Jack?” Swigert, “Yes, okay. see it there like two black clouds.” They decided it was the debris from the explosion.

They became subdued as they remembered the crisis-laden moments of the explosion until a voice from Earth broke the spell, “Go ahead Houston.” “Okay, Jim, we have a little over two minutes until loss of signal and everything’s looking good here.” Vance Brand’s matter-of-fact voice from the security of the Mission Control Center showed he was unaware of the mood in the spacecraft’s cabin. “Roger, I take it you don’t want us to activate any other systems or make any other preparations until we reacquire signal?” Lovell checked. “Okay, we’ll just sit tight, then. Descriptive Essay My Hometown. See you on the other side.” Apollo 13 rounds the Moon. View from Aquarius, with the Command Module at poetry essay sample right. NASA JSC scan via the ALSJ. AS13-62-8909. APOLLO 13 SETS A RECORD, TAKING HUMANS TO THE GREATEST DISTANCE FROM EARTH. At 1021:35 AEST on Wednesday 15 April (GET 77:08:35) Apollo 13 coasted behind the Moon and lost contact with the tracking stations on descriptive essay, Earth for about 24 minutes 35 seconds. Essays On Family. As they looped around the back of the Moon, at a maximum height of 253.7 kilometres above the lunar surface, the Moon was 400,171 kilometres away from the Earth, further than any other Apollo mission. According to the Guinness Book of Records at this point Lovell, Swigert, and Haise set a record as the humans to essay travel the farthest away from Earth. The crew lost the crescent sunlit edge of the Moon behind them and flew over a totally black lunar surface until about qiqi yan thesis, five minutes before Earthrise a glow appeared on the lunar horizon.

Haise saw it first, then Lovell moved back to let Swigert see the view through the descriptive essay, window. While Lovell hovered at do my the back of the essay my hometown, cabin the two first timers were glued to the Command Module’s windows, gazing in test awe at the grim and desolate landscape of chaotic craters and torturous rilles, taking photographs and exclaiming, “Wow, look at that!” “Hey, you guys come on we’ve got a burn to do. If we don’t get this right you won’t get your pictures developed!” Lovell had seen it all before on Apollo 8. “It’s all right for you you’ve been here before – we haven’t.” They still couldn’t take their eyes from the passing spectacle. Mare Moscoviense. View from Aquarius . AS13-62-8922. From the descriptive my hometown, Apollo Image Atlas of the Lunar and california skills test (cctst) Planetary Institute. After reacquiring the descriptive my hometown, tracking stations on Earth at 1046:10 AEST the crew began to essay sample prepare for the Lunar Module’s descent rocket firing to bring them home faster. AOS. Starting at 077:35:39GET.

While they were waiting for the burn, Houston called up, “By the way, Aquarius, we see the results of Apollo 12’s seismometer. Looks like your third stage just hit the moon, and it’s rocking it a little bit.” Lovell answered, “Well, at least something worked on this flight. Descriptive My Hometown. Sure glad we didn’t have a LM impact too!” The Saturn IVB smashed into the lunar surface at 1109:40 AEST 15 April, 140 kilometres west north west of the Apollo 12 seismometer with a force equal to 11 tonnes of TNT. Dr. Gary Latham, principal investigator of the experiment, commented: “The Apollo 12 Lunar Module’s signal only lasted for on robinson about 55 minutes. This signal (from the Apollo 13 Saturn IVB) arrived about descriptive essay, 30 seconds after impact, the peak amplitude was a factor of 20 to 30 times larger than the LM, and lasted for 4 hours, which was astounding to us.” Choosing the safest option of the three available, one that did not require the Service Module to be dropped off, but took the longest time, Houston told the crew they could shorten the trip by 10 hours with a PC+2 burn, or a burn 2 hours after Pericynthion, the closest point they would come to the Moon. It would also bring them down in the Pacific Ocean the original target where all the recovery forces were. Unfortunately at this point there was a tropical storm “Helen” threatening the area, and they were considering an alternate landing spot. On Robinson. Due to the software in the LM not being able to accommodate the attached dead bulk of the CSM, Lovell had to descriptive my hometown fire the engine manually. At 1240:39 AEST on Wednesday afternoon Swigert sat on the ascent engine cover during the 4 minute 23 second Trans Earth Insertion (TEI), or PC+2 burn, which increased their speed by 966 kilometres per hour: “Now we were really on our way home, I felt much better about our chances,” he said. As heard live via the for me, Voice of America, Rhett Turner reporting.

79:28GET. Now it became a matter of waiting. And how the time dragged! “It was very quiet . very quiet. And suddenly when there was nothing to do and you’re in a tight spot that’s bad news, because you start thinking about the tight situation you’re in and you want something to do!” In the computer room at Honeysuckle Creek it was anything but quiet. Geoff Seymour , Computer Supervising Engineer: “We had an intermittent hardware problem in the telemetry computer. Prior to the launch we had experienced this problem and at descriptive essay my hometown one stage they were anticipating delaying the launch until we could fix the problem, but the computer managed to stay up long enough for the launch to go ahead.

Round about the essays recipes, time of the explosion the same computer began to fail again, which put the pressure on us because they needed the ability to send commands up to the spacecraft, and to receive the telemetry down, they needed both computers up. We began to essay troubleshoot this computer and managed to narrow it down to three printed circuit boards on one chassis. We replaced those, but it didn’t solve the problem. On Robinson. I stayed on site, sleeping in one of the bedrooms below until we fixed it. As the spacecraft rounded the moon and was coming back the NASA engineers decided to ship out a chassis from the computer in descriptive essay my hometown the training facility in Goddard and strapped it into a first class seat on an airliner. We believed we could fix it before the chassis arrived from the on family recipes, States. Descriptive. The only online thing left for us to do was to take the chassis out of the descriptive, computer and we removed several hundred printed circuit boards, we cleaned every socket in the chassis, we cleaned every pin on every printed circuit board we could remove – we put it all back in, and from that day onwards the intermittent problem just went away.” Early on Wednesday morning out in space a new development threatened the do my homework for me, astronauts. A light warned them that the carbon dioxide had built up to descriptive essay my hometown a dangerous level, and in the confines of the Lunar Module they would have eventually gone to sleep and qiqi yan thesis died, poisoned by my hometown, their own breath. On Monday night Chief of the Crew Systems Division at Houston, Ed Smylie, had already figured out there would be a carbon dioxide problem and had worked out a crude, but effective solution in his head.

He joined his assistant, Jim Correale, to work out a system to essays join the Command Module’s square lithium canisters, which clean the carbon dioxide from the air, to the Lunar Module’s round system using only the materials available on board such as tape, plastic, and cardboard. Descriptive Essay. Astronaut Tony England verified the procedure by successfully putting one together by oral instructions only. Smylie carried his contraption into Mission Control and left it on the Capcom’s console. The carbon dioxide reading for a healthy atmosphere was normally about poetry sample, 2 or 3 millimetres of mercury but now it was reading 13, and 15 was the recognised limit before the first signs of poisoning became evident. When he was ready Capcom Joe Kerwin called up the spacecraft, and read the instructions as the crew began to assemble the canisters at around 0330 on 15 April. Descriptive My Hometown. Lovell: “Jack and I put it together it wasn’t very handsome, but it worked.” Jack Swigert (right) and Jim Lovell (left) work on the carbon dioxide solution. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery. AS13-62-9004. In the crusoe, Australian Senate, Apollo 13 caused enough concern to be raised as questions on April 15 and April 16.

Senator Anderson, “It is descriptive essay, interesting to be able to tell the online, Senate and the people of Australia that a small army of dedicated Australians worked throughout the descriptive my hometown, night to install microwave links enabling the 64 metre radio telescope of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation at Parkes to assist the homework, return voyage of the Apollo 13 spacecraft. Parkes, within hours after a request by the National Aeronautics and descriptive Space Administration, established voice communication with the astronauts at about 8:30 pm last night. Teams from the critical skills test, Post Master General’s Department and the Australian Broadcasting Commission, assisted by personnel from essay my hometown, Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia) Ltd., installed temporary microwave circuits from Parkes to Coonambro and from Red Hill in Canberra via Williamsdale to california critical thinking (cctst) Honeysuckle Creek. Descriptive My Hometown. This task, which involved the erection of 6 aerials up to homework online for me 60 feet high in the middle of the night, was completed at essay 6 am this morning. The microwave links will enable Parkes to transmit telemetry data from the spacecraft.

Parkes, and safety the Australian Capital Territory stations of Honeysuckle Creek and Tidbinbilla, which my Department operates for essay my hometown NASA, will start to qiqi yan thesis play a crucial role after the spacecraft’s trans-Earth injection which was scheduled for 12:40 pm today. I would like to pay special tribute to the staff at descriptive my hometown Honeysuckle Creek and Tidbinbilla who, working at the lowest possible signal level, have been providing communications between the ground control and the astronauts. I am certain that I speak for essays crusoe all Australians in wishing the Apollo crew a safe return to descriptive essay my hometown Earth.” Thursday 16 April 1970. At 0626:53 AEST during the morning of 16 April, not long after they had entered the road safety, influence of the Earth’s gravity field, everyone at descriptive Mission Control slid to the edge of their seats and grappled with another heart stopping report from road phd thesis, Haise: “I just heard a little thump, sounded like down in the descent stage, and I saw a new shower of my hometown, snowflakes come up.” Another explosion! This time from under their feet in road safety phd thesis the life supporting Lunar Module they were all depending on! More debris gathered around the descriptive, two stricken spacecraft. It was battery #2 in the Lunar Module’s descent stage. Don Arabian, from the Mission Evaluation Room, figured out that hydrogen and oxygen gases had built up in the battery’s lid until the pressure blew it off. Bill Peters, the Lunar Module’s electrical engineer: “After it made its “pop and snowflakes” as people say, we looked at the data and it had a spike in the current data, that’s all we saw in real time, but that battery continued to run for a long time before it failed to contribute electricity and I turned it off.” After consulting with the manufacturers, the engineers decided that the remaining batteries were going to last comfortably until the end of the mission. Mission Control began working on correcting some errors derived from the california critical thinking skills, TEI burn with another burn of 14 seconds of the Lunar Module’s descent motor at essay my hometown 1431:28 AEST on 16 April.

Lovell fired the engine, while Haise kept an eye on the spacecraft attitude and Swigert called the times. Recipes. Houston was anxious not to disturb the descriptive, spacecraft’s homeward trajectory, so told the crew not to dump any waste material overboard. This meant they had to find a way to store their urine on board. They found three bags in the Command Module and six little ones in the Lunar Module, plus by using some tanks associated with their EVA suits they managed to do my for me keep ahead of the essay, flow. Online. “I’m glad we got home when we did,” said Lovell, “because we were just about out of ideas for stowage.” Friday 17 April 1970. As Apollo 13 raced home the Flight Dynamics team (FDO, RETRO, and descriptive essay my hometown GUIDO) began to frown as they spotted the tracking data was indicating the spacecraft was gently drifting away from the critical entry corridor. What was causing this insidious drift? Every known source of venting gas was turned off, so it had to be something else. Poetry. After the descriptive, mission ended, it was concluded that the small thrust causing the critical thinking, drift came from a ‘non-propulsive’ water boiler vent in the Lunar Module’s cooling system, which under normal circumstances would not have been noticed in the short dash down to the moon’s surface and back. When the error crept up to 161 kilometres it was time to essay do something, or the astronauts in their spacecraft would bounce out of the atmosphere and go off into solar orbit: “. to become a permanent monument to the space program,” as Lovell wryly put it, but said he would rather burn up in california critical skills test the atmosphere than skip out into solar orbit.

The flight controllers were reluctant to fire the Lunar Module’s descent engine again. Descriptive Essay. Helium was normally used to force the fuel into the engine combustion chamber, and the Lunar Module engineers were watching the pressure slowly building up in the storage tank. At 12,411 kPa a safety membrane would blow out to relieve the pressure. Once that happened there was no guarantee the engine would work, so the correction burn had to happen before the helium blew. Late during Wednesday evening when Capcom Vance Brand called Apollo 13: “We don’t want to power up the do my homework for me, spacecraft completely, so that means no computer or mission timer.

We’ll simply go with a manual burn, with you controlling the engine with the Start and essay my hometown Stop switches. On Family Recipes. For attitude, what we’re going to want to do is manually orient the spacecraft to place the Earth in the centre of your window. If you hold it there throughout the burn, the attitude will be correct. Got that?” “Roger, I think so,” Lovell confirmed thoughtfully, remembering back in Apollo 8 they had tried just such an descriptive essay my hometown, exercise to see if they could steer the spacecraft into the reentry corridor with no help from the california critical thinking (cctst), navigation systems. Houston planned to burn the descriptive essay, Lunar Module’s descent motor when they were just entering the influence of the on robinson, Earth’s gravity, and descriptive essay my hometown still moving relatively slowly. Using Swigert’s wrist watch, from 1431:28 AEST 16 April, they timed the safety, burn manually for 14 seconds at 10% power, during which Lovell and Haise steered the spacecraft to keep the crosshair of the optical sight in descriptive my hometown their windows parallel with the Earth’s terminator, or sunset line, which meant they should be aiming straight for homework for me the reentry corridor again. Three and a half hours later the helium pressure reached 13,245 kPa and descriptive blew the safety membrane out, sending another thump through the qiqi yan thesis, spacecraft and a shower of sparkling crystals to join the cloud of debris shepherding Apollo 13 through space. The startled astronauts looked at my hometown each other but realised what it was, and Lovell murmured, “That’s the end of our helium problem.” It became so cold in Odyssey that sleep was impossible. Lovell:

“When we turned off the electrical systems, we lost our source of heat, and the sun streaming in the windows didn’t help much. We were as cold as frogs in a frozen pool, specially Jack Swigert, who got his feet wet and didn’t have lunar overshoes. It wasn’t simply that the temperature dropped down to 1.6C; the sight of perspiring walls and wet windows made it seem even colder.” The Command Module had been referred to as “the bedroom”, but by the last day they were calling it “the refrigerator”. During the road phd thesis, last 12 hours before reentry, Haise had to go into the cold and damp Command Module. When he returned, it took him four hours in essay the Lunar Module before he stopped shivering. He ended up trying to sleep in his sleeping bag in the tunnel between the essays crusoe and religion, two spacecraft, with his head in the Lunar Module, which was much warmer at essay 10C. Even after the fiery reentry and qiqi yan thesis warm 27ºC Pacific waters they could still see their frosty breath inside the cabin. Honeysuckle is prime during this recording of Jim Lovell describing the cold the essay my hometown, 39 second recording, made at Honeysucke Creek, begins at 132:53GET. This clip (254kb mp3 file) was recorded by Hamish Lindsay.

Lovell commented: “We had a dead Service Module, we had a Command Module but it had no power in it, and we had a Lunar Module that was a wonderful vehicle but it didn’t have a heat shield.” No one knew what would happen to a frozen Command Module that had coasted through space without any power for over two days. “We were worried that the road safety, systems would get so cold that the batteries would freeze, the propellants in the lines would freeze that when we brought the Command Module up it would be non-functional,” Kranz admitted later, backed up by my hometown, Lovell: “The walls, ceiling, floor, wire harnesses, and panels were all covered with droplets of water. The chances of short circuits caused us apprehension, to say the least. But thanks to the safeguards built into the Command Module after the disastrous fire in January, 1967, no arcing took place. The water droplets caused one sensation as we entered the atmosphere - it rained inside the Command Module!” At Houston, Gene Kranz and his Tiger Team wrestled with reentry procedures and check lists for essays on robinson crusoe and religion the last six hours of the mission that had never been tried before. Normally it would take three months to develop these procedures they had less than three days. “Basically we planned to descriptive my hometown power up the vehicle in reverse, we had the crew turn the guidance system on in the blind, then right at the end I allowed them to turn on the telemetry system so that we could see it and verify it was all on california skills test (cctst), okay. By doing it backwards that way we had enough power but the crew had to essay my hometown do it right.

Later I realised I was kinda lost in my own world trying to build that check list that had to be done perfectly the first time, then when I saw what shape the crew were in being dehydrated, no real sleep, freezing to death, I realised that was another factor that I didn’t take into account. But they executed that check list perfectly, it was just amazing. Poetry Essay. We finally got the sequence down so Ken Mattingly could try it in descriptive my hometown the simulator, and he found things that wouldn’t work so would come back and negotiate with me and I said we can’t add more power, we have to do some other way. And of course the crew was getting kinda anxious, they were trying to be subtle, but not too subtle, and kept saying, ‘Hey Houston, we’re looking out the window and poetry sample the Earth’s getting bigger and bigger where’s that check list?’” It was Thursday evening in Houston when Arnold Aldrich and Gene Kranz escorted Aaron into the Mission Control Center, hugging the checklist to his chest: “I had one hand type-written copy with the latest changes in it, we didn’t have word processors in descriptive essay my hometown those days, and I said ‘Okay Flight - here it is, read it to the crew.’” A relieved Capcom Vance Brand took the copy, turned back to online for me his console and called: “Houston, Aquarius.” “Go, Houston,” replied Lovell. “Okay, we are ready to read you the first checklist instalment” “All right, Vance. I’m going to descriptive essay my hometown get Jack on the line, so stand by.” Aaron became aware he was surrounded by people holding out demanding hands: “Where are the copies, EECOM? I need a copy.” So as Brand heard his headset saying, “Okay, Vance, I’m ready to copy,” he had to hand the checklist back and sheepishly answer: “Okay, Jack but we have to ask you to road phd thesis wait one minute again. We want to get a copy of the checklist into the hands of the my hometown, Flight Directors and EECOM and essays on family recipes it’ll take a second or two.” It was nearly half an hour before Brand began two tedious hours reading out the check list to a very tired Swigert as he copied them down holding a flashlight between his teeth. Then followed another hour of Lunar Module procedures to Haise, followed by a timeline sequence that glued both checklists together.

In the time it took them to write the procedures down, they covered 96,500 kilometres. My Hometown. Swigert finished writing down the last entry just over homework 12 hours before they were due to start using it there was no time for corrections or a second chance it had to be right the first time as the spacecraft hurtled towards that narrow door into essay my hometown, the Earth’s atmosphere with its speed building up to a maximum of 38,623 kilometres per hour. Six and a half hours before they were due to start using the checklist – they tried to get some rest. Phd Thesis. Lovell reported: “Haise is lying in the tunnel with his head on the ascent engine cover, Swigert is lying on the floor in a sleep restraint.” They had been averaging three hours of disturbed sleep a day. Four hours before reaching the atmosphere Houston sent the descriptive my hometown, message, “You can jettison the Service Module when you are ready. No big rush, but any time.” Lovell and Haise manned the Lunar Module, while Swigert fired the Service Module separation bolts from the Command Module at poetry essay 2314:48 AEST during the descriptive, evening of April 17. Lovell had suggested to essays Swigert that he put a label over the switch to jettison the Lunar Module in case he threw the wrong switch, and sent his mates off to be incinerated in the brief meteor the Lunar Module was to become! Lovell then backed the Lunar Module and Command Module away from the carcass of the Service Module. Swigert tried each of the Command Module windows but saw nothing. Lovell swung the spacecraft around and he and essay my hometown Haise peered out qiqi yan thesis, of the Lunar Module’s windows and also saw nothing no sign of the big cylindrical Service Module.

Lovell was scanning the velvet black void when he stiffened as he became aware of a huge silver shape silently gliding into view, slowly rolling to descriptive essay my hometown reveal a great gash in its side. Essays. Lovell gazed wide-eyed at the tendrils of wire, tubing and entrails gently waving about. Expecting only a small hole from the explosion, he said “I’m glad we couldn’t see the Service Module earlier. Descriptive My Hometown. With one whole panel missing, the wreckage and wires hanging out, it was a sorry mess as it drifted away.” Then Haise yelled “I can see it out my window,” so Swigert rushed down the tunnel, stuck his camera to the window and managed to get some shots, though by then it was beginning to tumble. Photographs of the damage for later analysis were important, as the Service Module would burn up on reentry.

The damaged Service Module drifts away. Here’s another view. AS13-58-8464, via the essays crusoe and religion, Lunar Planetary Institute in essay Houston. The photo has been cropped and considerably brightened. Jim Lovell exclaims, “There’s one whole side of that spacecraft missing.” As heard live via the sample, Voice of America, with Rhett Turner providing commentary. 4.7MB mp3 / 9 minutes. Descriptive. When hearing of the extensive damage to the Service Module some of the Flight Controllers began to wonder about the Command Module’s heat shield. Had it been damaged in the explosion? Nothing was said at the time, but Haise had thought about it too, and the astronauts had discussed the possibility during the essays on family, flight. During the mission they had filled the Command Module with all their rubbish in plastic bags, and now Haise had to transfer them all back to the LM as they prepared for the homecoming. He commented: “Boy, you wouldn’t believe this LM right now!

There’s nothing but bags from floor to ceiling!” Saturday 18 April 1970. At 0400 USCST on Friday April 17 the members of the Tiger Team entered Mission Control and descriptive my hometown spread around the consoles for the final moments of the saga. John Aaron took over from Sy Liebergot at qiqi yan thesis the EECOM console and around 1000 he felt ready for the Command Module power up procedure and called on the intercom, “Go EECOM,” returned Kranz. “Ready for power up any time the my hometown, crew is.” “Roger EECOM Capcom Flight.” “Go Flight,” answered Joe Kerwin. “EECOM says the Command Module can come on qiqi yan thesis, line anytime.” “Roger Flight,” Kerwin keyed his air/ground switch, “Aquarius, Houston.” “Go Houston,” Lovell responded tersely. My Hometown. “You’re go to start powering up Odyssey.” Swigert felt a useful member of the crew again as at 0123 AEST Saturday April 18 he began to power up the Command Module using its normal three reentry batteries, which had been topped up from the Lunar Module’s batteries. Thinking Skills Test (cctst). “Every switch and circuit breaker that I turned on made me feel just that much better. I forgot about descriptive essay my hometown, being tired and and religion didn’t even notice the cold.” John Aaron, surrounded by essay, the other shift EECOMs, watched the idling readouts on his console, waiting for Swigert to switch on the telemetry.

He was looking for qiqi yan thesis a maximum current drain of 43 amps. If it was much more the batteries might not last to splashdown. Descriptive. After nearly half an hour Swigert switched the poetry essay, last items on and the telemetry kicked all Aaron’s readouts into life. His eyes homed in on the current meter, and to his dismay he was staring at a steady 45 amps. “What the hell are those two rogue amps doing there?” he angrily questioned anybody on descriptive essay my hometown, the intercom or within earshot. Nobody could find any cause until the Guidance controllers spotted the back up gyros were on. Road. The spacecraft crew turned them off and the meter dropped back to 43 amps.

Aaron, “I almost panicked there because I didn’t know how long those two amps had been on. It turned out the spacecraft was wired different than we thought, there was a sneak circuit in my hometown the wiring taking an extra load off the circuit breaker that we didn’t know about.” Once the road phd thesis, Command Module was powered up it was important to check they were on the right track for reentry. Capcom Joe Kerwin: “This was the tense time for me. Swigert was trying to descriptive essay my hometown find the two stars necessary to align the homework for me, platform to get their precise attitude. He was having a hell of a time doing it because of reflections into the telescope from the Lunar Module.

The spacecraft were racing towards the descriptive my hometown, atmosphere, and Swigert was doing it, and re-doing it. What we would have had to do was to say ‘Okay, Jack its time to knock that off we’ll take an approximate attitude it’s time to jettison the LM we have to get on with it. I kept looking at Kranz, but he just put his hand out silently to say give him another minute. Poetry Essay. Then Swigert finally got it and called out ‘Five balls’ which meant that the descriptive essay, number after the decimal point on star angle difference was five zeros, meaning he had hit the right two stars and had an accurate platform. From there on everything just went nominally from my point of view.” Three and a half hours after the Service Module was jettisoned, it was the Lunar Module’s turn. Lovell: “Ten seconds.” Swigert, “Five.

LM Jettison,” At 0243 AEST 18 April the faithful “lifeboat” Aquarius was released and pushed off with 20.7 kPa air pressure from the qiqi yan thesis, tunnel. Sadly they watched it drift away to begin a slow forward somersault. Haise later said he would have liked to have looked after it in his backyard. “Okay, copy that. Essay My Hometown. Farewell Aquarius, and we thank you,” Kerwin called out from online, Houston. Essay My Hometown. There was less than four and a half hours of electrical power left in Aquarius . “Farewell Aquarius , and we thank you.” The ‘Age of Aquarius’ ends at on robinson 0243AEST on April 18th. Assembled from images AS13-59-8559, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 68, 71, 73, courtesy of the Lunar and descriptive my hometown Planetary Institute. Aquarius is jettisoned. Voice of Apollo as heard via ABC Radio. “When Apollo 13 came back in, it did this vast swing back over the Indian Ocean. Because of the Earth turning it appeared to turn around and come back the other way. We put the FPQ6 radar on and watched separation with it when they dumped the LM. We could actually see all three parts of the spacecraft on our radar screens.” John Saxon at Honeysuckle Creek: “We were the road safety, last site, as we generally were, to track the reentry phase of the mission when they entered the Earth’s atmosphere.

We were tracking both the Command Module and the Lunar Module. There was a great deal of interest in where the essay my hometown, LM came down because it had a package to be installed on the Moon which had a radio isotope power supply, and there was a concern that had it entered over land there might have been a radio active contamination problem. We were required to take very careful records of antenna angles when we lost contact. It entered the atmosphere and went into the sea somewhere in qiqi yan thesis the deepest part of the descriptive, ocean between Australia and New Zealand.” This was right where Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO) Jerry Bostick in Mission Control had carefully planned to put the do my homework online for me, Lunar Module. Essay. Mike Dinn’s Groundtrack map for Apollo 13 has been annotated to show the splashdown location. Honeysuckle was the last ground station to track Apollo 13 before re-entry, when ARIA took over the comms. Click the image to get a 730kb scan of the entire map.

Paul Mullen , antenna driver at Honeysuckle: “We lost the LM at the end it was going too fast for our 3 per second antenna speed it just dived out of sight ahead of our antenna.” Entering the dark side of the Earth above the poetry sample, Indian Ocean, the three astronauts concentrated on my hometown, the clock and Moon, sweating that it would set when Houston had calculated, confirming they were on the right track for a safe reentry. Critical Test. At precisely the right second a black notch bit into the bottom of the Moon, and it sank below the Earth’s horizon. The Commander looked at his crew: “Gentlemen, we’re about to reenter. I suggest you get ready for a ride.” Kerwin, “Odyssey, Houston standing by. Over.” Swigert, “You have a good bedside manner, Joe.” Kerwin, “That’s the nicest thing anybody’s said. How about that?” Swigert: “Sure wish I could go to descriptive essay my hometown the FIDO (Flight Dynamics) party tonight.” Kerwin, “Yes it’s going to be a wild one. Somebody said we’ll cover for you guys and if Jack’s got any phone numbers he wants us to call, why, pass them down . Do My Homework Online For Me. We just had a last time around the my hometown, room and everybody says it’s looking great . Odyssey then plunged into the atmosphere at online for me 0353:45 AEST, to be engulfed in a streaming firestorm, a fireball streaking across the sky. All communications with the spacecraft were cut off during the blackout period. A blanket of suspended anxiety descended over all the watchers around the world during the three minutes of silence of the blackout period. The seconds flicked away with no response from the spacecraft.

Unable to do any more for the mission now, the descriptive my hometown, Houston Flight Controllers could only road watch the recovery forces at essay work on their large television screens and poetry essay listen for the spacecraft to respond to their Capcom. Descriptive Essay. It was suspected they had entered the atmosphere at a shallower angle than the optimum, which prolonged the poetry sample, blackout period. The tension built up. Descriptive Essay My Hometown. a minute after the expected time and still no sight or sound of Odyssey the cameras stared at a vacant sky, the road phd thesis, speakers just hissed static. Joe Kerwin called out from Houston, “Odyssey, Houston standing by.” Suddenly Swigert’s voice filled the airwaves over the Pacific, “Okay, Joe!” and at 0402 AEST three healthy parachutes were seen. Luckily the original landing area was calm now the tropical storm was raging over the alternate landing area. Joe Kerwin on descriptive essay, the Capcom console, earlier in the mission. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Mission Control erupted into a frenzy of cheering, handshaking and clapping. John Aaron: “Since I had designed the reentry sequence, Kranz put me on the console as it came in and that worked out fine, but that sure was something when they made it through the blackout and out came the chutes.

We had live video coverage from the ship – that really was a lucky strike extra to get that close for the finish.” So how close was it to three fatalities? According to Sy Liebergot, the LM had 104 hours of breathing oxygen left, but only phd thesis 10 hours of water and 13 hours of essay, electrical power. After a TransEarth Coast TEC time of 63 hours 8 minutes 43 seconds, at 0407:41 AEST on Saturday 18 April, the parachutes dunked Odyssey into the Pacific Ocean 6.5 kilometres from the USS Iwo Jima , and qiqi yan thesis the crew were greeted by cheering sailors, a brass band, and essay my hometown Rear Admiral Donald Davis with, “We’re glad you made it, boys.” All around the world an audience of qiqi yan thesis, many millions joined in descriptive essay grateful thanks, each in their own way, for the safe return of Apollo 13 and its crew. The Apollo 13 crew arrive on poetry, the Iwo Jima . Flight Director Gene Kranz (right) celebrates as Jim Lovell speaks onboard the Iwo Jima . Nine doctors checked them out to be in reasonable shape considering their ordeal, except for a urinary tract infection for Haise, brought on by not drinking enough fluids, which allowed the toxins to build up. If the mission had gone on much longer, the other two would have probably suffered the same problem. Stepping ashore in Pago Pago they were greeted by gaily dressed Samoans, their smiling faces moving Lovell to say, “We do not realise what we have on descriptive essay my hometown, Earth until we leave it.”

Dale Call, Goddard Network Director, made the road safety phd thesis, following statement after the mission: “I would like to express my personal thanks along with the appreciation of everyone involved in descriptive the Apollo 13 mission for essays the outstanding support provided by Honeysuckle, Carnarvon, and Parkes. Descriptive Essay. This support contributed significantly to the safe return of the Apollo 13 crew. I would especially like to single out those responsible for bringing up the Parkes antenna and associated data systems in road safety phd thesis record time. This response was so impressive that special mention of descriptive essay, it was made to President Nixon during his visit to Goddard last Tuesday.” President Nixon addressed a message to Australian Prime Minister John Gorton: “Dear Mr. Prime Minister:

On behalf of the people of the United States I wish to express to essays on family recipes you and to the people of essay, Australia my deep appreciation for your nation’s assistance in the successful recovery of the Apollo XIII astronauts. The disabling of the homework for me, Apollo spacecraft during its lunar mission evoked the descriptive my hometown, concern of all mankind. I was indeed touched by the many expressions of essays on robinson and religion, sympathy and offers of assistance I received. The safe recovery of the essay, astronauts, for which we are all profoundly thankful, in no way lessens the gratitude of the Government and people of the United States for your nation’s immediate response to our need for assistance. Please convey my personal thanks to all of your people who worked so hard to california thinking (cctst) maintain our communications with the weakened Apollo XIII spacecraft as it returned to Earth. Their involvement in the Apollo XIII recovery was but another instance of the close cooperation and warm friendship that exists between our countries. For a brief moment Apollo 13 put the hassles of money and budgets and politics aside as people followed the progress of a mission where sheer guts and determination, teamwork and comradeship, ingenuity and skill brought the descriptive essay my hometown, crew safely home. Phd Thesis. No doubt luck was a large factor in the equation. A triskaidekaphobic person would freak out at essay this list of essays and religion, thirteens – it was the 13th Apollo mission, launched at descriptive my hometown 1313 hours spacecraft time, the explosion occurred on April 13, 13:08 hours Honeysuckle Creek time, with 13 nations offering to provide rescue ships or aircraft. And stretching credibility a bit the astronauts first names of James, Fred, and road Jack add up to 13 letters, the essay my hometown, launch date of 4/11/70 add up to phd thesis 13 from pad 39 which is 3 x 13. Even German Measles has 13 letters.

Not surprisingly the Horoscope for Aquarius from the Houston Post of April 13 1970 said ‘Do surprises turn you on? Then this is the day for the unexpected.’ Was Apollo 13 good luck or bad luck? Probably good luck because it brings up a lot of “What ifs. ” For instance, what if the explosion had happened while Lovell and Haise were on the lunar surface. “To get Apollo 13 home required a lot of innovation. Most of the material written about descriptive essay, our mission described the ground-based activities, however I would be remiss not to state that it really was the sample, teamwork between the my hometown, ground and the flight crew that resulted in essay a successful return. Some people would call the Apollo 13 mission a $375 million failure. I look back on it as a triumph; a triumph of teamwork, initiative, and ingenuity.

Nobody believes me, but during this six day odyssey we had no idea what an impression Apollo 13 made on the people of Earth. We never dreamed a billion people were following us on television and radio, and reading about us in banner headlines of every newspaper published. We still missed the point on board the carrier Iwo Jima which picked us up because the sailors had been as remote from the media as we were. Only when we reached Honolulu did we comprehend our impact.” For fun, Grumman, the builders of the Lunar Module, sent a bill for $US400,000 to North American Rockwell for towing the Command and Service Module 482,800 kilometres back home! Jack Swigert said after the mission, “I knew that no matter how dark the situation looked, we had a lot of help from the ground. My Hometown. I didn’t come back from this mission with less confidence in the goals of the space program. I came back with more.” Haise admitted that after the explosion Mission Control directed everything the astronauts did. “I think Apollo 13 was a classic example of qiqi yan thesis, what the ground flight operations was all about. It proved that the ground was worthwhile. The people on the ground did a fantastic job of saving the lives of the crew.” That ground crew included the tracking stations, connecting Mission Control with the spacecraft.

President Nixon summed up this dramatic odyssey with: “The three astronauts did not reach the moon, but they reached the hearts of millions of people in America and in the world.” (5 Days 22 Hours 54 Minutes) Fra Mauro was the my hometown, planned landing area. Distance travelled : 1,002,123 kilometres. The text has been checked by qiqi yan thesis, Chris Kraft and descriptive my hometown Jim Lovell. Illustrations sourced by Hamish Lindsay and Colin Mackellar. Unless otherwise specified, audio was recorded by Colin Mackellar from Australian radio coverage or the Voice of America, except the HSK comms loop audio by Hamish Lindsay and the MOCR EECOM loop audio courtesy Sy Liebergot. Audio selected and edited by CM.

Frames from Apollo 13 film and video selected and processed by CM with thanks to essay sample Mark Gray at Spacecraft Films.

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My Hometown Essays 1 - 30 Anti Essays

Purposeful Annotation: A “Close Reading” Strategy that Makes Sense to My Students. Mmm… tortilla chip crumbs. (It’ll make sense later.) If you look at my original close reading post, you’ll see I was basically using the phrase “close reading” to refer to annotation. It took me a year or more to essay, realize that I was saying one buzzwordy thing to mean a lot of explicit, less confusing things that readers do when grappling with a text. I blame my error on allowing myself to qiqi yan thesis, get sucked into the unfortunate vortex that was the buzzwordification of close reading. If you’re new to the blog, though, keep in mind that while I do try not to take the educational establishment too terribly seriously (instead opting to occasionally poke fun at essay, us), when it comes to helping students flourish in the long-term, I’m dead serious. So when I call close reading a buzzword or write the term’s obituary, I don’t want to essay sample, give you the impression that we should let ourselves cynically dismiss the my hometown, idea that reading is poetry sample, often hard, analytical — and yes, even “close” — work, especially when we’re dealing with complex, college- or career-level texts assigned by a teacher. My Hometown? We still need to poetry essay, teach kids, across the disciplines, how to descriptive my hometown, wrestle with assigned texts, seeking, like Jacob , to california critical thinking skills test (cctst), get whatever blessing they have to bestow. So to help my kids get after it and dominate some life , I’ve simply taken to a “strategy” that I call purposeful annotation.

Purposeful annotation: here’s what I’m talking about. The big idea is essay, this: what we do when reading should align with. When my students have a text they can write on, the idea, then, is to do my online for me, annotate in descriptive a way that supports our purpose for reading and essays the parameters of our post-reading task (keep in mind that the purpose and the task should line up). Essay? Hence the wonderfully descriptive, beautifully unoriginal strategy name: purposeful annotation. Looking for an affordable, online professional development that elaborates on essays crusoe and religion, the concepts in this blog post? Click here to learn about Teaching with Articles, my go-at-your-own-pace online PD. As an example, let’s say I’m helping my students think through the task of purposefully annotating a Kelly Gallagher-esque article of the descriptive, week. In that case, the purpose I set for my students’ reading is, as The Gallagher put it in a recent post’s comments section, to simply become smarter about the world, and the post-reading task is that they need to write a thoughtful 1+ page response. In that example, knowing that I want to qiqi yan thesis, dominate that post-reading task and that I simply need to get myself engaged with the probably unfamiliar and essay my hometown certainly unchosen content, I, as a student, ought to make annotations that begin to critical thinking skills (cctst), respond to the text.

Of course, I can’t respond to something I don’t understand, and descriptive essay my hometown so sometimes, especially when faced with a particularly befuddling sentence, paragraph, or section in the article, I ought to slow down, reread, and qiqi yan thesis then annotate a brief summary or paraphrase of the challenging section in the margin. So, two things we can annotate, naturally, are 1) our responses to a text, and 2) our paraphrases/summaries of descriptive essay my hometown, bits of the text we had to wrestle with. These logically line up with what I’m going to essay sample, do with the text after reading, as well as my purpose for reading it in the first place. The idea here is that I’m writing these things in descriptive the margins — these purposeful annotations — not simply for a grade or because the teacher said, “Do a close reading.” I’m doing it to essay, help me dominate: the task of understanding and learning from the text while reading (this is one of essay, my ultimate goals for my students — that they’ll read the poetry essay sample, texts I assign with self-kindled, habituated, cultivated curiosity, engaging with it for learning’s sake), and the task of doing a thing with that text after reading (if my head is on descriptive my hometown, straight as a teacher, there’s going to be a piece of writing or a piece of speaking that every student will do with any given text). This obviously isn’t as broad of safety, a strategy as close reading, and honestly, that’s why I like it — and my hometown my students do, too. The core idea is essays recipes, that annotation should help the reader during and after reading . It should serve, as my friend and work-sister Erica Beaton has well put it, as the leaving of cyanide-laced breadcrumbs (okay, the cyanide bit is descriptive my hometown, mine — but seriously, that’s the right way to put it, because breadcrumbs alone get eaten by birds, while cyanide-laced breadcrumbs leave a nicely traceable, bird-covered trail). Mmm… Dark and accurate — my favorite flavor of analogy. Why teach purposeful annotation rather than some other method? I have two over-arching goals for and religion, my students each year that I think will get them on their way to a life that flourishes in descriptive my hometown the long-term. I want to help as many kids as possible to figure out. why school matters to them and their lives, and then how to dominate the challenges of school and, more broadly, life.

So much of my thinking is on robinson crusoe, still shaped by one of the central ideas of Jerry Graff’s Clueless in my hometown Academe — far too many students simply don’t understand school, and frustratingly, that simply need not be so. A big part of helping kids “get” academia is showing them how argument is the do my homework online, essence of thought and then teaching them arguespeak across the school day — They Say, I Say remains the best text in the world for helping with that. For me, Graff pointed out both the problem — academia does a great job obscuring itself to descriptive essay, students — and a large part of the poetry essay sample, solution. Arguespeak is the language of power not just in school, but in the world at descriptive essay my hometown, large — we’re foolish not to poetry, teach kids that. Yet the fact remains that, in K-12 schooling, far too many students simply do not take ownership of their educations (or their lives, really) . This is a point that struck me like a freight train while reading the introduction of descriptive, David Conley’s College, Careers, and the Common Core: What Every Educator Needs to Know . The [students] who had the greatest success were those who were willing to take some modicum of homework for me, ownership of their learning and responsibility for descriptive essay my hometown, their behavior.

Once I had achieved this with them, the rest was much more straightforward. For those who were not able to engage, no method or technique ever made much difference. This lesson about the importance of ownership of learning never completely left me. Interestingly and unexpectedly, I had reached the conclusion that the social contract was a two-way street: society has a responsibility to create a level playing field, and individuals have a responsibility to take advantage of it. I’m sure I’ll write more on ownership of recipes, learning this year as it’s a central burning question for essay my hometown, my colleagues and thinking skills test (cctst) me, but for the sake of essay my hometown, this post suffice it to say that I believe the clearer we can be about what we ask kids to do and why we ask them to do it, the california (cctst), more academia becomes unobscured and descriptive essay my hometown the more likely it is that our students will come to a place where they can say, “Yes — schooling matters for me because _______________.” In short, I’ve found that the phrase purposeful annotation makes sense to my freshmen and essays on family recipes explicitly shows them how to essay my hometown, “work smarter not harder” when reading and doing something with a text. So how do we do the purposeful annotation thing? We’ve looked at what purposeful annotation is, and I’ve shared why I think it’s a strategy worth teaching kids. Now let’s examine how to actually do the thing. Like I said, I try to teach my students to let their purpose for reading the text dictate what they do while they’re reading it. For my “what does this look like in a gradebook” readers (I feel you), I do consistently assign a grade to phd thesis, whether my students, at minimum, write 1-2 thoughtful, purpose-driven annotations in the margins of each page of a shorter complex text . (I explain how I grade articles of the week in this post.)

Here’s an annotation that demonstrates thoughtful engagement with the descriptive essay my hometown, text. Here’s an annotation that shows little evidence of road safety, thought. Essay? I don’t mark kids down for this, but I also don’t give them credit for it. Responding with OMG, smiley faces, etc. is a strategy for qiqi yan thesis, staying engaged with a text and responding to it emotionally, but I want more when kids annotate. When my students read something I’ve assigned, I normally set the purpose for the reading — that’s a simple way to descriptive essay my hometown, scaffold a text for all readers. I often allow for some choice within that purpose (for example, with the article of the week, I follow Gallagher’s lead and tend to give 1-3 possible response options), or to set it broadly enough to allow for some individual expression. Possible response options for a sample Gallagher-style article of the thinking (cctst), week.

This comes from descriptive essay, annotation instructions written by my colleague, Doug Stark. With that said, here are the essays on robinson, kinds of annotations I recommend kids try (remember, 1-2 thoughtful interactions per page) based on my hometown, their purpose for reading. If your purpose for on family, reading is to learn the content : Summarize a sentence or paragraph Paraphrase a sentence or paragraph Circle and descriptive essay my hometown define key words. If your purpose for recipes, reading is to end by descriptive my hometown, responding to a specific prompt : Annotate toward that prompt. Recipes? If you’re being asked to descriptive my hometown, evaluate, make evaluative annotations. Essay? If you’re being asked to analyze, make analytical annotations.

If you’re thinking, “Um, my kids don’t really know what those verbs mean,” then use Jim Burke’s A-List (pictured and linked to below). Jim Burke’s A-List can help students unpack what the verbs in a prompt mean. Keep in mind that I don’t always have kids respond to a text in writing; sometimes their response will be via an assessed discussion or debate. I always have a few students per descriptive class who insist that they just can’t annotate while they read (and there are always a few teacher participants in my workshops who insist that they’ve never done it and do my for me see no need to essay my hometown, now). Before these folks can authentically use the strategy of purposeful annotation, they need to develop a growth mindset on the issue.

Rather than “I don’t do that” or “I can’t do that,” I urge them to instead say, “I’ve not done that before” or “I’ve not been able to do that before.” For my students who say they can’t, I watch them read and, more often than not, I see them zoning out in the middle of a page, or doing the “My eyes read it but my brain didn’t” thing that we all do. Do My Online? Annotation, I’ve found, can help my students focus on a text, especially when that annotation is purposeful rather than “fill in the margins as much as you can.” And then there are those students who just read, understand, and retain it all. I try coaching them into the mindset that purposeful annotation is meant to make their post-reading work both stronger and essay my hometown more efficient. Qiqi Yan Thesis? By choosing to annotate only portions of the text that they want to descriptive, address further in the writing or speaking we’ll be doing after reading, they’re allowing their brain to leave those breadcrumbs on california critical thinking skills, the page rather than keeping those notes in their brains (for an awesome article on how not writing things down keeps information in your brain’s rehearsal loops, check this out.) Time out: what about teachers who see no value in descriptive my hometown annotation?

I know some readers are coaches, administrators, PLC leaders, department chairs, and so on, and if you’ve been trying to push close reading or annotation at road safety, your school, you’ve probably run into resistant folks. Descriptive Essay? Here are a few things to think about: Are you referring to annotation as close reading? See the video below (or click here to view at Youtube). Instead of requiring all teachers to use a complicated coding system when teaching their kids to annotate, empower them with the idea of essay sample, purposeful annotation. The means need to fit the ends. Descriptive Essay? Think deeply about the why . Use my “Why teach…” section above to help. Share this Eric Barker article with them, particularly #1 and the concept of rehearsal loops. Annotation allows us to get our 1-2 “I could expand on these in safety phd thesis the post-reading writing or speaking task” thoughts on paper and out of our brains’ rehearsal loops. This empties our brains, and that’s a good thing, as the post’s author explains. Fight relentlessly against this becoming busywork.

The thing is, annotation totally becomes busywork when we expect all students to do a ton of it . Some learners like annotating the essay my hometown, crud out of essays on robinson, things; others naturally don’t add a jot or tittle to the margins of a text. To help all kids benefit from purposeful annotation then, we need reasonable expectations — and that’s why I expect every kid to include 1-2 thoughtful annotations per page. “Thoughtful,” you say. “Wow. That’s so incredibly descriptive, Dave. Thank you. For nothing.” If that’s confusing, go back up to the comparative examples I gave a few sections above. One more thing: try to coach students out of the essay, “I’m going to read it through one time without annotating, and on robinson and religion then another time with annotating.” If they’re doing this because they’re confused on the first read-through, show them how to break down difficult sections of a text and paraphrase or summarize the descriptive essay, gist — this kind of annotating aids comprehension. On Family? On the descriptive essay my hometown, other hand, if they’re doing this because they just don’t feel like it or they don’t like it, we want to help them get the on family recipes, hang of essay my hometown, annotating as they read, keeping their purpose for reading in the front of their mind . The point of having kids do this is skills, helping them efficiently internalize a purpose for reading, read toward that purpose, and descriptive essay then write or speak in line with that purpose. Finally, refer back to your annotations after reading and on family use them to work smarter. You’ll know you’re doing purposeful annotation right when looking back on your annotations after reading results in an easier time with the post-reading task, be it writing, discussion, debate, or learning new content. Unlike back in the day when I would tell my kids to close read an article, I feel good and clear when I teach them and expect them to descriptive essay, purposefully annotate instead. If you do something like this, or something totally different, I’d love to hear it.

And, as always, your critiques are welcome, too. So much of what I share on is the epitome of “rough draft thinking,” down to the smallest, most annoying typos #128578; (Sorry about those.) 73 Responses to for me, Purposeful Annotation: A “Close Reading” Strategy that Makes Sense to My Students. I totally agree with you. I’ve been saying the same thing to descriptive my hometown, the teachers I work with. And am disappointed and concerned when I hear of teachers that assign annotating or journaling with NO purpose in mind.

For those teachers students I feel sorry for them; they are not findng a purpose for reading in depth. Carla, thank you! We can spread some sanity on this issue, I think. Share this post liberally, dear comrade #128578; Hey Dave! You nailed it here.

Annotating while I read helps me to comprehend, remember, and perhaps apply what I have learned through the reading. I have had teachers who want to take annotation and make it cute with symbols, but without the essays, written thought of the reader, they do very little (if any) good. Descriptive? You articulated this thinking well in your article! Thank you! Christy, it’s always great to hear from you! Thanks for the feedback and I hope all is well in IL and OH! This semester I have tried a purposeful annotation approach-I put four students in a reading group and gave the group 4 reading threads-writer’s craft, plot, character development, and theme. Each student was given a thread to follow that came with some questions that helped them to think deeper about the essays recipes, text. They were asked to annotate and mark places where they felt they could go to descriptive, to answer the questions on essays on robinson, their thread.

In other words, no one wrote out my hometown, answers to reading questions, they just kept track of where this information could be found through their annotations, Once a week we had a group quiz where everyone brought their annotated texts to essays, class to use to descriptive my hometown, answer 3 essay-sque questions about the chapters they read that week. I make sure each question draws on at least 2+ of the threads so everyone has something to say, and at least half can pull from their annotations. They find these quizzes hard/difficult because they ask them to really think about the text. they also find them meaningful because they help them to understand what is happening in the text, give them an opportunity to california thinking skills, talk about difficult spots and get to a point of essay, understanding, and do my homework provide them with the opportunity to collaborate. They all get the descriptive, same grade which is a mere 20 points in poetry essay sample the informal assessment column, but they take these quizzes so seriously! It is essay my hometown, better than discussion, reading questions, or actual individual quizzes because they understand the text. I have not had to qiqi yan thesis, give 1 lecture about The Scarlet Letter, and yet they are able to relate to McCarthyism, Puritanism, and my hometown the Gothic Romantics which we study in essays class. I find giving my students a reason to my hometown, read and california thinking skills annotate so important for descriptive essay, self-reliance and do my gaining the confidence to descriptive essay my hometown, understand difficult literature. Dave – love your ideas and thoughts on purposeful annotation. This skill helps my special ed students break down text, save unknown words or statements for later discussion, and summarize sections.

We are still working on making it a more autonomous skill, but it’s never busy work – it’s purposeful. :). Thanks for essays and religion, your info and descriptive essay my hometown sense of qiqi yan thesis, humor. Stacy, that’s my pleasure. I can tell you’re intentional with this, and descriptive that’s the key, I think. Take care Stacy #128578; It’s Saturday night, and a great time to do a little educational reading of Dave Stuart Jr.’s writing.

Student ownership of education, that you touched on, is the topic that has my mental wheels turning. Student ownership of poetry essay, education reminds me of some notes I took during my In-Service days this Fall. Descriptive? The notes listed research results done by sample, Dr. Robert Marzano on activities that had the highest effectiveness on student learning. The top two educational “activities” I noted for all subject areas were students tracking their own progress, and descriptive essay my hometown students setting their own learning goals. Qiqi Yan Thesis? When I think of my students that struggle to “own” their education, it strikes me that often these are the same students that may need my assistance in breaking down an assignment into bite size pieces that can be digested and completed bit-by-bit. Really, setting educational goals need to happen in descriptive my hometown the same way—learning goal by learning goal. This would look like an safety IEP that is reviewed and tweaked every couple of weeks, rather than once a year, and would be written one-on-one between the essay, teacher and safety phd thesis student.

Practicing goal setting and descriptive essay my hometown analysis of the poetry essay sample, learning results between myself and my students could very well lead to descriptive essay my hometown, students owning and qiqi yan thesis embracing their education, if I help my students set obtainable goals that would lead to successful outcomes. And here you thought you were writing about purposeful annotation. Descriptive Essay? :- Thanks, Dave, for essays on robinson crusoe and religion, your scholarly thinking and willingness to share your thoughts with me! I’m proud of you. (Cousin) Shelley. Shelley, at first when I was reading this comment in essay my inbox, I was like, “Wow, I am feeling what this person is saying — it’s almost as if we’re related.” And then, sure enough, we were #128578; Ownership of learning is at the forefront of sample, my thinking and seeking this year.

I think the process you describe makes sense, too — you are far ahead of descriptive my hometown, me in your thinking! Always good to hear from you Shelley! I hope all is well in Cale #128578; Years ago , I tried to convince my middle school colleagues the importance of annotating and essay they just could not accept it. Finally, years later after some in descriptive my hometown service, many have accepted it as a way to essays, learn. I am so happy that you and others in the education world are writing about the value of this great strategy to descriptive my hometown, aid comprehension as well as speaking and writing. I am truly grateful to you. Bev, I hope this article helps people see what annotation is essays crusoe, good for (and also what it’s not good for). Take care, and thank you for your comment!

Thanks Dave! I appreciate the intentional direction that “purposeful annotation” brings to the discussion about close reading. Kids are tired of doing meaningless work and I am tired of point grubbing responses. We have better things to do! It’s seriously my pleasure, Don. I am also tired of it, and we can’t blame the kids, can we? Take care!

Holy crap. Hands down, the best info on annotating I’ve ever seen. This is descriptive essay my hometown, seriously the road safety, bomb-diggity. That’s high praise, Carianna — thank you so much! It is always a pleasure to meet someone who “gets” what comes out of my brain #128578; Good grief! Brilliant! I took notes while reading this!

I learned more reading this than I have in “PD” — in quotes because those seem more beneficial for those giving (credit, $) than for those dying through it. It’s so good to descriptive my hometown, hear that this was worth your time, Ebonye76. Thank you for your kind words #128578; Awesome job with the content on your website! I am 5th grade teacher and california critical thinking have been using your ideas and adapting them for my classroom (lots of good discussion lately) The articles of the week are awesome! I recently did one where I introduced it on Monday and we had a debate on essay, Friday (yes, 5th grade) To my surprise, the strongest “debater” was one of california test (cctst), my students who reads at a 1st grade level! The evidence he brought was amazing (this is descriptive essay, after I was told that the students couldn’t do it!) Anyway thanks! Question: How would you go about using NEWSEla in a small group setting?

Maybe using one article for the week, but for a different purpose. Just trying to phd thesis, get some ideas! Thank you for essay, your time. Jim, I hugely appreciate the feedback! I’m thrilled that the work I’m sharing translates into a 5th grade setting. Do be careful with some of my articles as the content of one (it was actually a Kelly Gallagher AoW) recently raised some controversy in Texas (it was the “What is ISIS?” article). Isn’t it thrilling when a kid comes alive through debate?

I would probably do as you propose using Newsela with a small group — I’d try it, see how it worked, and tweak as needed. Keep dominating life, Jim! I really like newsela because it help me to differentiate my instruction to homework online for me, meet the needs of my students with different lexile levels while maintaining the descriptive my hometown, same topic-excellent new resource I have been using today. Hi Dave! So I see how we can annotate informational texts, but how would we go about having the kiddos annotate in their novels? Ideas there? Thanks! Erin, post-it notes are useful for annotating school novels. I’ve also had much success with students in different class periods conversing with each other on post it notes in a class set of novels according to specific purposes for reading. Dave, I couldn’t embrace the essays on family, concept of “doing close reading” when “reading closely” suffices to name the process by which we make sense out of difficult text. Thank you again for spreading the word about how to essay, encourage meaningful, purposeful work.

Exactly what Susan said, Erin #128578; Thank you, Susan, for giving me things to california critical skills (cctst), think about #128578; Thanks! I did plan on using post its. I just don’t want them to descriptive my hometown, go post it crazy,and was looking for more ideas on using those post its. I want them maybe to pick one and write longer about it at least once a week, but I’m thinking then kids will only california skills (cctst) see that as a “task” to complete–write a post it so I can get the assignment of writing in my notebook about descriptive essay my hometown it. They need to write about their reading, but I just cannot read 120 post its or responses weekly. Essay? Thoughts? Yes, you cannot possibly read that much — I agree. Essay? You could grade one of those responses per essays on robinson kid per descriptive my hometown book.

You could also have students contribute to a whole-class, graded (and taught) discussion based on those post-its, too. This saves you some grading and gives them precious practice in what Erik Palmer calls the neglected language arts of speaking and listening. I really like this idea of california, incorporating whole class mandatory discussion. I can see how I can do that with my read aloud for descriptive, sure, but not sure how to handle it when they are all in different books. Love love love your awesome blog. Stupendous ideas!

Erin, it’s really tricky with student choice books — that’s one of the homework for me, beauties of occasionally doing the whole class book. Descriptive? Thank you Erin! I completely agree with your conclusion that ownership of poetry, learning, or lack of, has a major impact on student success. Can it be something that can be taught? In the meantime,I am excited to teach a lesson on essay my hometown, purposeful annotating to my third graders tomorrow! Mary, I’m thrilled that you agree — and essay sample I do think that ownership of learning can be taught; I think it’s a skill that must be learned. However, I don’t think any single teacher or person can be expected to teach this to every single kid. Instead, I aim to move each student further toward ownership; if ownership were the alphabet, I want my G kids, with minimal ownership, to move closer to essay my hometown, Z — yet I don’t expect them all to arrive at Z. I came across your article with the purposes if gaining a deeper understanding of annotating. In observing classes.

I see books filled with annotations. Students report “having to annotate a certain way” and feeling stressed that it is not done right. Others report they don’t understand the purpose behind annotating entire books in this way. They don’t enjoy reading like this. Recipes? They are not owning their learning, but rather complying to the rules in essay the class. On Robinson Crusoe And Religion? Not what I would want for seniors. As someone who was never taught in this way, I am trying to descriptive essay my hometown, understand more. I found your article helpful to gain some insight into on robinson and religion the teacher’s purpose, but also be able to ask better questions on behalf of the students. Thank you for descriptive, getting me started! Laurie, thanks so much for taking the time to write — I’m so glad this helped a bit.

It sounds like you and I are in the same place: dissatisfied with top-heavy systems of crusoe and religion, annotation that don’t allow room for student autonomy. Be in touch if I can be of further service, Laurie! What a great post. I’m planning on using your methods to introduce annotation to my seventh graders tomorrow. I think the key is in your two steps: why we’re reading and what are we doing with the reading once we are done…being purposeful! I linked to it in my most recent blog post: this has been fantastic.

I’m so glad to hear that, D! You speak my language, Dave! After reading this post, I’m feeling much enthusiasm about the descriptive essay my hometown, upcoming school year! Michelle, I love finding people who speak the language. That’s why I write #128578; Just found this entry and essays I’m really glad I did. I’m a big proponent of annotation but have been looking to do it in a way that is more purposeful and efficient. Essay My Hometown? This makes perfect sense. It’s like applying another best practice, backwards planning to the strategy. That is, setting the goal first, then tailoring the activity to fit that goal. Thank you for posting this.

I’m looking forward to discovering all of the wonderful bird-covered trails my students leave behind! I stumbled across this while I was preparing for a meeting with my son’s guidance counselor. He’s in 10th grade Pre-AP English and, for on robinson, the second year in a row, he’s being required to annotate every reference on every page of essay, every book they read: R1–Main Idea: Blue/arrows. R2/R2a–Figurative Lanuage/Character Archetypes: Green/underline once. R3–Culture Society: Pink/squiggle underline. R4–Author’s Style: Orange/Circle.

R5–Comparing to qiqi yan thesis, other texts: No color/ *(write name of text/author) R6–Inferences Predictions: Yellow/Check mark. It is, as you described above, busy work. And he is descriptive essay, starting to hate literature. Thinking Skills? They never discuss the annotations. They just turn the book in after the test for a grade. My Hometown? No other feedback. They also do not have class discussions about the books. Do My Homework For Me? Nor do they use the my hometown, annotations for any written assignments.

He was homeschooled until last year and safety phd thesis I’m very frustrated with the quality of descriptive my hometown, education in what is supposed to be an advanced class. Melissa, this does sound tough — just keep in mind that his teacher is probably stressed, pressured, and dizzied by ever-increasing demands. Are the annotations indeed read by the teacher? I would recommend your son do exactly as I try to do when demands are placed upon me that inhibit my work — I modify them until they become helpful, and I try to do so with a humble demeanor so as not to draw anyone’s ire. Best to you and your son! Hi Melissa, I’m in the same situation you were a couple of poetry essay sample, years ago – but I’m preparing to meet with the teacher first.

Do you have any advice for me from my hometown, your experience? This annotation “task” is safety phd thesis, making my book loving 5th grader start to hate books and feel discouraged with herself. This is killing my heart. She is reading at a ridiculously slow pace for her and essay she says it’s because she can’t enjoy the book while she debating with herself – I’m reading that the main character is insecure and unsure about how to address the school principal – is this a character trait (should highlight in qiqi yan thesis yellow) or a problem (highlight in orange). Descriptive My Hometown? This is killing her and I’m not knowing how to essays on family, help. I loved seen her devour piles of descriptive essay, books, and read a few pages of some and drop them because she doesn’t like them. Essays On Robinson? Now it’s all assigned reading and this annotation thing is descriptive, pointless.

The book needs to look like a rainbow. My rule follower feels pressured to find many colors and make lots of essays on robinson crusoe and religion, margin notes because that’s what the teacher asks! She doesn’t have a problem understanding books. Descriptive My Hometown? Many times if she loves a book she asks me to read it so we can discuss it. Safety Phd Thesis? And we do. She understands what she’s reading without annotating it. I see the descriptive my hometown, point in annotating an article or a scientific paper where you are trying to analyze and assimilate as much info as you can. But what is the point of the color coding and margin notes in a novel? Dave and others here – what do you suggest?

Of course I’m supportive of the teacher in front of my daughter but this is qiqi yan thesis, killing me. Thanks! Hi Marta, thank you for writing. My Hometown? This sounds like a basic case of on robinson crusoe and religion, unintentional readicide (Kelly Gallagher has a book by that title, and you could use that book if you need to take things beyond the teacher). Descriptive My Hometown? As a teacher myself, let me say THANK YOU for 1) going to the teacher first, and do my homework for me 2) being supportive of the teacher in front of your daughter. You are handling things the way I would love for essay, a parent to handle a concern with any of my own practices. With that said, if the teacher doesn’t budge based on the reasons / anecdotes you’ve given here, I do think it’s important to move to the administration. California? My prayer is that it won’t come to descriptive my hometown, that and essays on robinson the teacher will modify his/her expectations. Keep us updated.

Dave, I am just discovering your articles, and I am intrigued! It is as bad as Pinterest where I am drawn from one thing to another and just can’t stop. In Louisiana, we give an End of Course test. I am all about annotating and marking up a text, but when it comes to standardized testing, it is done on the computer. Do you have any strategies for annotating a text they cannot write on? I am currently just making them write their annotations on a sheet of paper, but I am struggling with getting them to be sure that what they write is meaningful and descriptive not simply just a summary of homework online for me, what they are reading. Any advice will help! Heidi, what a privilege to have you on the journey #128578;

I sort of descriptive, shudder at these computer-based tests that ask kids to annotate. If I were reading an article online and road had to write using textual evidence from the article, I would pray that there be some way to take notes in the “text box” or whatever I’m supposed to essay my hometown, compose my writing in. There, I would keep the occasional note that might help me in my writing. In terms of pushing kids past summary, try They Say, I Say — I’ve written on it here on the blog, and it’s the work of Gerald Graff and qiqi yan thesis Cathy Birkenstein. Love your arguments on purposeful annotation (thank you!) and so enthusiastically, I prepared a lesson and tried it out yesterday for the first time. But today, I am feeling a bit discouraged.

Do the students you teach end up loving this or just us teachers because we see the value in it? I teach 7th grade reading and LA. Yesterday in class I went through the first page of a short story, demonstrating how I’d question or comment upon what I read in the margins (I was a terrific actress, commenting on descriptive essay, things and essays and religion jotting down a short note like “Wow – I wonder why he did that?”). For homework, they had to finish the remaining four pages. Today I had them work in descriptive groups and share their ideas about annotating (if they enjoyed it, what sorts of things did they find themselves commenting on, etc), and then to send me a “group share” list with their thoughts. Essays And Religion? Although a few kids liked it and admitted it made them notice more things, overwhelming the groups said they did not like it or find it useful. Quote: “We all said NO, we don’t like it. Essay? Why should we write our thoughts down when we think them?

Sometimes we don’t want our thoughts to be shared on a paper for everyone to see. We think it is not useful.” Now I never said they had to share their thoughts with each other, and in fact, mentioned I wouldn’t be grading them. Road Safety? (I requested they do about 3 annotations per page, but there was no set requirement) So do you think this is essay, this a typical 7th grader not wanting to essays on robinson crusoe and religion, work differently/ general aversion to trying something new? Or is commenting about things as they read not purposeful enough? I plan to essay my hometown, use this technique for a novel study coming up next week, but wished the students enjoyed it more. Is it a matter of giving them a few questions to focus on before we read, or is essays, this something they’ll grow to love? #128578;

Quick question: Why is it bad for students to my hometown, read the article once for for me, the gist and then annotate on the second read? I’m torn on descriptive essay my hometown, this one. LOVE your article – thank you so much. Captured so much about the ins and qiqi yan thesis outs of the process, the snarly tough parts of teaching kids to my hometown, annotate..with some great solutions.. Do you see any value in group annotation using, for instance, the app? I’m familiar with that application, Scott.

I could see value in group annotation, and I would at essays crusoe and religion, least be interested in experimenting with it. I’m spending some time this summer thinking about annotation and descriptive essay my hometown what we ask kids to do. Many of my students annotate to satisfy the teacher and not because it serves a purpose for essays on robinson crusoe, them. I think the goal of annotation is to equip them with that tool when they need it – obviously they won’t annotate everything they read, but it’s there when they need it. And I love the idea of beginning with the end in mind and linking it to something they have to do at the end. I’ve asked this question to several of my colleagues and I’m curious what you would say. Descriptive My Hometown? If I assign a novel for kids to read and annotate outside of california skills test (cctst), class, how much time should they spend reading vs. annotating?

I define reading as anything that doesn’t involve writing something down; annotation would be anything that involves pen, highlighter, or post-its. Could you give me an ideal percentage? Is it different for articles? Great question, David. I would say that with a novel it should be much less annotation than an my hometown article — it’s longer, we want kids to get into flow, etc.

Typically with novel homework I only expect kids to come back the next day with questions or insights — sometimes I set a number, sometimes I don’t. I am sure I picked that up from Kelly Gallagher once upon a time — he does something sometimes called “20 Questions,” I think. So I can’t give you a percentage, but there should be vastly more reading happening than annotating, in safety my opinion, when it comes to novels or just about essay anything else. I am so happy to have read this article with all of its attached side articles. I am really in a place to understand and incorporate this into safety my teaching this year. I have noticed lately that students have figured out that many teacher’s with their “close reading” and annotations have really become more busy work, and many have protested. I was in the process of creating a cheat sheet about Annotating (with explanations about why and descriptive my hometown how) when I read your article and it really explained exactly what I wanted to share with my students. You wrote this so long ago and it’s still relevant. Thank you, thank you, thank you. Lisa, what a lovely compliment: “You wrote this so long ago and it’s still relevant.” Thank you.

Your article on annotation has been so helpful to essays recipes, me. Essay? It supports and augments what I already teach my students to do with paper texts. My current challenge is how to teach students to poetry sample, annotate texts on the computer. Our state tests are now computerized and descriptive essay my students complain because they cannot annotate. Do you have any suggestions? Leigh, this is brave new world territory — I haven’t yet had students annotate digitally. On Family Recipes? Our state test was computerized, for a year, but then we dropped it or changed tests or something. Descriptive My Hometown? I can’t even keep the state tests straight in Michigan. It’s changed every year for at least the last three years. I’ve expected my students to purposefully annotate for a few years now, but I still struggle with the grading aspect. I would love to road safety phd thesis, get to the point where students would annotate without a grade attached because they see the value of those annotations (and want to follow the descriptive essay my hometown, breadcrumbs), but I’ve never gotten there.

Instead, I am overwhelmed with checking 100+ novels every unit for annotations and feeling as if I can never really grade them effectively and poetry efficiently. Any advice? For novels, I just have students come to class with 5+ insights, comments, questions, or confusions from the previous day’s or night’s reading. I put a grade in essay my hometown the gradebook, but it’s only not a zero if kids are obviously not doing the phd thesis, work (which I check at the start of class during the Think-Pair-Share we do with their 5+ things. I hope that helps a bit. This is smart and thoughtful. Thanks for posting. I appreciate that Lulu! Thanks for the article Dave.

I’ve re-entered the teaching realm after a 9 year “sabbatical” and am searching for descriptive essay, strategies to help my students. We are preparing to read some Puritan literature and poetry The Scarlet Letter. I am searching for some reading strategies to descriptive essay my hometown, “practice” on the required short readings then utilize them in essays on family recipes The Scarlet Letter. I definitely see the purpose of purposeful annotation and believe I understand the gist of it. You mentioned, though, that you don’t use it a lot throughout a novel. How can I utilize this strategy for essay, The Scarlet Letter? This was exactly that which I didn’t know I was looking for. I don’t know if that made any sense but thank you for on robinson crusoe, this article.

I took AP English classes in high school with endless amounts of busywork annotating. Today, in college a professor asked me to annotate an article and write a reflection. The reflection is easy but I had no idea how to essay my hometown, annotate this in a way that made any sense. That frustration and angst I recall so fondly from high school flooded back into me. You’d think that a college sophomore could annotate one simple article but I put it off for weeks because I didn’t want to turn it in and have the essays on robinson, professor hand it back to me because my annotations didn’t make sense. Finally, in desperation I did a google search. Descriptive Essay My Hometown? This one blog entry explained annotating better than every English class I’ve ever taken combined. THANK YOU.

Paige, this was kind of an incredible piece of praise. Road Safety Phd Thesis? Really — amazing. Descriptive Essay? Thank YOU! Thanks for qiqi yan thesis, sharing the Harvard’s six reading habits! These will be very helpful as I redesign a critical reading course. You are all very smart. Wonderful article! Love the part about essay student’s ownership of their education. Thanks for this post, Dave! I have been teaching English Language Arts for 16 years, and essays crusoe and religion I have the descriptive essay, most difficult time teaching kids to annotate because I have never needed to do so.

I tend to do it all in my head as I am reading. Most of my students are incapable of california thinking test (cctst), that though. Your article helps a lot. I wish I had discovered it at the beginning of the school year though. Thank you for this, Dave.

What is your view of digital annotations? We’re a 1:1 school, and I bounce back and forth between wanting my students to read a physical book (I teach biblical studies, so the Hebrew Bible/New Testament), or offering the option to read the descriptive essay, text online. Would you find doing annotations online to be as effective as writing annotations? Kay, I think digital annotations can be done just as purposefully as handwritten ones. I don’t ask students to essay, use digital annotation much because I’m not anything class to descriptive, a paperless classroom. I suppose, though, that the sample, only time I use digital annotations is descriptive my hometown, when I am reading the Bible online — so, if you were my teacher asking me to do something like that, I’d be doing something that was pretty natural!

After 10 years of teaching ESL at a community college, I was just (and I mean just) hired to teach a course called “College Reading” at a small liberal arts college. Thank you for clarifying something crucial – for me and for my students! And thanks for the links you provided … I am so happy to have discovered your words at the beginning of our homeschooling journey. My daughter is a freshman. On Family Recipes? Your call for ownership of one’s education echo my thoughts exactly and I’m thrilled that you have given me insight into this tool as well as all of the helpful links. She is taking a Socratic discussion course through the my hometown, Well-Trained Mind Academy and is already enjoying “The Art of Argument”, although we will certainly check out “They Say, I Say” upon your recommendation.

Thank you!

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Sustainable Development in Kazakhstan Essay. The Republic of Kazakhstan is continuing to develop its extensive petroleum reserves in the Tengiz region of the northeastern part of the Caspian Sea. Large quantities of by-product sulfur are being produced as a result of the removal of hydrogen sulfide from the oil and descriptive, gas produced in the region. Lack of local markets and on family, economic considerations limit the traditional outlets for byproduct sulfur and descriptive essay my hometown, the buildup of excess sulfur is a becoming a potential economic and environmental liability. Thus, new applications for re-use of by-product sulfur that will benefit regional economies including construction, paving and waste treatment are being developed. One promising application involves the cleanup and treatment of mercury at a Kazakhstan chemical plant. During 19 years of operation at the Pavlodar Khimprom chlor-alkali production facility, over 900 tons of mercury was lost to the soil surrounding and beneath the buildings. The Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Benefication (Almaty) is leading a team to develop and demonstrate a vacuum-assisted thermal process to extract the mercury from the soil and concentrate it as pure, elemental mercury, which will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process. The use of locally produced sulfur will recycle a lowvalue industrial by-product to treat hazardous waste and render it safe for return to the environment, thereby helping to solve two problems at once. SPSS chemically stabilizes mercury to mercuric sulfide, which has a low vapor pressure and phd thesis, low solubility, and then physically encapsulates the material in a durable, monolithic solid sulfur polymer matrix.

Thus, mercury is placed in a solid form very much like stable cinnabar, the form in which it is found in nature. Previous research and essay, development has shown that the essay, process can successfully encapsulate up to 33 wt% mercury in the solid form, while still meeting very strict regulatory standards for leachable mercury (0.025 mg/l in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure). The research and descriptive my hometown, development to deploy Kazakhstan recycled sulfur for road, secondary applications described in my hometown this paper is being conducted with support from the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and road safety, the U.S. Department of Energy Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (DOE IPP). Since the breakup of the former Soviet Union, Kazakhstan, like the other newly independent states (NIS), has taken steps to rebuild its economy from the ground up. Unlike other small NIS however, Kazakhstan is fortunate to possess huge potential petroleum reserves in the Tengiz region adjacent to essay my hometown the Caspian Sea. Opportunities to exploit these indigenous natural resources have attracted international investment capital (e.g., ChevronTexaco, ExxonMobil, Eni-Agip) enabling rapid construction and deployment of productive oil and gas wells. Do My Homework Online? For example, ChevronTexaco and the National Kazakhstan company “KazMunayGas” have formed a partnership known as TengizChevroil (TCO), which is descriptive currently producing 13 million metric tons (284,000 bbl/d) of oil per year and road safety phd thesis, expects to descriptive reach 23 million metric tons per year by 2006. Figure 1. Map of Kazakhstan and the surrounding.

Figure 2. North Caspian Sea (left) and Kashagan region (right) where Agip-KCO will conduct petroleum exploration. Agip-KCO has signed an agreement with the Kazakhstan government for development rights in the Kashagan oil fields and expects initial production of 22 million metric tons per year in 2008, increasing to as much as 60 million metric tons per year. Thinking Test? The location of Kashagan and Tengiz oil fields in Kazakhstan can be seen in descriptive my hometown Figures 1 and 2. Kazakhstan oil and homework, gas is descriptive essay rich in qiqi yan thesis hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is removed as elemental sulfur during the production process. As a result, huge quantities of by-product sulfur are produced and stored in large stockpiles (see Figure 3). Kazakhstan based oil gas companies currently recover 2,000 to descriptive essay 3,000 metric tons per day of elemental sulfur from their product streams (approximately 500 tons of elemental sulfur is recovered for every 100,000 barrels of extracted petroleum in Kazakhstan) [1]. In 2000, total world production of elemental sulfur was 57.4 million tons, including 1.4 million tons from Kazakhstan [2]. Essays On Family Recipes? The current sulfur stockpile exceeds 8 million tons at TengizChevroil and is large enough to be seen from the Space Shuttle.

The Kazakhstan Ministry of Environment, Figure 3. Sulfur storage at the TengizChevroil concerned about the chronic build up of descriptive essay these facility “mountains of sulfur” will impose fines for continued storage. Further, as petroleum production increases in the coming years, sulfur recovery will rise proportionally. Agip-KCO expects recovery of sulfur will rise to 5,770 metric tons/day at the Kashagan Field and TengizChevroil is planning an additional 2,400 ton/day facility to manage sulfur from the recovery of sour natural gas at the Tengiz field [2]. Anticipating potential problems associated with this expected buildup of by-product sulfur, EniAgip, the operating partner in Agip-KCO, commissioned Battelle Memorial Institute to poetry essay sample conduct a study to descriptive essay assess potential applications for excess sulfur [1]. Battelle identified a number of traditional markets for recycled sulfur in essays on robinson Europe and the U.S. My Hometown? including phosphate fertilizer (50%), sulfuric acid, detergents, and other chemicals, metal and fiber industries, paint manufacture, rubber products, paper and pharmaceuticals. Lack of local markets and the cost associated with transportation of the essays, sulfur to distant markets make these options less attractive in Kazakhstan. The study focused therefore, on applications that would have commercial benefit to the local economy, e.g., use of sulfur based asphalt and concrete for paving, construction, and descriptive my hometown, waste treatment. Homework? Sulfur can be used to essay supplement petroleum-based bitumen in asphalt paving applications. California Critical Thinking Test? As much as 50% by weight of the asphalt binder in asphalt concrete can be replaced with elemental sulfur. This would allow Kazakhstan, Russia, and other former Soviet Union countries to easily extend the output of their.

Figure 4. Descriptive? Sulfur modified concrete roadway demonstration at Tengiz asphalt refineries and skills, aid region-wide efforts to upgrade the highway infrastructure. Furthermore, the use of sulfur in asphalt concrete does not require any special additives and normal asphalt road paving equipment can continue to be utilized as the temperature of the asphalt binder is normally kept above the melting point of sulfur. In addition to essay the use of sulfur in poetry sample asphalt concrete, polymer-modified sulfur can be utilized as a 100% replacement of the Portland cement binder in concrete. The properties of polymer-modified concrete are comparable to Portland-based concrete. Descriptive My Hometown? Polymer-modified concrete is already a specialty concrete in Canada and the United States and is recognized by the American Concrete Institute. In 2002, KK Interconnect (KKI), JSV, coordinated a large-scale demonstration project at Tengiz to install a 560m stretch of roadway using a standard asphalt plant and 2000 tons of a sulfur concrete mixture (Figure 4). More recently, a sulfur extended asphalt demonstration was completed by the company Rockbinder in Atyrau, the oil capital of Kazakhstan. These demonstration projects have helped open the door to new opportunities for secondary enduse of sulfur within Kazakhstan and surrounding countries and identified areas for essays and religion, further engineering research and development. For example, large-scale production of sulfur polymer in descriptive my hometown Kazakhstan will require specialized equipment to precisely control mixture parameters. For Me? For optimal performance and safety, traditional asphalt paving equipment will need to be modified for reduction of odorous emissions.

While the current formulation of sulfur polymer has been successfully demonstrated, additional RD may reveal new formulations that reduce overall cost and improve performance. Elemental sulfur is a thermoplastic material that can be melted at 119°C, mixed with aggregate and then cooled to form a solid product. The U.S. My Hometown? Bureau of Mines determined that it could be reacted with the addition of a small quantity of organic modifiers to form a sulfur polymer cement (SPC) that has added strength and durability compared with elemental sulfur [5]. When combined with aggregate, SPC can be used in place of on family conventional, hydraulic (e.g., portland) cement concrete for construction applications.

These include poured concrete footings, floors, walls, tanks, etc. and pre-cast concrete products such as road barriers and guard rails, railroad ties, curbs, blocks/walls, etc.) Additional potential applications include fabrication of synthetic aggregate to form roadbed underlayment and for use in forming artificial reefs at the oil recovery sites in the Caspian Sea. In these applications, the sulfur polymer is heated above the melt temperature, mixed with sand or stone aggregate, and then cooled to form concrete. SPC concrete has high compressive strength and is resistant to attack in harsh chemical environments so it is descriptive my hometown ideal for use in chemical production facilities. Unlike conventional hydraulic cement, SPC concretes do not require water for mixing and curing and thus are suitable for use in arid environments. Potential opportunities to use SPC for construction, paving, and essays recipes, chemical/industrial applications are beginning to emerge to help offset the essay my hometown, need for low-cost building materials and infrastructure upgrades in Kazakhstan’s post-Soviet economy. Further implementation of construction applications for recycled sulfur in Kazakhstan is one of the objectives of the current project.

Development of the capacity to produce viable secondary end-use products from the by-product sulfur will reduce the negative economic liability associated with safe storage and/or disposal of. the sulfur reserves, and generate a potential positive income as the essays, applications for SPC are exploited. The cost for descriptive essay my hometown, producing and delivering these products will be minimized based on the availability of raw materials and local production. Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification. Under support from the U.S. Department of do my Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has pioneered the use of SPC for environmental restoration and waste management applications including treatment of a wide range of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes [610]. SPC can be used to simply physically encapsulate the waste (SPC microencapsulation) and has been demonstrated for treating radioactive and mixed waste contaminated ash, soil, sludge, and evaporator concentrates. In a previous effort sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, BNL established feasibility of using Kazakhstan sulfur for the production of descriptive sulfur polymer cement (SPC) and its use for the encapsulation of waste [8].

Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) is a related process that chemically stabilizes and physically encapsulates the waste. The latter process was more recently developed to qiqi yan thesis specifically treat elemental mercury and mercury contaminated soil, sludge and descriptive my hometown, debris. The resulting final waste form product is homework durable under long-term disposal conditions and successfully immobilizes contaminants from the descriptive essay, environment. SPSS is a two-stage process. In the essays on family, first stage, mercury and/or mercury-contaminated materials are reacted with the SPC and other reagents to form mercuric sulfide, which has a low vapor pressure and essay my hometown, low solubility. The stabilized mercury product is a dispersible powder that is then heated with SPC to form a homogeneous molten mixture. When cooled, the product is physically encapsulated in qiqi yan thesis a solid brick-like material. The final product is non-dispersible and retains mercury from escaping in the gas phase or through leaching in groundwater.

Previous Figure 5. Pilot-scale SPSS Process equipment installed at BNL research and development has shown that the process can successfully encapsulate up to descriptive essay 33 wt% mercury in the solid form, while still meeting very strict regulatory standards for leachable mercury (0.025 mg/l in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure)[10]. A pilot-scale SPSS process system is shown in Figure 5. Mercury Problems at Pavlodar. The Pavlodar Chemical Plant in eastern Kazakhstan was constructed by the Soviet Union beginning in the mid-1960s The large (10 square mile) complex employed 6500, including 500 engineers. Among other chemicals, chlorine and do my online, caustic soda were routinely produced by electrolysis of descriptive my hometown a salt solution in a mercury cathode cell. Typical of this production method, spills and losses of mercury to evaporation were common. One report estimates that the total quantity of mercury lost was in the neighborhood of 3000 tons [11].

Since the fall of the Soviet Union, revenues from plant operations have declined drastically, and the plant is in financial and physical disrepair. For example, large spills of poetry essay toxic mercury used for the production of chlorine and alkali have gone without remediation due to lack of funds. Remediation of mercury-contaminated soil at descriptive, Pavlodar, in collaboration with a related project supported by the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is one of the objectives of this proposed work. A vacuum-assisted thermal retort system will be used to remove and condense mercury from the soil beneath and around the plant (see companion paper at critical thinking test, the REWAS conference). The residual elemental mercury that is collected will then be treated using SPSS. Under support from ISTC and DOE IPP for this newly funded project, a pilot-plant will be constructed at Pavlodar to produce SPC from Kazakhstan sulfur. Descriptive? The resulting SPC will be used to conduct various demonstration projects including the essays recipes, production of SPC-based concrete products and the treatment of residual mercury that has been removed from the soil beneath and descriptive essay my hometown, around the Pavlodar Chemical Plant. Summary and Conclusions. Although faced with many of the difficult problems shared by other former Soviet countries, Kazakhstan is do my for me fortunate to possess large reserves of petroleum that are just now being exploited. However, Kazakh oil and gas is typically high in H2S that must be removed prior to sale on the open market.

The by-product sulfur currently has limited commercial pathways for recycling and re-use and is accumulating at descriptive essay my hometown, a rapid rate. Over 8 million tons are already being stored and with new oil reserves scheduled to come on line within the essay, next several years, this quantity will continue to grow rapidly. If left unresolved, the descriptive my hometown, potential environmental and economic liabilities associated with the stored sulfur will pose an increasing risk for the international oil gas oil companies operating in Kazakhstan. However, with creative solutions such as described in qiqi yan thesis this paper, a plan for sustainable development that balances the production of by-products with appropriate cost-abating recycling options can be realized. The authors would like to thank Mr. Essay My Hometown? James Noble (US DOE), Mr. Andrew Hood, and Ms. Homework Online? Laura Schmidt-Williams (US Department of State) for their support of this project and Dr. Artur Akhmetov (Pavlodar Chemical Plant) for his assistance in providing logistical assistance. 1. Essay? Levine, R.M. and G.J.

Wallace, The Mineral Industries of the Commonwealth of Independent States, 2000; USGS, 2001. 2. Ober, J.A. 2001. U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries, January 2001. Sulfur. U.S. Geological Service, Washington, DC. 3. Oil Gas Journal, December 23, 2002, page 30. 4. Beall, P.W., and J. M. Essays? Neff, Development of essay Sulfur Modified Concrete and Asphalt Program for Agip-KCO (Kazakhstan), Internal Report to on robinson crusoe Eni-Agip.

5. Sullivan, T.A., and W.C. McBee, Development and Testing of Superior Sulfur Concretes, Report of Investigations 8160, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC, 1976. 6. Kalb, P.D., and my hometown, P. Road Safety Phd Thesis? Colombo, “Modified Sulfur Cement Solidification of Low-Level Wastes,” BNL-51923, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, October 1985. 7. Kalb, P.D., J.H. Heiser, and P. Colombo, “Modified Sulfur Cement Encapsulation of Mixed Waste Contaminated Incinerator Fly Ash,” Waste Management, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp.147-153, Pergammon Press, New York, 1991. 8. Kalb, P.D., L.W.

Milian, S.P. Descriptive My Hometown? Yim, R.S. Dyer, and W.R. Michaud, “Treatability Study on the use of By-Product Sulfur in Kazakhstan for the Stabilization of essay Hazardous and Radioactive Wastes,” Proceedings of the American Chemical Society Symposium on descriptive my hometown Emerging Technologies in Hazardous Waste Management IX, Pittsburgh, PA, Sept. 15-17, 1997. 9. Colombo, P., P.D. California Critical Skills Test? Kalb, and J.H. Descriptive My Hometown? Heiser, “Process for do my for me, the Encapsulation and Stabilization of Radioactive Hazardous and Mixed Wastes,” U.S. Patent No.

5,678,234, Oct. 14, 1997. 10. Kalb, P.D., D. Melamed; B. Patel, M. Fuhrmann, “Treatment of mercury containing waste” U.S. Patent No.6,399,849, June 4, 2002. 11. Yanin E.P., S. Heaven S., and M.A.

Ilyushchenko, “Mercury pollution in the environments of the chlor-alkal factory in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan,” Biogeochemistry and Gechemical Ecology: Selected Presentations of the descriptive my hometown, 2nd. Russian School of essays on family recipes Thought “Geochemical Ecology and the Biogeochemical Study of Taxons of the descriptive, Biosphere”, January 25-29, 1999, Moscow. – Moscow: GEOKHI, 2001, p. 90-97. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 7 March 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Sustainable Development in Kazakhstan. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page.

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Columbia MBA Essays for January and August 2015 Admission. Whoever designed Columbia Business School’s The MBA Application Process webpage deserves a design award. Descriptive? If you have not done so, take a look at that page. It does a really nice job laying out the admissions process in a visually appealing way. Columbia Business School has modified their MBA application essay set, but only one question has changed completely. Those applying for January and August 2015 entry will find that they are likely to spend as much time thinking about how to answer Columbia’s essay questions as answering them. Thinking (cctst)? Given the limited space applicants will have to work with, coming up with answers that stand out is critical. You can find testimonials from essay, my clients admitted for road phd thesis, CBS here. Since 2007, when I established my own consultancy, (I have been an MBA admissions consultant since 2001) I have been fortunate to descriptive essay my hometown, work with 24 clients admitted to Columbia Business School for either January or August admission.

Before discussing the road phd thesis essays, I will discuss who J-Term (January Entry) is for and differences between Early Decision and descriptive essay, Regular Decision for August Entry. For my analysis of recommendations for 2015 admission, please see here. For my analysis of Columbia Business School application interviews, please see here. The first thing to keep in mind about admission to both January Term and california critical thinking skills test, August Term (ED and RD) is that Columbia uses a rolling admissions system. While there are final deadlines, since applicants’ files are reviewed and decisions are being made as they apply, by the time that that the final deadlines have arrived most seats are already filled. Rolling admissions works just like buying assigned seats for essay, an airplane, movie, concert, etc. When they are gone, they are gone.

Columbia’s rolling admissions system is a differentiator from other top MBA programs because only Columbia uses this system. Rolling admissions is commonly used by EMBA programs. Here are some common issues that arise when considering J-term: Is J-term easier to poetry essay sample, get into than August entry? There is descriptive essay, much speculation on this issue, but no admissions data. All I know for sure is that relatively late application to essays on family, J-term has not prevented my clients from being admitted, whereas late application to descriptive my hometown, RD is a real problem simply from a seat availability perspective. In one way, J-term is clearly easier: Unlike an August entry RD and (and to a lesser extent ED) applicant, someone applying to Columbia J-term can really be assumed to prefer Columbia over all alternatives.

This can make interviews a bit easier in the sense that August entry Columbia alumni interviewers are notorious for being particularly aggressive at determining whether the interviewee’s first choice is critical thinking test, really Columbia. Since J-term has no real US rival, this topic can be easily dispensed with. Alternatives to J-term: There are no US alternatives to J-term worth mentioning if someone wants a January start. Kellogg and Cornell offer one year MBAs, but neither Kellogg nor Cornell start their programs in descriptive essay January and both are accelerated programs in terms of the number of courses taken. Only J-term makes it possible to do a full two-years of courses on essays on robinson crusoe and religion such an expedited basis. In addition, the Kellogg program is extremely restrictive, since one has to have the equivalent of an descriptive, undergraduate degree in qiqi yan thesis core business courses to attend it. Cornell is descriptive essay my hometown, also restrictive (Graduate degree or specialized professional certification required), while Columbia has no such restrictions. I have had clients who apply to J-term and IMD and/or INSEAD. Both IMD and INSEAD have January entry. Still J-term is an incredibly different program in terms of length and content from either of these top European programs. Homework? LBS, which does not have a January start, would also be another alternative to CBS in the sense that it can be completed on essay my hometown an accelerated basis.

Still I don’t have many clients who apply to both CBS J-term and LBS and as is generally the do my online for me case with US schools, I don’t think they pay much attention to non-US programs as competitors. Can an descriptive essay my hometown, August entry applicant reapply to J-term? Yes! You could be rejected from ED or RD for August 2014 entry and reapply for January 2015 entry. If you entered in January 2015, you would graduate in essays on robinson and religion the Class of 2016 with those who entered in August 2014. I have worked with a couple of reapplicants who were admitted to J-term after being dinged from the August entry for descriptive my hometown, that same graduating class. California Skills Test? The key issue is explaining why J-term is now a better choice. August Entry: ED Versus RD. Applying for Early Decision (ED) is ideal for anyone who considers Columbia to be their first choice and is ready by the application deadline of October 8th. Columbia takes ED very seriously, so I suggest you do as well.

CBS ED really is unique among top MBA programs and descriptive essay my hometown, the decision to commit to it should not be taken lightly. Every year many applicants to Columbia Business School have to deeply consider whether to apply to the ED or RD round. First keep the official statement from Columbia regarding ED in essays on family mind: Candidates have decided that Columbia is my hometown, their first choice and must sign the for me following statement of commitment within their applications: I am committed to essay, attending Columbia Business School and will withdraw all applications and decline all offers from qiqi yan thesis, other schools upon descriptive my hometown admission to Columbia Business School Applicants must submit a nonrefundable $6,000 tuition deposit within two weeks of qiqi yan thesis admission. In my experience, there are two types of applicants to descriptive, ED. Essays? The first type are those people who really consider Columbia as their first choice and sometimes make or hope to essay my hometown, make no other applications.

For this type of applicant, choosing ED is easy. The second type of applicant likes Columbia, but it is not necessarily their first choice. This type of poetry applicant applies to ED because it is perceived as easier to get admitted to than Regular Decision (RD). This type of applicant treats the $6000 deposit as an insurance policy in the event that they are not admitted to HBS, Stanford, and/or Wharton (I don’t know of any cases of essay applicants forfeiting $6000 to do my homework for me, go to other top programs, but suppose some one has done it). If they do get into HBS, Stanford, or Wharton and break their commitment to essay, Columbia, they lose $6000 and critical thinking skills test (cctst), make Columbia admissions mad. Can Columbia do anything aside from keeping the money?

No. For those who have no problem breaking oaths and losing $6000, treating ED as possible insurance is my hometown, a rational decision through clearly not an ethical one. Essays On Family? As an admissions consultant, my sole concern is helping my clients reach their admissions objectives, so I don’t pass judgment one way or another on this issue. Based on descriptive essay my hometown my sense of how seriously admissions takes ED, I was not at all surprised that the Columbia Admissions office did not respond to my request to meet with them last fall since I don’t advocate on behalf of their ED policy. No problem, I visited CBS anyway, attended a class, and met with former clients. I do recommend the homework January 7th Merit Fellowship deadline or earlier as optimal for applying to RD. While you can consider January 7th to be kind of descriptive a “Round Two Deadline,” I recommend you apply as soon as you are ready to do so. I would especially encourage those coming from groups with large numbers of applicants (American males from Wall Street and Indian males in particular), to make their applications to RD ASAP. Poetry Sample? That said, RD takes applications until April 15, 2015, so applications are still viable for descriptive essay, some applicants until quite late in sample the admissions cycle.

In general, applying late in RD is best for those with highly unusual backgrounds, stellar backgrounds, no need for merit scholarships and a love of gambling. In other words, if you are not exceptional, applying late in RD to Columbia is a very high risk activity. How to leverage RD to your advantage when applying to my hometown, other MBA programs in the First Round. If you are applying in and religion the first round, an ideal time to apply to Columbia is after you have completed all the descriptive essay my hometown applications that were due in September to mid-October. Assuming you are relatively freed up, while you are waiting for your R1 invites, apply to Columbia. This means you will be considered early in RD and that is an advantage because there will be more seats available. How to leverage RD to your advantage when applying to other MBA programs in the Second Round. Qiqi Yan Thesis? Since most R2 applications are due in descriptive essay January, applying to Columbia in November or December will still give you a relative advantage over those applicants that apply right before the Merit Deadline.

Again, the earlier, the better your chance for an available seat. I have taken the essay questions from the online application. Instructions: In addition to learning about california critical test (cctst), your professional aspirations, the Admissions Committee hopes to gain an understanding of descriptive essay your interests, values and poetry, motivations through these essays. Essay? How you answer these essays is at your discretion. There are no right or wrong answers and we encourage you to answer each question thoughtfully. The “What is your immediate post-MBA professional goal?” question, Essay 1, Essay 2 and Essay 3 are all required. What is your immediate post-MBA professional goal? Required by thinking test (cctst), all applicants.

75 characters including spaces!) Take this very short statement seriously. Last year, it was 100 characters long (and the year before that 200 characters), but it has now been cut to my hometown, 75 characters. Remember this is 75 characters, not words! This would be about sample, 10-20 words. Given the length, you can’t possibly expect to explain what you want to do short-term. That is descriptive essay, what Essay 1 is for. In fact, it is poetry, best to simply write this little statement after you have a good working version of Essay 1.

CBS actually provides examples of descriptive essay my hometown possible responses in the online application: Examples of possible responses: “Work in qiqi yan thesis business development for a media company.” “Join a consulting firm specializing in renewable energy.” “Work for descriptive essay my hometown, an investment firm that focuses on real estate.” As you can see from the above examples, CBS is looking for a short, but a very clear statement of what you intend to do after your MBA. If you have difficulty explaining your immediate post-MBA plans in the space given, I think that is likely an indication that your plans are too complex, vague, or otherwise not well thought out. What you state here should be backed up by poetry essay sample, what you discuss in essay my hometown Essay 1 (or the reapplicant essay for reapplicants) and essay sample, possibly in the other essays. If you can be clever or catchy in descriptive my hometown formulating this response that is fine, but it is a completely secondary consideration to simply stating something that is very clear and that is completely consistent with what you write in Essay 1. Being clever os not critical here, being clear is. Essay 1: Given your individual background and goals, why are you pursuing a Columbia MBA at this time? (500 words) (Maximum 500 words) This is a revision of the question from last year, which did not include “and goals.” Since it does mention goals, explain your goals here. While you will have stated your immediate post-MBA goals in on robinson 75 characters, you need to explain that and your longer goals here. Don’t worry about any redundancy, just make sure your answers are consistent. Be strategic and descriptive, thoughtful about you are wanting a Columbia MBA now: Given the importance of being able to state your post-MBA goal clearly in 75 characters or less as well as the need in Essay 1 to explain why you want a Columbia MBA now, is is critical that you be strategic and thoughtful in presenting your post-MBA plans and your reasons for wanting a Columbia MBA.

If you are having problems clearly articulating your goals either in Essay 1 or in the 75 character statement, I think Gap, SWOT, and ROI analysis are great ways for understanding what your goals are, why you want a degree, and how you will use it. The following image may not work for all browsers. If so, see here. Next, analyze your present strengths and weaknesses for succeeding in your present career. In particular, some of your greatest strengths may have been demonstrated outside of work, so make sure you are accounting for them. Strengths: What are you good at? Where do you add value? What are you praised for? What are you proud of?

Weakness: What are you bad at? What are you criticized for? What do you try to road, avoid due to descriptive essay my hometown, your own limitations? What do you fear? Next, analyze your situation in right now. What opportunities exist for your growth and success? What threats could limit your career growth? Balance Experience and Why Columbia?

Columbia is skills test, specifically asking why now in essay my hometown reference to your background as well as your goals. As result, you will need to explain “Why an MBA now?” in relationship to essay, who you are and what you have done so far. I think it is important that you provide Columbia with insights about your background, but don’t let your explanation of your past experience crowd out answering why you need a Columbia MBA now. Given limited space you need to tell a story about your background that connects to why you want an MBA. That story is likely to primarily relate to your professional background, but your personal experience, and your motivations are also important potential justifications for essay my hometown, why you want an MBA. Make it personal! By moving away from the formulaic standard “What are your long and short-term goals and why do you want an MBA now from Columbia”, it is clear that Columbia is homework for me, emphasizing personality and why MBA in this answer and just not goals and MBA. Descriptive? Therefore your answer to essays, this question should not merely be a one-dimensional answer focused solely on career goals. Essay My Hometown? At minimum your personal motivation for your goals should really come into play here.

1. Is there anything in the essay that repeats what is and religion, said in essay my hometown the other essays? If so, you can probably cut it out. 2. Do you find yourself needing to explain too much context about your background? If so, consider whether any of it can be explained in the Optional Essay. 3. On Family Recipes? Do you find yourself extensively name dropping? “I met with Anand Kumar (Class of 2006), Sally Johnson (Class of 2009), Taro Suzuki (Class of 2010), Anat Weinstein (Class of 2011), Mohammad Efendi (Class of 2012), and Tom Lee (Class of 2013)…” (Note all these names were made up and any relationship to actual Columbia alumni is merely coincidental). Descriptive My Hometown? If you do, consider cutting or summarizing it. Sample? Also consider whether this can be included in the Optional Essay.

4. Essay? Do a paragraph by california thinking test (cctst), paragraph and then a sentence by sentence search for my hometown, redundancy. When a client asks for my help in cutting words, that is what I do first. 5. Now the really hard part. You have a tight text and it is still over the word count. You have cut something “important.” Prioritize your content and eliminate low priority items. Killing good sentences is never fun, but sometimes is simply necessary. The day I visited Columbia Business School last year was when they rolling out their new branding campaign, At the poetry Very Center of Business (Thanks for the free breakfast. I could have taken a t-shirt too, but I make it a rule never to descriptive essay, wear a university’s t-shirt unless I am student or an for me, alumnus). After you watch the video, I suggest reading their detailed press release on At the Very Center of Business, which I will discuss below. Compared to my hometown, last year’s topic on New York City, this topic is actually wide enough to make for more potentially interesting answers. On one level, CBS is at the center because it is in do my online for me NYC . I could make the same totally cynical comment I made last year about how the focus on NYC here is a way to avoid the fact that their new campus will not be ready until 2017-2018 , but I would not do that.

I just did again! Sorry… I know the Columbia folks can take my jab, they are tough, they are New Yorkers. Anyway everyone knows you don’t go to Columbia Business School right now because of the essay my hometown state of the art facility (And after visiting CBS, NYU, Wharton, Cornell, as well as looking into Yale’s new building last fall, I can tell you the classrooms at Columbia are underwhelming) you go because of the quality of the faculty and and religion, adjunct faculty, the descriptive essay my hometown school’s deep connections to Wall Street and all other major industries in the city, the networking opportunities, the interning opportunities, the qiqi yan thesis diversity of my hometown CBS students, and the city of NYC. Qiqi Yan Thesis? Anyone who is considering Columbia and does not factor NYC into the equation would surely be missing a critical part of the descriptive school’s value proposition. I was recently talking with a potential client who did not quite get this value proposition because he was simply fixated on the classroom. While classroom technology plays a role in selecting a school, a full-time two-year MBA program at a top American school is simply not reducible to thinking test, the building. I think this is especially true of Columbia.

That said, at least in the class I visited, the professor was great, the students were friendly but highly engaged, and even though the whiteboard was old school (Just like in the video) and hard to descriptive essay, see, I was impressed. Columbia really is at the center of NYC, but so is NYU Stern (And given Stern’s greater proximity to Wall Street, Soho, start-ups, etc, I think I would be careful about claiming to be at the center of NYC). Of course, Columbia wants to claim that it is at the worldwide center of critical business. Descriptive Essay? Maybe, but it has no exclusivity in that regard, but don’t tell them that. I think the branding concept reflects this school’s desperate need to assert its self-importance and to essays crusoe, have applicants affirm this. Saying you are at the center is an incredibly narcissistic statement. “I am at the center” is essay, a statement of online self-importance. It is descriptive, pure arrogance. It reflects an underlying insecurity about poetry essay, one’s place in the universe, in other words, if someone tells you they are the center, assume they probably are not. At minimum, assume they have a strong need to be loved.

I have always maintained that Columbia needs to essay, feel loved. This is especially true in the interview process. It is also true in the essays. Poetry Essay Sample? Therefore, YOU MUST TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE COLUMBIA BUSINESS SCHOOL’S SENSE OF INSECURITY, ITS DESIRE TO BE LOVED, BY AFFIRMING HOW ITS CENTRALITY WILL BENEFIT YOU! Use the descriptive essay At the Very Center of Business branding campaign to california thinking skills test (cctst), help you brainstorm content for Essay 2: Which of these pillars will you take advantage of? Think about each of them to come up with 1-3 topics for this essay. -What specific research activities at Columbia really excite you? How will you use this research? Will CBS help you become a thought leader?

How? – See my suggestions for learning about Columbia in essay my hometown Essay 1 above. -How will leverage the phd thesis access you gain at CBS? In what ways? For what purpose? -What do you hope to gain from the community? -How will being at my hometown, the center help you have impact? What kind of impact do you want to have?

In Essay 1, you are explaining why you need an essay, MBA from Columbia now and would surely be addressing particular aspects of the MBA program in your answer. In Essay 2, you really are focused on explaining why being at the center itself would benefit you . The reasons might relate to your professional goals, but may very well be highly personal or most likely a combination of the essay my hometown two. Given the length, I suggest you focus on two to three ways you anticipate that being at the center will impact your experience. An effective answer here will provide the road reader with greater insight into your personality, interests, and descriptive essay, motivations. A bad answer might very consist of making a bunch of general comments about why NYC would be great, but not giving the reader into do my homework, any insight about you.

Essay 3: What will the people in descriptive your Cluster be pleasantly surprised to learn about qiqi yan thesis, you? (Maximum 250 words) This question did not change from descriptive, last year. I love “SURPRISE US” questions. Actually, one of the things I do in my initial consultations with potential clients is poetry essay sample, ask this question because it helps me understand whether the essay my hometown person I am talking to has really had to ever sell themselves as a person (and just for getting a job). California Skills (cctst)? Unlike Columbia, I don’t use it as a basis for selecting clients, but rather as way to gauge an applicant’s self awareness and ability to respond spontaneously to an unexpected question. The wording, pleasantly surprising , is really important. The topic(s) you should be positive aspects of who you are. This is an essay about how you will add value to your Cluster (If you have no idea what that is, see here). Good answers here are really engaging and very unique. I actually like this question quite a bit because it is a great way for descriptive essay, applicants to qiqi yan thesis, highlight some really unique aspect or aspects about essay, themselves. The point is that it should be something that would not be obvious about you.

The focus may be on something very specific that you did or something about qiqi yan thesis, your character. Whatever it is, it should not simply be pleasantly surprising, but also relevant in some way. It might be something that will add value to your Cluster. If it is highly personal, it should reveal a quality or aspect to you that is not merely interesting, but also something really worth knowing. A good answer here might involve an essay my hometown, unusual hobby or experience, but the possibilities are endless. Bad answers to this question will likely to do the following: -Focus on something that is relatively obvious from your resume. -Focus on something that does not really have any clear selling points about who you are.

Optional Essay: Is there any further information that you wish to poetry sample, provide the Admissions Committee? Please use this space to descriptive essay my hometown, provide an explanation of any areas of concern in your academic record or your personal history. On Family Recipes? (Maximum 500 words) As with other school’s optional questions, do not put an obvious essay for another school here. If you read the above, it should be clear enough that this is the place to explain anything negative or potentially negative in your background. Descriptive My Hometown? If you have no explanation for something negative, don’t bother writing about it. Thinking Test? For example if your GPA is 2.9 and you have no good explanation for descriptive my hometown, why it is 2.9, don’t bother writing something that looks like a lame excuse. This is more likely to hurt than help you. Essays On Family Recipes? In the same vein, don’t waste the committee’s time telling them that your GMAT is essay, a much better indicator than your GPA (the opposite is also true).

They have heard it before and they will look at both scores and can draw their own conclusions without you stating the obvious. That said, if you have a good explanation for a bad GPA, you should most certainly write about it.In addition to road phd thesis, GMAT/GRE, TOEFL, and GPA problems, other possible topics include issues related to recommendations, serious gaps in your resume, concerns related to descriptive essay, a near total lack of extracurricular activities, and major issues in your personal/professional life that you really think the admissions office needs to know about. You can certainly write on something positive here if you think its omission will be negative for on robinson crusoe and religion, you, but before you do, ask yourself these questions: 1. If they did not ask it, do they really need to know it? 2. Will the topic I want to discuss significantly improve my overall essay set? 3. Is the descriptive essay my hometown topic one that would not be covered from looking at qiqi yan thesis, other parts of my application? 4. Is the essay likely to essay, be read as being a specific answer for Columbia and poetry essay, not an obvious essay for another school? If you can answer “Yes!” to all four questions, it might be a good topic to write about. When judging reapplicants, Columbia makes it perfectly clear what they are expecting.

See here for their criteria. Clearly this essay gives you the opportunity to: 1. Showcase what has changed since your last application that now makes you a better candidate. 2. Refine your goals. Descriptive Essay? I think it is poetry essay sample, reasonable that they may have altered since your last application, but if the change is extreme, you had better explain why. 3. Make a better case for why Columbia is right for descriptive my hometown, you. For more about my many posts on do my for me reapplication, please see here. I have helped a number of reapplicants gain admission to descriptive my hometown, Columbia. Columbia Loves to on robinson crusoe and religion, Be Loved. One thing that is consistent about Columbia Business School is my hometown, that they want to sample, know that their school is your first choice. If you have an descriptive essay, alumni interview you can be expected to be asked about that very directly.

See here for my advice on essays on family Columbia interviews. Best of luck!