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Death Of A Salesman Essay Questions
nyu essay 3 tips Your paper must offer an argument. Coursework Questions! It can't consist in the mere report of your opinions, nor in a mere report of the nine elements, opinions of the coursework questions, philosophers we discuss. You have to defend the claims you make. You have to offer reasons to believe them. So you can't just say: My view is that P. The Thesis Essay Is! You must say something like: My view is that P. I believe this because. or: I find that the following considerations. provide a convincing argument for P. Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the salesman coursework questions, following thought-experiment will show that Q is not true. Of A Personal Essay Is! or: Descartes says that Q. I find this claim plausible, for death salesman coursework questions the following reasons. There are a variety of things a philosophy paper can aim to accomplish.
It usually begins by putting some thesis or argument on nine elements of the critical, the table for death salesman questions consideration. Then it goes on a persuasive speech on, to do one or two of the following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for the thesis are no good Defend the argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to believe the thesis Offer counter-examples to the thesis Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of of a salesman two opposing views about the wade essay papers, thesis Give examples which help explain the thesis, or which help to of a salesman questions, make the thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to they things, the thesis by their other views, though they do not come out and explicitly endorse the of a, thesis Discuss what consequences the thesis would have, if it were true Revise the thesis, in to write the light of of a salesman coursework questions some objection. No matter which of these aims you set for yourself, you have to explicitly present reasons for the claims you make . Best Topics A Persuasive Speech! Students often feel that since it's clear to them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument. But it's very easy to overestimate the strength of your own position. After all, you already accept it.
You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and you should treat your paper as an attempt to persuade such an audience. Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to reject. Of A Salesman Coursework! If you're to have any chance of persuading people, you have to start from common assumptions you all agree to. A good philosophy paper is modest and makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in support of it. People very often attempt to accomplish too much in a philosophy paper. The usual result of this is a paper that's hard to read, and which is full of inadequately defended and writing activities poorly explained claims. So don't be over-ambitious.
Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in your 5-6 page paper. Done properly, philosophy moves at a slow pace. The aim of death of a coursework these papers is for you to show that you understand the material and that you're able to think critically about it. To do this, your paper does have to show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to carried essay things, come up with your own theory, or that you have to make a completely original contribution to death salesman coursework questions, human thought. There will be plenty of school time for that later on.
An ideal paper will be clear and straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to other philosophers (see below), and will contain thoughtful critical responses to the texts we read. Death Salesman Coursework Questions! It need not always break completely new ground. But you should try to come up with your own arguments, or your own way of elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at in class. Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to talk to each other about what you want to argue in your paper. When you have your ideas worked out well enough that you can explain them to someone else, verbally, then you're ready to sit down and start making an outline. The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on its structure.
That is why it is important to carried essay they, think about these questions before you begin to write. I strongly recommend that you make an outline of death of a salesman questions your paper, and of the arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to they, write. Death! This lets you organize the points you want to papers, make in your paper and death questions get a sense for how they are going to creative childhood, fit together. It also helps ensure that you're in a position to say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to write a full draft of your paper. When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out what they're trying to say. Give your outline your full attention. It should be fairly detailed. (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.) I find that making an of a salesman, outline is at least 80% of the personal, work of writing a good philosophy paper.
If you have a good outline, the rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly. You need to leave yourself enough time to think about the topic and write a detailed outline. Only then should you sit down to write a complete draft. Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for coursework questions a day or two. Then you should come back to middle, it and death salesman coursework rewrite it.
Several times. At least 3 or 4. If you can, show it to your friends and get their reactions to creative writing essay childhood, it. Do they understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? All of this takes time. So you should start working on your papers as soon as the of a coursework, paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and I already know a lot about this subject, you can leave out a lot of basic explanation and write in a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to another. Best Topics To Write A Persuasive On! I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the right sort of death of a coursework questions clarity.
In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is obscure and complicated. Creative Essay Childhood! Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and salesman frustrating. The authors in question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of it. So do not try to emulate their writing styles. Make the structure of best a persuasive on your paper obvious. How can you do this? First of all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in the first case, on salesman coursework questions, the other hand. These will help your reader keep track of where your discussion is writing going.
Be sure you use these words correctly! If you say P. Thus Q. then you are claiming that P is a good reason to accept Q. You had better be right. If you aren't, we'll complain. Don't throw in a thus or a therefore to death of a questions, make your train of thought sound better-argued than it really is. Another way you can help make the structure of carried essay they your paper obvious is by telling the reader what you've done so far and what you're going to do next. You can say things like: I will begin by. Before I say what is wrong with this argument, I want to. These passages suggest that. I will now defend this claim. Further support for this claim comes from. Death Of A Salesman! For example.
These signposts really make a big difference. Consider the following two paper fragments: . We've just seen how X says that P. I will now present two arguments that not-P. My first argument is. My second argument that not-P is. X might respond to things, my arguments in several ways. For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because. Another way that X might respond to my arguments is by claiming that. This response also fails, because.
So we have seen that none of death X's replies to my argument that not-P succeed. Hence, we should reject X's claim that P. I will argue for the view that Q. There are three reasons to they, believe Q. Firstly. The strongest objection to Q says. However, this objection does not succeed, for the following reason. Death Of A Coursework Questions! Isn't it easy to roe v wade papers, see what the structure of these papers is? You want it to be just as easy in your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and death when you're reporting the views of some philosopher you're discussing.
The reader should never be in of a personal essay doubt about whose claims you're presenting in death of a salesman coursework questions a given paragraph. You can't make the essay activities school, structure of your paper obvious if you don't know what the of a questions, structure of the thesis of a personal is your paper is, or if your paper has no structure. That's why making an outline is so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully. These demands might seem to pull in opposite directions. (It's as if the first said Don't talk too much, and the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to meet them both. We tell you to be concise because we don't want you to ramble on about everything you know about a given topic, trying to show how learned and intelligent you are. Death Of A Salesman! Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and you should make sure you deal with that particular problem. Nothing should go into your paper which does not directly address that problem. Prune out everything else.
It is always better to roe v wade essay, concentrate on one or two points and develop them in depth than to try to death, cram in too much. One or two well-mapped paths are better than an impenetrable jungle. Formulate the central problem or question you wish to address at essay papers, the beginning of your paper, and keep it in mind at death coursework, all times. Essay Papers! Make it clear what the salesman coursework questions, problem is, and why it is a problem. Be sure that everything you write is relevant to carried essay they, that central problem. In addition, be sure to say in the paper how it is relevant. Death Salesman! Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by explain yourself fully is that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in one sentence. Of A! Explain it; give an example; make it clear how the point helps your argument. But explain yourself fully also means to be as clear and explicit as you possibly can when you're writing. It's no good to of a salesman, protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was.
Say exactly what you mean, in the first place. Part of what you're being graded on is how well you can do that. Pretend that your reader has not read the material you're discussing, and topics to write speech on has not given the of a questions, topic much thought in creative essay childhood advance. This will of course not be true. But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said.
Use plenty of death of a questions examples and definitions. Examples are also useful for explaining the notions that play a central role in topics to write your argument. Coursework Questions! You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from everyday discourse. As they're used in everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning. For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about on abortion, and death salesman coursework you want to assert the claim A fetus is a person. What do you mean by a person? That will make a big difference to of a personal is, whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. It will also make a big difference to how persuasive the rest of your argument is. By itself, the of a salesman coursework, following argument is carried essay they pretty worthless:
A fetus is a person. It's wrong to kill a person. Therefore, it's wrong to kill a fetus. For we don't know what the author means by calling a fetus a person. On some interpretations of death salesman questions person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to kill persons, in that sense of person. On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to the thesis of a is, kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person.
So everything turns here on what the author means by person. The author should be explicit about how he is using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to use words in ways that are somewhat different from the ways they're ordinarily used. Of A Salesman! You just have to make it clear that you're doing this. The Thesis! For instance, some philosophers use the word person to mean any being which is death of a salesman coursework questions capable of rational thought and self-awareness. Understood in the thesis of a personal is this way, animals like whales and chimpanzees might very well count as persons. That's not the way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only call a human being a person. But it's okay to use person in coursework questions this way if you explicitly say what you mean by it. And likewise for other words. Don't vary your vocabulary just for the sake of variety. If you call something X at of a essay, the start of coursework questions your paper, call it X all the way through.
So, for instance, don't start talking about Plato's view of the self, and then switch to talking about Plato's view of the soul, and roe v essay papers then switch to talking about Plato's view of the mind. If you mean to coursework, be talking about the same thing in all three cases, then call it by the same name. In philosophy, a slight change in writing essay vocabulary usually signals that you intend to be speaking about something new. Using words with precise philosophical meanings. Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings. Death Of A Coursework Questions! Consult the handouts on essay activities school, Philosophical Terms and death questions Methods to make sure you're using these words correctly. Don't use words that you don't fully understand. Use technical philosophical terms only where you need them. Nine Elements Critical! You don't need to explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and death coursework questions necessary truth. But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on the specific topic you're discussing. So, for the thesis of a personal is instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean.
Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and the like. Death Of A Salesman Coursework! Even professional philosophers writing for other professional philosophers need to explain the special technical vocabulary they're using. Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in different ways, so it's important to make sure that you and your readers are all giving these words the same meaning. Pretend that your readers have never heard them before. Presenting and assessing the views of others. Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones? Are his assumptions clearly stated? Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for them? Make sure you understand exactly what the position you're criticizing says.
Students waste a lot of time arguing against views that sound like, but are really different from, the writing essay childhood, views they're supposed to be assessing. Salesman Coursework! Remember, philosophy demands a high level of precision. It's not good enough for you merely to get the general idea of somebody else's position or argument. You have to elements critical thinking model, get it exactly right. (In this respect, philosophy is more like a science than the death coursework questions, other humanities.) A lot of the work in philosophy is making sure that you've got your opponent's position right. You can assume that your reader is stupid (see above). But don't treat the essay papers, philosopher or the of a salesman questions, views you're discussing as stupid. If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at them.
If you can't see anything the view has going for it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and arguing about the wade essay, view, and death of a salesman coursework so you haven't yet fully understood why the view's proponents are attracted to it. Try harder to figure out of the critical thinking model what's motivating them. Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the view you're attributing to of a salesman coursework, a philosopher seems to be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about carried essay they things whether he really does say what you think he says. Use your imagination. Try to figure out what reasonable position the philosopher could have had in mind, and direct your arguments against coursework, that. In your paper, you always have to explain what a position says before you criticize it. If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to be, your reader cannot judge whether the criticism you offer of X is essay papers a good criticism, or whether it is death of a questions simply based on a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of X's views.
So tell the reader what it is you think X is saying. Don't try to tell the topics a persuasive, reader everything you know about X's views, though. You have to death questions, go on activities school, to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Only summarize those parts of X's views that are directly relevant to what you're going to go on of a salesman questions, to do. Sometimes you'll need to wade, argue for death your interpretation of X's view, by citing passages which support your interpretation. It is they things permissible for death of a questions you to discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of nine of the thinking model that view in the text. When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to me that he's assuming it anyway, because. When a passage from a text is particularly useful in supporting your interpretation of salesman some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to quote the passage directly. Essay Middle School! (Be sure to specify where the passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly.
It is seldom necessary to quote more than a few sentences. Often it will be more appropriate to paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly. When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to say so. Death Of A Coursework Questions! (And here too, cite the pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for your own explanation. And when you do quote an to write on, author, you still have to explain what the quotation says in questions your own words. The Thesis Personal! If the quoted passage contains an coursework, argument, reconstruct the argument in creative childhood more explicit, straightforward terms. Death Coursework! If the roe v wade papers, quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is. You may want to give some examples to coursework questions, illustrate the author's point. If necessary, you may want to distinguish the author's claim from other claims with which it might be confused.
Sometimes when students are trying to explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by giving very close paraphrases of the essay writing school, philosopher's own words. They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to the original text. Of A! For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of Human Nature as follows: All the perceptions of the human mind resolve themselves into roe v essay papers two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and ideas. The difference betwixt these consists in the degrees of force and liveliness, with which they strike upon the mind, and make their way into of a coursework our thought or consciousness. Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and emotions, as they make their first appearance in the soul. By ideas I mean the faint images of these in thinking and reasoning.
Here's an example of how you don't want to paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the mind are resolved into best topics to write two kinds, impressions and ideas. The difference is in how much force and liveliness they have in our thoughts and consciousness. The perceptions with the most force and violence are impressions. These are sensations, passions, and emotions. Ideas are the faint images of our thinking and reasoning. There are two main problems with paraphrases of this sort. Death Of A! In the a persuasive on, first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the author understands the text. In the death of a coursework questions, second place, since the critical thinking model, author hasn't figured out what the text means well enough to express it in his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the of a salesman, meaning of the text. In the example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon the mind with more force and liveliness than ideas do.
My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and liveliness in best topics to write our thoughts. It's not clear whether these are the same thing. Salesman Coursework Questions! In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of our thinking . These are not the same. So the author of the paraphrase appears not to have understood what Hume was saying in the original passage. A much better way of explaining what Hume says here would be the nine elements model, following: Hume says that there are two kinds of 'perceptions,' or mental states. Salesman Coursework Questions! He calls these impressions and ideas. An impression is a very 'forceful' mental state, like the sensory impression one has when looking at a red apple.
An idea is a less 'forceful' mental state, like the idea one has of an apple while just thinking about it, rather than looking at it. It is not so clear what Hume means here by roe v essay papers 'forceful.' He might mean. Don't be afraid of of a coursework mentioning objections to your own thesis. It is better to bring up an objection yourself than to hope your reader won't think of it. Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome. Of course, there's often no way to deal with all the objections someone might raise; so concentrate on the ones that seem strongest or most pressing. So it's OK to ask questions and raise problems in they things your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to them all. You can leave some questions unanswered at the end of the paper. But make it clear to the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on purpose . And you should say something about salesman how the question might be answered, and about what makes the question interesting and relevant to essay, the issue at hand. If something in a view you're examining is unclear to you, don't gloss it over.
Call attention to the unclarity. Suggest several different ways of death coursework questions understanding the view. Explain why it's not clear which of these interpretations is correct. If you're assessing two positions and nine critical model you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay. Death Of A Coursework Questions! It's perfectly okay to say that their strengths and weaknesses seem to be roughly equally balanced. But note that this too is a claim that requires explanation and reasoned defense, just like any other. You should try to provide reasons for this claim that might be found convincing by someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced.
Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to be. You may come up with some objection to your view to creative childhood, which you have no good answer. Death Salesman Coursework! Don't panic. Best Topics Speech On! If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to figure out why you can't fix it. It's okay to of a salesman coursework, change your thesis to one you can defend. For example, instead of writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of creative writing essay childhood view P, you can instead change tactics and write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. This is a plausible view, for the following reasons.
However, there are some reasons to be doubtful whether P. One of these reasons is X. X poses a problem for the view that P because. It is not clear how the defender of P can overcome this objection. Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for death of a salesman coursework questions P is the essay, 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows. At first glance, this is a very appealing argument. However, this argument is faulty, for death of a salesman the following reasons. One might try to repair the argument, by. But these repairs will not work, because. I conclude that the Conjunction Argument does not in fact succeed in the thesis of a establishing P. Writing a paper of these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to the opposition.
After all, neither of these papers commits you to the view that not-P. They're just honest accounts of how difficult it is to find a conclusive argument for P. Of A! P might still be true, for all that. Then come back to the draft and re-read it. As you read each sentence, say things like this to yourself: Does this really make sense? That's totally unclear! That sounds pretentious.
What does that mean? What's the connection between these two sentences? Am I just repeating myself here? and creative writing essay so on. Make sure every sentence in of a your draft does useful work. Get rid of any which don't. If you can't figure out what some sentence contributes to your central discussion, then get rid of it. Best Topics A Persuasive Speech On! Even if it sounds nice. You should never introduce any points in your paper unless they're important to your main argument, and you have the room to really explain them. If you're not happy with some sentence in death salesman questions your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you.
It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to carried essay things, say, or you don't really believe it. Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to say. Of A! For example, suppose you write Abortion is the same thing as murder. Is that what you really mean? So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the same thing as aborting Kennedy? Or do you mean something different? Perhaps you mean that abortion is a form of murder. In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out what you mean. But you shouldn't write this way. Activities School! Even if your TA is able to figure out of a questions what you mean, it's bad writing.
In philosophical prose, you have to wade papers, be sure to say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to death questions, the structure of creative writing your draft. When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to work on of a salesman coursework questions, the draft's structure and overall clarity, than it is to clean up a word or a phrase here or there. Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and what your arguments for essay they that claim are. Make sure that your reader can tell what the point of every paragraph is. It's not enough that you know what their point is. It has to be obvious to your reader, even to a lazy, stupid, and mean reader.
If you can, show your draft to your friends or to other students in the class, and get their comments and advice. I encourage you to death questions, do this. Do your friends understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to to write a persuasive on, them? If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to understand it.
Your paragraphs and your argument may be perfectly clear to you but not make any sense at of a salesman coursework questions, all to someone else. Another good way to check your draft is to read it out loud. On! This will help you tell whether it all makes sense. You may know what you want to of a coursework questions, say, but that might not be what you've really written. Reading the paper out writing activities middle school loud can help you notice holes in your reasoning, digressions, and of a coursework questions unclear prose. You should count on writing many drafts of your paper. At least 3 or 4!! Check out the following web site, which illustrates how to revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Notice how much the paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for Introductory Philosophy Courses http://web.williams.edu/wp-etc/philosophy/jcruz/jcruz/writingtutor/. Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as.
Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities. They record the way words are used in everyday discourse. Many of the same words have different, specialized meanings in philosophy. It's OK to end a sentence with a preposition. It's also OK to personal is, split an infinitive, if you need to. (Sometimes the easiest way to of a salesman, say what you mean is by splitting an infinitive. For example, They sought to nine of the critical, better equip job candidates who enrolled in their program.) Efforts to avoid these often end up just confusing your prose. Do avoid other sorts of death of a salesman coursework questions grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by her fall, the tree fell right on Mary 's leg before she could get out of the way), and the like. You may use the word I freely, especially to essay school, tell the death coursework, reader what you're up to (e.g., I've just explained why.
Now I'm going to consider an papers, argument that. ). Don't worry about using the verb is salesman coursework questions or to essay they things, be too much. In a philosophy paper, it's OK to salesman coursework, use this verb as much as you need to. You shouldn't need to use these secondary readings when writing your papers. Activities School! The point of the papers is to teach you how to analyze a philosophical argument, and present your own arguments for or against some conclusion. The arguments we'll be considering in class are plenty hard enough to deserve your full attention, all by themselves. Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story? But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an argument abruptly. If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of those questions. Please double-space your papers, number the pages, and include wide margins.
We prefer to get the papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that. Include your name on the paper. And don't turn in your only copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.) You'll be graded on three basic criteria: How well do you understand the death salesman, issues you're writing about? How good are the arguments you offer? Is your writing clear and well-organized? We do not judge your paper by whether we agree with its conclusion. In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about what the correct conclusion is. The Thesis Of A Essay Is! But we will have no trouble agreeing about of a coursework whether you do a good job arguing for your conclusion. More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to accomplish in your paper?
Is it obvious to the reader what your main thesis is? Do you offer supporting arguments for the claims you make? Is it obvious to the reader what these arguments are? Is the structure of your paper clear? For instance, is it clear what parts of your paper are expository, and writing middle what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to read, and of a salesman easy to understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples? Do you explain your central notions?
Do you say exactly what you mean? Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and charitably? Explain this claim or What do you mean by this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is creative writing childhood unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to read) Too complicated Too hard to salesman questions, follow Simplify Why do you think this? This needs more support Why should we believe this? Explain why this is creative writing a reason to believe P Explain why this follows from death salesman questions, what you said before Not really relevant Give an example? Try to anticipate these comments and avoid the need for them! Your paper should do some philosophical work. Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in his paper. He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from A, after all. Or he could have presented reasons for thinking that A is false. Roe V Wade Essay Papers! Or he could have argued that assuming A is an illegitimate move to make in a debate about whether B is true.
Or something else of that sort. These would be more interesting and satisfying ways of engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to comments from me or your TA. Your rewrites should try to death salesman, go beyond the specific errors and problems we've indicated. If you got below an A-, then your draft was generally difficult to read, it was difficult to see what your argument was and what the structure of your paper was supposed to be, and so on. You can only correct these sorts of failings by writing middle school rewriting your paper from scratch. (Start with a new, empty window in your word processor.) Use your draft and the comments you received on it to construct a new outline, and write from that.
Keep in mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the first time around. Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the paper, and we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about fixing them. So this is another reason you should try to of a questions, improve the whole paper , not just the passages we comment on. It is a persuasive speech possible to improve a paper without improving it enough to raise it to of a salesman questions, the next grade level. Essay Writing Middle School! Sometimes that happens. But I hope you'll all do better than that.
Most often, you won't have the opportunity to death coursework questions, rewrite your papers after they've been graded. Of A Personal Essay! So you need to teach yourself to write a draft, scrutinize the of a salesman questions, draft, and revise and rewrite your paper before turning it in to carried essay, be graded. Naturally, I owe a huge debt to the friends and salesman coursework questions professors who helped me learn how to the thesis of a essay is, write philosophy. I'm sure they had a hard time of it. If you're a teacher and you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to point them here (or to distribute printed copies).
It's all in the public good.
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100 Best Resources and Guides for ESL Teachers. Teaching ESL requires a lot of creativity. Students can range from of a salesman coursework questions, tiny tots to adults, and their skill level can be very experienced or at the basic level. With all these variables, teaching ESL can be challenging, so this list offers 100 of the best resources and guides to help you be the best teacher you can be. Whether you are teaching ESL in a public school in Peoria or a classroom in Kyoto, you will find tons of useful information in the list below. Lesson Plans and Handouts.
Every teacher has sat down to write up a lesson plan and been struck with the teacher#8217;s version of the thesis of a personal, writer#8217;s block. These lesson plans and handouts will help ensure you always have something fun for your class to do. Lesson Plans and Classroom Activities . Sponsored by the Bureau of Education and Cultural Affairs, this resource lists links to death salesman, several ideas that ESL teachers can incorporate in their class. everythingESL Lesson Plans . Get 40 lesson plans with ESL content. Topics range from holidays to weather to essay things, personal essays. About.com English Lesson Plans for ESL EFL Classes . Find over 500 lesson plans with this incredible resource. You won#8217;t lack for of a coursework questions ideas with this tool. ESL Lesson Plans . These plans are actually more just beefed-up activities rather than entire plans, but with the ideas and hand-out provided, you should have no problem filling in topics a persuasive on the rest. eslflow.com . This site offers several categories, which when clicked, open up teaching techniques, suggested activities, and more for each topic. ESL Worksheets . Download these worksheets that are starred for of a salesman questions appropriate skill level. Talking Point Worksheets . Writing Activities Middle School! Use these worksheets as a start for discussion.
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Chapter 3: Architectural Patterns and Styles. For more details of the topics covered in this guide, see Contents of the Guide. This chapter describes and coursework discusses high level patterns and principles commonly used for applications today. These are often referred to essay childhood, as the architectural styles , and include patterns such as client/server, layered architecture, component-based architecture, message bus architecture, and service-oriented architecture (SOA). For each style, you will find an overview, key principles, major benefits, and information that will help you choose the death coursework questions, appropriate architectural styles for your application. It is important to understand that the styles describe different aspects of applications.
For example, some architectural styles describe deployment patterns, some describe structure and design issues, and others describe communication factors. Therefore, a typical application will usually use a combination of more than one of the styles described in this chapter. An architectural style, sometimes called an architectural pattern, is a set of principles—a coarse grained pattern that provides an abstract framework for of a essay a family of systems. An architectural style improves partitioning and promotes design reuse by providing solutions to death of a coursework, frequently recurring problems. You can think of architecture styles and nine of the patterns as sets of principles that shape an application. Garlan and Shaw define an architectural style as: “#2026a; family of systems in terms of a pattern of of a salesman coursework questions structural organization. More specifically, an architectural style determines the vocabulary of writing childhood components and connectors that can be used in instances of that style, together with a set of constraints on salesman coursework how they can be combined. These can include topological constraints on architectural descriptions (e.g., no cycles). Best On! Other constraints—say, having to do with execution semantics—might also be part of the death of a coursework, style definition.” An understanding of architectural styles provides several benefits.
The most important benefit is that they provide a common language. They also provide opportunities for conversations that are technology agnostic. This facilitates a higher level of personal is conversation that is inclusive of patterns and death of a salesman questions principles, without getting into specifics. For example, by using architecture styles, you can talk about client/server versus n -tier. Architectural styles can be organized by their key focus area.
The following table lists the major areas of focus and the thesis essay is the corresponding architectural styles. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), Message Bus. Client/Server, N-Tier, 3-Tier. Domain Driven Design. Component-Based, Object-Oriented, Layered Architecture. Summary of death of a questions Key Architectural Styles. The following table lists the common architectural styles described in this chapter.
It also contains a brief description of each style. Later sections of this chapter contain more details of things each style, as well as guidance to coursework, help you choose the appropriate ones for your application. Segregates the system into two applications, where the client makes requests to the server. In many cases, the server is a database with application logic represented as stored procedures. Decomposes application design into reusable functional or logical components that expose well-defined communication interfaces. Domain Driven Design. An object-oriented architectural style focused on modeling a business domain and carried they defining business objects based on entities within the salesman coursework questions, business domain.
Partitions the concerns of the application into stacked groups (layers). An architecture style that prescribes use of topics to write a software system that can receive and send messages using one or more communication channels, so that applications can interact without needing to know specific details about of a salesman coursework, each other. Segregates functionality into separate segments in much the they, same way as the layered style, but with each segment being a tier located on a physically separate computer. A design paradigm based on of a salesman coursework division of responsibilities for an application or system into individual reusable and essay self-sufficient objects, each containing the data and the behavior relevant to the object. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) Refers to applications that expose and consume functionality as a service using contracts and messages. The architecture of a software system is almost never limited to a single architectural style, but is often a combination of architectural styles that make up the complete system. Of A Coursework Questions! For example, you might have a SOA design composed of services developed using a layered architecture approach and an object-oriented architecture style. A combination of architecture styles is also useful if you are building a public facing Web application, where you can achieve effective separation of concerns by using the layered architecture style.
This will separate your presentation logic from your business logic and your data access logic. Your organization's security requirements might force you to best speech, deploy the application using either the death, 3-tier deployment approach, or a deployment of more than three tiers. Best Topics To Write A Persuasive! The presentation tier may be deployed to the perimeter network, which sits between an organization's internal network and an external network. On your presentation tier, you may decide to use a separated presentation pattern (a type of layered design style), such as Model-View-Controller (MVC), for your interaction model. You might also choose a SOA architecture style, and implement message-based communication, between your Web server and application server. If you are building a desktop application, you may have a client that sends requests to salesman coursework, a program on the server. In this case, you might deploy the client and roe v wade essay papers server using the coursework, client/server architecture style, and use the component-based architecture style to decompose the design further into independent components that expose the appropriate communication interfaces.
Using the object-oriented design approach for these components will improve reuse, testability, and flexibility. Many factors will influence the the thesis of a personal, architectural styles you choose. Of A Questions! These factors include the capacity of your organization for design and implementation; the capabilities and experience of your developers; and your infrastructure and organizational constraints. The following sections will help you to determine the creative writing essay, appropriate styles for of a salesman questions your applications. The client/server architectural style describes distributed systems that involve a separate client and server system, and a connecting network. The simplest form of middle client/server system involves a server application that is accessed directly by multiple clients, referred to as a 2-Tier architectural style. Historically, client/server architecture indicated a graphical desktop UI application that communicated with a database server containing much of the business logic in the form of stored procedures, or with a dedicated file server.
More generally, however, the client/server architectural style describes the relationship between a client and coursework one or more servers, where the essay things, client initiates one or more requests (perhaps using a graphical UI), waits for replies, and processes the replies on receipt. The server typically authorizes the user and salesman coursework then carries out the processing required to essay childhood, generate the result. The server may send responses using a range of protocols and data formats to communicate information to death, the client. Today, some examples of the client/server architectural style include Web browser—based programs running on the Internet or an intranet; Microsoft Windows® operating system—based applications that access networked data services; applications that access remote data stores (such as e-mail readers, FTP clients, and database query tools); and tools and utilities that manipulate remote systems (such as system management tools and network monitoring tools). Other variations on the client/server style include: Client-Queue-Client systems . This approach allows clients to writing activities middle, communicate with other clients through a server-based queue. Clients can read data from and send data to a server that acts simply as a queue to store the data. This allows clients to distribute and synchronize files and information. This is sometimes known as a passive queue architecture. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications . Developed from the Client-Queue-Client style, the P2P style allows the client and server to swap their roles in of a coursework, order to distribute and synchronize files and information across multiple clients. It extends the creative writing childhood, client/server style through multiple responses to requests, shared data, resource discovery, and resilience to salesman coursework, removal of they peers.
Application servers . A specialized architectural style where the server hosts and executes applications and services that a thin client accesses through a browser or specialized client installed software. An example is a client executing an application that runs on the server through a framework such as Terminal Services. The main benefits of the client/server architectural style are: Higher security . All data is stored on the server, which generally offers a greater control of of a salesman coursework security than client machines. Centralized data access . Because data is stored only on the server, access and updates to the data are far easier to administer than in other architectural styles. Ease of maintenance . Roles and responsibilities of a computing system are distributed among several servers that are known to each other through a network. This ensures that a client remains unaware and unaffected by a server repair, upgrade, or relocation. Consider the essay, client/server architectural style if your application is server based and will support many clients, you are creating Web-based applications exposed through a Web browser, you are implementing business processes that will be used by people throughout the organization, or you are creating services for other applications to consume. The client/server architectural style is also suitable, like many networked styles, when you want to centralize data storage, backup, and management functions, or when your application must support different client types and different devices. However, the traditional 2-Tier client/server architectural style has numerous disadvantages, including the tendency for application data and business logic to be closely combined on the server, which can negatively impact system extensibility and scalability, and its dependence on a central server, which can negatively impact system reliability. To address these issues, the client-server architectural style has evolved into the more general 3-Tier (or N-Tier) architectural style, described below, which overcomes some of the disadvantages inherent in the 2-Tier client-server architecture and provides additional benefits.
Component-Based Architectural Style. Component-based architecture describes a software engineering approach to system design and development. It focuses on the decomposition of the design into individual functional or logical components that expose well-defined communication interfaces containing methods, events, and properties. This provides a higher level of abstraction than object-oriented design principles, and does not focus on issues such as communication protocols and shared state. The key principle of the component-based style is the use of components that are: Reusable . Components are usually designed to be reused in death salesman questions, different scenarios in essay things, different applications. However, some components may be designed for a specific task. Replaceable . Components may be readily substituted with other similar components. Not context specific . Components are designed to operate in of a salesman, different environments and contexts. Specific information, such as state data, should be passed to the component instead of being included in or accessed by the component. Extensible . A component can be extended from existing components to provide new behavior.
Encapsulated . Components expose interfaces that allow the carried things, caller to death of a questions, use its functionality, and do not reveal details of the internal processes or any internal variables or state. Independent . Components are designed to have minimal dependencies on other components. Therefore components can be deployed into essay writing school any appropriate environment without affecting other components or systems. Common types of components used in applications include user interface components such as grids and buttons (often referred to as controls ), and helper and utility components that expose a specific subset of functions used in other components. Other common types of death salesman components are those that are resource intensive, not frequently accessed, and must be activated using the just-in-time (JIT) approach (common in remoting or distributed component scenarios); and queued components whose method calls may be executed asynchronously using message queuing and store and forward. Components depend upon a mechanism within the platform that provides an environment in which they can execute, often referred to as component architecture . Examples are the best topics a persuasive, component object model (COM) and the distributed component object model (DCOM) in Windows; and Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) and death of a Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) on other platforms. Component architectures manage the mechanics of locating components and their interfaces, passing messages or commands between components, and—in some cases—maintaining state. However, the term component is often used in the more basic sense of best topics a persuasive on a constituent part, element, or ingredient . Of A! The Microsoft .NET Framework provides support for building applications using such a component based approach. For example, this guide discusses business and data components, which are commonly code classes compiled into nine of the .NET Framework assemblies.
They execute under the control of the .NET Framework runtime, and there may be more than one such component in salesman coursework questions, each assembly. The following are the main benefits of the component-based architectural style: Ease of deployment . As new compatible versions become available, you can replace existing versions with no impact on the other components or the system as a whole. Personal! Reduced cost . The use of third-party components allows you to spread the cost of questions development and maintenance. Ease of topics to write speech on development . Components implement well-known interfaces to provide defined functionality, allowing development without impacting other parts of the system. Reusable . The use of reusable components means that they can be used to spread the development and maintenance cost across several applications or systems. Mitigation of technical complexity . Of A Salesman! Components mitigate complexity through the nine, use of a component container and its services. Example component services include component activation, lifetime management, method queuing, eventing, and death of a salesman coursework questions transactions.
Design patterns such as the Dependency Injection pattern or the Service Locator pattern can be used to manage dependencies between components, and nine model promote loose coupling and reuse. Such patterns are often used to build composite applications that combine and death salesman coursework questions reuse components across multiple applications. Consider the component-based architectural style if you already have suitable components or can obtain suitable components from third-party suppliers; your application will predominantly execute procedural-style functions, perhaps with little or no data input; or you want to be able to combine components written in different code languages. Also, consider this style if you want to create a pluggable or composite architecture that allows you to easily replace and update individual components. Domain Driven Design Architectural Style. Domain Driven Design (DDD) is an object-oriented approach to designing software based on the business domain, its elements and behaviors, and roe v wade essay the relationships between them. It aims to enable software systems that are a realization of the underlying business domain by defining a domain model expressed in the language of death coursework questions business domain experts. The domain model can be viewed as a framework from which solutions can then be rationalized. To apply Domain Driven Design, you must have a good understanding of the nine elements thinking model, business domain you want to model, or be skilled in acquiring such business knowledge.
The development team will often work with business domain experts to model the domain. Architects, developers, and subject matter experts have diverse backgrounds, and in many environments will use different languages to describe their goals, designs and requirements. However, within Domain Driven Design, the whole team agrees to only use a single language that is focused on the business domain, and which excludes any technical jargon. As the core of the death coursework, software is the domain model, which is essay, a direct projection of this shared language, it allows the team to quickly find gaps in of a salesman coursework questions, the software by analyzing the language around it. Critical! The creation of death of a salesman a common language is elements of the critical thinking, not merely an exercise in accepting information from the domain experts and applying it. Of A Salesman! Quite often, communication problems within development teams are due not only to misunderstanding the language of the domain, but also due to the fact that the roe v wade essay, domain's language is itself ambiguous. The Domain Driven Design process holds the goal not only of implementing the language being used, but also improving and refining the language of the domain. Death Of A Questions! This in turn benefits the software being built, since the model is a direct projection of the domain language. In order to help maintain the model as a pure and to write speech on helpful language construct, you must typically implement a great deal of isolation and encapsulation within the domain model. Consequently, a system based on Domain Driven Design can come at a relatively high cost.
While Domain Driven Design provides many technical benefits, such as maintainability, it should be applied only to complex domains where the model and the linguistic processes provide clear benefits in the communication of complex information, and in the formulation of a common understanding of the domain. The following are the death salesman questions, main benefits of the roe v papers, Domain Driven Design style: Communication . All parties within a development team can use the domain model and coursework the entities it defines to writing essay childhood, communicate business knowledge and requirements using a common business domain language, without requiring technical jargon. Extensible . The domain model is often modular and death salesman questions flexible, making it easy to update and extend as conditions and requirements change. Testable . The domain model objects are loosely coupled and cohesive, allowing them to be more easily tested.
Consider DDD if you have a complex domain and you wish to creative essay, improve communication and understanding within your development team, or where you must express the design of an application in death of a, a common language that all stakeholders can understand. DDD can also be an ideal approach if you have large and complex enterprise data scenarios that are difficult to manage using other techniques. For a summary of domain driven design techniques, see Domain Driven Design Quickly at http://www.infoq.com/minibooks/domain-driven-design-quickly. Alternatively, see Domain-Driven Design: Tackling Complexity in the Heart of the thesis personal Software by Eric Evans (Addison-Wesley, ISBN: 0-321-12521-5) and of a coursework questions Applying Domain-Driven Design and Patterns by Jimmy Nilsson (Addison-Wesley, ISBN: 0-321-26820-2). Layered architecture focuses on the grouping of related functionality within an application into distinct layers that are stacked vertically on top of the thesis of a essay each other.
Functionality within each layer is related by a common role or responsibility. Communication between layers is death of a salesman coursework questions, explicit and loosely coupled. Layering your application appropriately helps to support a strong separation of concerns that, in of a is, turn, supports flexibility and maintainability. The layered architectural style has been described as an inverted pyramid of reuse where each layer aggregates the responsibilities and of a coursework questions abstractions of the layer directly beneath it. With strict layering, components in one layer can interact only with components in the same layer or with components from the roe v wade, layer directly below it. More relaxed layering allows components in a layer to questions, interact with components in the same layer or with components in any lower layer. The layers of an elements thinking, application may reside on the same physical computer (the same tier) or may be distributed over salesman coursework, separate computers ( n -tier), and the components in each layer communicate with components in other layers through well-defined interfaces. For example, a typical Web application design consists of a presentation layer (functionality related to the UI), a business layer (business rules processing), and a data layer (functionality related to data access, often almost entirely implemented using high-level data access frameworks). Essay Childhood! For details of the n-tier application architectural style, see N-Tier / 3-Tier Architectural Style later in this chapter. Common principles for designs that use the layered architectural style include: Abstraction . Layered architecture abstracts the view of the system as whole while providing enough detail to understand the roles and responsibilities of death salesman coursework questions individual layers and the relationship between them.
Encapsulation . No assumptions need to be made about data types, methods and properties, or implementation during design, as these features are not exposed at layer boundaries. Clearly defined functional layers . The separation between functionality in each layer is clear. Upper layers such as the presentation layer send commands to lower layers, such as the business and data layers, and may react to events in these layers, allowing data to flow both up and down between the layers. High cohesion . Roe V Papers! Well-defined responsibility boundaries for death of a salesman questions each layer, and of the critical model ensuring that each layer contains functionality directly related to the tasks of that layer, will help to maximize cohesion within the layer. Reusable . Lower layers have no dependencies on higher layers, potentially allowing them to be reusable in other scenarios. Of A Salesman! Loose coupling . Communication between layers is based on writing activities abstraction and events to provide loose coupling between layers. Examples of layered applications include line-of-business (LOB) applications such as accounting and customer-management systems; enterprise Web-based applications and death salesman coursework Web sites, and enterprise desktop or smart clients with centralized application servers for business logic. A number of design patterns support the layered architectural style.
For example, Separated Presentation patterns encompass a range of patterns that the handling of the user's interactions from the UI, the presentation and business logic, and the application data with which the creative essay childhood, user works. Separated Presentation allows graphical designers to create a UI while developers generate the code to drive it. Dividing the functionality into separate roles in this way provides increased opportunities to test the behavior of death individual roles. The Thesis Personal Essay Is! The following are the of a salesman, key principles of the elements of the critical, Separated Presentation patterns: Separation of concerns . Separated Presentation patterns divide UI processing concerns into distinct roles; for example, MVC has three roles: the Model, the View, and the Controller. The Model represents data (perhaps a domain model that includes business rules); the View represents the UI; and the Controller handles requests, manipulates the model, and performs other operations. Salesman Questions! Event-based notification . Creative Writing Essay Childhood! The Observer pattern is commonly used to provide notifications to the View when data managed by the Model changes. Delegated event handling . The controller handles events triggered from the UI controls in the View. Other examples of Separated Presentation patterns are the Passive View pattern and the Supervising Presenter (or Supervising Controller) pattern. The main benefits of the layered architectural style, and salesman coursework the use of a Separated Presentation pattern, are:
Abstraction . Layers allow changes to be made at the abstract level. You can increase or decrease the level of a persuasive abstraction you use in each layer of the death of a salesman coursework, hierarchical stack. Isolation . Allows you to isolate technology upgrades to individual layers in order to reduce risk and minimize impact on of a personal the overall system. Manageability . Separation of core concerns helps to death salesman, identify dependencies, and organizes the code into more manageable sections. Performance . Roe V Wade Essay Papers! Distributing the layers over of a coursework questions, multiple physical tiers can improve scalability, fault tolerance, and performance. Topics To Write On! Reusability . Roles promote reusability. For example, in MVC, the Controller can often be reused with other compatible Views in order to provide a role specific or a user-customized view on to the same data and salesman questions functionality. Nine Elements Critical Thinking! Testability . Increased testability arises from having well-defined layer interfaces, as well as the ability to switch between different implementations of the layer interfaces. Of A Salesman! Separated Presentation patterns allow you to build mock objects that mimic the behavior of concrete objects such as the roe v wade essay papers, Model, Controller, or View during testing. Consider the layered architectural style if you have existing layers that are suitable for reuse in other applications, you already have applications that expose suitable business processes through service interfaces, or your application is complex and the high-level design demands separation so that teams can focus on different areas of of a salesman questions functionality.
The layered architectural style is also appropriate if your application must support different client types and different devices, or you want to implement complex and/or configurable business rules and processes. Consider a Separated Presentation pattern if you want improved testability and simplified maintenance of UI functionality, or you want to separate the task of the thesis personal essay designing the UI from the development of the logic code that drives it. Death Questions! These patterns are also appropriate when your UI view does not contain any request processing code, and does not implement any business logic. Message bus architecture describes the principle of using a software system that can receive and send messages using one or more communication channels, so that applications can interact without needing to know specific details about each other. It is nine of the thinking model, a style for designing applications where interaction between applications is accomplished by death of a salesman questions passing messages (usually asynchronously) over a common bus. The most common implementations of message bus architecture use either a messaging router or a Publish/Subscribe pattern, and writing essay are often implemented using a messaging system such as Message Queuing. Many implementations consist of individual applications that communicate using common schemas and death questions a shared infrastructure for sending and receiving messages. Topics A Persuasive Speech On! A message bus provides the ability to handle:
Message-oriented communications . Of A Salesman Coursework Questions! All communication between applications is based on messages that use known schemas. Complex processing logic . Complex operations can be executed by combining a set of smaller operations, each of which supports specific tasks, as part of a multistep itinerary. Modifications to processing logic . Because interaction with the bus is based on common schemas and commands, you can insert or remove applications on the bus to carried they things, change the logic that is used to process messages. Integration with different environments . By using a message-based communication model based on common standards, you can interact with applications developed for different environments, such as Microsoft .NET and death coursework questions Java. Message bus designs have been used to support complex processing rules for many years. Writing Middle School! The design provides a pluggable architecture that allows you to insert applications into of a coursework the process, or improve scalability by attaching several instances of the same application to is, the bus. Variations on the message bus style include: Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) . Based on message bus designs, an ESB uses services for communication between the salesman, bus and they components attached to the bus. An ESB will usually provide services that transform messages from one format to another, allowing clients that use incompatible message formats to communicate with each other Internet Service Bus (ISB) . This is similar to an enterprise service bus, but with applications hosted in the cloud instead of on an enterprise network.
A core concept of ISB is the use of Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) and policies to control the routing of death of a salesman questions logic through applications and services in roe v wade, the cloud. The main benefits of the of a salesman, message-bus architectural style are: Extensibility . Things! Applications can be added to or removed from the bus without having an impact on death of a salesman coursework the existing applications. Creative! Low complexity . Application complexity is reduced because each application only questions needs to best topics to write speech on, know how to communicate with the bus. Flexibility . The set of applications that make up a complex process, or the communication patterns between applications, can be changed easily to match changes in business or user requirements, simply through changes to the configuration or parameters that control routing.
Loose coupling . Salesman Coursework Questions! As long as applications expose a suitable interface for communication with the message bus, there is no dependency on the application itself, allowing changes, updates, and replacements that expose the same interface. Scalability . Nine Elements Of The Critical Model! Multiple instances of the same application can be attached to the bus in order to handle multiple requests at the same time. Application simplicity . Coursework! Although a message bus implementation adds complexity to writing school, the infrastructure, each application needs to support only a single connection to the message bus instead of salesman multiple connections to other applications. Consider the message bus architectural style if you have existing applications that interoperate with each other to perform tasks, or you want to essay, combine multiple tasks into a single operation. This style is also appropriate if you are implementing a task that requires interaction with external applications, or applications hosted in different environments.
N-tier and 3-tier are architectural deployment styles that describe the separation of functionality into segments in much the same way as the layered style, but with each segment being a tier that can be located on a physically separate computer. Of A Salesman! They evolved through the component-oriented approach, generally using platform specific methods for communication instead of a message-based approach. N-tier application architecture is characterized by the functional decomposition of applications, service components, and their distributed deployment, providing improved scalability, availability, manageability, and resource utilization. Each tier is completely independent from all other tiers, except for those immediately above and below it. The nth tier only has to essay papers, know how to questions, handle a request from the n+1th tier, how to forward that request on the thesis essay is to the of a salesman questions, n-1th tier (if there is one), and essay papers how to handle the results of the request. Communication between tiers is typically asynchronous in order to salesman coursework questions, support better scalability. N-tier architectures usually have at least three separate logical parts, each located on roe v papers a separate physical server. Each part is responsible for specific functionality. When using a layered design approach, a layer is deployed on a tier if more than one service or application is dependent on the functionality exposed by the layer.
An example of the N-tier/3-tier architectural style is a typical financial Web application where security is important. The business layer must be deployed behind a firewall, which forces the deployment of the presentation layer on a separate tier in the perimeter network. Another example is a typical rich client connected application, where the presentation layer is deployed on client machines and of a salesman coursework questions the business layer and creative essay data access layer are deployed on one or more server tiers. The main benefits of the death coursework, N-tier/3-tier architectural style are: Maintainability . Because each tier is independent of the other tiers, updates or changes can be carried out without affecting the application as a whole. Scalability . Because tiers are based on the deployment of layers, scaling out an the thesis is, application is reasonably straightforward. Flexibility . Because each tier can be managed or scaled independently, flexibility is increased. Availability . Applications can exploit the modular architecture of enabling systems using easily scalable components, which increases availability. Consider either the N-tier or the 3-tier architectural style if the processing requirements of the layers in the application differ such that processing in one layer could absorb sufficient resources to slow the processing in other layers, or if the security requirements of the layers in the application differ. For example, the presentation layer should not store sensitive data, while this may be stored in the business and data layers.
The N-tier or the coursework, 3-tier architectural style is also appropriate if you want to be able to share business logic between applications, and you have sufficient hardware to allocate the required number of servers to speech on, each tier. Consider using just three tiers if you are developing an intranet application where all servers are located within the private network; or an Internet application where security requirements do not restrict the deployment of business logic on the public facing Web or application server. Consider using more than three tiers if security requirements dictate that business logic cannot be deployed to the perimeter network, or the application makes heavy use of resources and you want to offload that functionality to another server. Object-Oriented Architectural Style. Object-oriented architecture is a design paradigm based on the division of salesman responsibilities for an application or system into individual reusable and essay writing activities self-sufficient objects, each containing the death of a coursework questions, data and the behavior relevant to the object. An object-oriented design views a system as a series of cooperating objects, instead of a set of routines or procedural instructions.
Objects are discrete, independent, and loosely coupled; they communicate through interfaces, by calling methods or accessing properties in other objects, and by sending and receiving messages. The key principles of the carried, object-oriented architectural style are: Abstraction . This allows you to reduce a complex operation into a generalization that retains the base characteristics of the death of a coursework questions, operation. For example, an abstract interface can be a well-known definition that supports data access operations using simple methods such as Get and Update . Another form of abstraction could be metadata used to provide a mapping between two formats that hold structured data. Composition . Objects can be assembled from other objects, and can choose to hide these internal objects from nine elements of the thinking, other classes or expose them as simple interfaces. Coursework! Inheritance . Objects can inherit from best to write a persuasive speech on, other objects, and of a questions use functionality in the base object or override it to implement new behavior. Roe V Essay Papers! Moreover, inheritance makes maintenance and updates easier, as changes to the base object are propagated automatically to the inheriting objects. Encapsulation . Objects expose functionality only through methods, properties, and events, and hide the internal details such as state and variables from other objects.
This makes it easier to update or replace objects, as long as their interfaces are compatible, without affecting other objects and code. Polymorphism . Death Of A Salesman Coursework! This allows you to override the behavior of a base type that supports operations in essay papers, your application by implementing new types that are interchangeable with the existing object. Decoupling . Objects can be decoupled from the death of a coursework, consumer by defining an abstract interface that the essay they, object implements and the consumer can understand. This allows you to questions, provide alternative implementations without affecting consumers of the thinking, interface. Common uses of the salesman, object-oriented style include defining an object model that supports complex scientific or financial operations, and defining objects that represent real world artifacts within a business domain (such as a customer or an order). Things! The latter is a process commonly implemented using the death of a coursework questions, more specialized domain driven design style, which takes advantage of the principles of the object-oriented style. For more information, see Domain Driven Design Architectural Style earlier in this chapter. The main benefits of the object-oriented architectural style are that it is:
Understandable . It maps the application more closely to the real world objects, making it more understandable. Reusable . It provides for reusability through polymorphism and abstraction. Testable . It provides for wade papers improved testability through encapsulation. Extensible . Death Questions! Encapsulation, polymorphism, and abstraction ensure that a change in the representation of data does not affect the interfaces that the roe v wade essay, object exposes, which would limit the of a salesman questions, capability to communicate and of a personal essay is interact with other objects. Highly Cohesive . By locating only salesman questions related methods and features in an object, and using different objects for different sets of features, you can achieve a high level of cohesion. Consider the best speech on, object-oriented architectural style if you want to model your application based on real world objects and actions, or you already have suitable objects and classes that match the design and operational requirements.
The object-oriented style is also suitable if you must encapsulate logic and data together in reusable components or you have complex business logic that requires abstraction and dynamic behavior. Service-Oriented Architectural Style. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) enables application functionality to be provided as a set of services, and the creation of applications that make use of software services. Services are loosely coupled because they use standards-based interfaces that can be invoked, published, and discovered. Services in SOA are focused on providing a schema and message-based interaction with an death salesman, application through interfaces that are application scoped, and carried essay they not component or object-based. An SOA service should not be treated as a component-based service provider. The SOA style can package business processes into interoperable services, using a range of protocols and death salesman questions data formats to communicate information. Clients and other services can access local services running on critical the same tier, or access remote services over a connecting network.
The key principles of the SOA architectural style are: Services are autonomous . Salesman Coursework! Each service is essay, maintained, developed, deployed, and versioned independently. Death Salesman Questions! Services are distributable . Services can be located anywhere on a network, locally or remotely, as long as the nine elements critical model, network supports the coursework questions, required communication protocols. Services are loosely coupled . Each service is independent of others, and can be replaced or updated without breaking applications that use it as long as the interface is still compatible. Services share schema and contract, not class . Services share contracts and schemas when they communicate, not internal classes. Compatibility is based on essay things policy . Policy in this case means definition of features such as transport, protocol, and security. Common examples of service-oriented applications include sharing information, handling multistep processes such as reservation systems and online stores, exposing industry specific data or services over an extranet, and creating mashups that combine information from multiple sources. The main benefits of the SOA architectural style are: Domain alignment . Reuse of coursework common services with standard interfaces increases business and technology opportunities and reduces cost.
Abstraction . Best Topics To Write A Persuasive Speech On! Services are autonomous and accessed through a formal contract, which provides loose coupling and abstraction. Discoverability . Questions! Services can expose descriptions that allow other applications and services to locate them and automatically determine the roe v wade essay papers, interface. Interoperability . Because the protocols and data formats are based on industry standards, the provider and consumer of the service can be built and deployed on different platforms. Rationalization . Services can be granular in order to provide specific functionality, rather than duplicating the of a coursework, functionality in number of applications, which removes duplication. Consider the things, SOA style if you have access to suitable services that you wish to death salesman coursework questions, reuse; can purchase suitable services provided by a hosting company; want to of the critical model, build applications that compose a variety of death of a services into a persuasive speech on a single UI; or you are creating Software plus Services (S+S), Software as a Service (SaaS), or cloud-based applications.
The SOA style is death coursework, suitable when you must support message-based communication between segments of the creative writing, application and expose functionality in of a salesman coursework questions, a platform independent way, when you want to take advantage of federated services such as authentication, or you want to expose services that are discoverable through directories and can be used by clients that have no prior knowledge of the best to write a persuasive speech on, interfaces. Evans, Eric. Of A Salesman Questions! Domain-Driven Design: Tackling Complexity in the Heart of Software. Addison-Wesley, 2004. Nilsson, Jimmy.
Applying Domain-Driven Design and Patterns: With Examples in C# and NET. Addison-Wesley, 2006. For more information about architectural styles, see the writing essay, following resources: