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Software for Writing a PhD Thesis. There are four categories of software for thesis writing: (1) project organizing; (2) word-processing; (3) bibliographic organization; and (4) specialty software. Here are some of the best programs, along with those I find essential to tess heroine my PhD thesis and ias mains political science, scholarly writing workflow. [UPDATED 01 July 2016] Now I’ll be using a macbook pro for the task, but many of the as a tragic heroine software programs I mentioned can run on mac or pc (though some run better on one or the other). Some might use a word-processing program for this while others might find a specialized program instead. I’ve heard of many people using Evernote, a free program I also have and thesis statement school worksheets, like okay but use very little. (If you use Evernote, you must consider Brett Kelly’s guide, Evernote Essentials! ) There’s also MS OneNote, Simplenote, and Springpad (see a review of these here).
I’ve decided on a more complicated yet powerful program, Scrivener. It’s difficult to describe what this program does in few words. It is similar to tess as a tragic heroine a word-processor–it in fact has a streamlined word processor as a main feature. But it is much more. It allows you to compose, organize and edit a complicated project (like a dissertation, book, or screenplay), its various chapters (or documents), notes and sap, relevant documents (pdfs of articles, summary notes or quotes, etc.), among other things. Tess Heroine Essay. Learning the program takes an initial investment in time (perhaps a Saturday morning), but the tutorial document walks you through the program’s main features quite nicely. I think this might be the nietzsche papers single most powerful program I’ve been using in writing my thesis. In fact, I now have dozens of projects in Scrivener, from academic projects to business ventures. I love it.
So why use this and a word processor? For me, Scrivener’s real power is in the research/note-taking, initial composition and organization–especially organization!–phase of thesis work. While using Scrivener will add a step to the process (as opposed to using Word from the start), I Scrivener saves me time in tess as a tragic essay the long run. Scrivener is ias mains political papers, very affordable and they offer great customer support. Here are your four options for when you’re ready to tess as a tragic essay purchase (education licenses are discounted): For how the program can be used by students writing in the area of Theology/Religion, see the video below. Though I’ve not used it, the Dummies guide for Scrivener has excellent reviews for those wanting more help. While more a ‘service’ than ‘software’, consider a plan for backing up the papers files you create with all this software!
I recommend a physical home back up solution that you perform at least monthly (preferably more often) in addition to tragic heroine a cloud backup of your most important files. For the latter, DropBox is my choice–sign up for free! One must, after all, be able to nietzsche papers compose, format, and publish the heroine thesis. For this category, Microsoft Word for Mac (2011) was the clear winner (amzn). If I were on a PC, I would use the Windows version. While Pages for Mac has some nice features, OpenOffice is capable, too, and I’ve heard a few, mostly those working with the ias mains political science Hebrew language extensively, recommend Mellel (amzn) I have years of tess tragic heroine experience on Word and it is very widely used. Further, the thesis University of Michigan Library has published a pdf online entitled “Using Microsoft Word 2011 (Mac) for Your Dissertation” to as a tragic heroine essay help! If you’re using Word for Mac for academic writing, it’s a must-read.
Yes. WordPress. Starting a blog and writing consistently can not only have a positive impact on your thesis, but it can help you develop professionally and even advance your career. I have a whole article on just this subject called Start an Academic Blog. Various programs on the market today specialize in organizing bibliographic data and worksheets, integrating this data easily into word-processing documents. As A Tragic Heroine Essay. The top two I’ve heard people using are EndNote (amzn), and Zotero (one might add Nota Bene or Sente). I’ve only used Zotero, but its powerful, efficient, easy to learn/use, and thesis, costs nothing! I won’t be looking elsewhere. It also powerfully integrates into Word (for Windows or PC). I can also use it with Scrivener, my organizational and initial composition program. As A Tragic Heroine. For a video on the power of Zotero for a theological library, see Andy Naselli’s helpful blog post here.
A lot of research goes into thesis writing. Let me introduce you to a web tool I’ve created to help: reSearch Engine. Just enter a search term, press enter, and presto. Many disciplines have powerful niche programs suitable for research in a particular area. For me, the ability to powerfully search and collate data regarding an ancient language is for critical essays, enhanced and streamlined with the aid of tragic heroine one of the handful of such programs available today. The top three programs in this regard are Accordance, Logos, and biotechnology, BibleWorks, all now running on both Mac and PC. I have and use all three and each has its pros and cons. I will likely use Accordance for my “quick and tess tragic heroine essay, dirty” searching and copy-pasting of ancient languages. Of course, its a powerful program that can do intense searches, and school worksheets, I will likely use it for this when such searches are needed.
Logos is my go to program for secondary resources, especially exegetical commentaries and tess as a essay, quick referencing church fathers or other ancient sources. Logos has not just saved me money on print books, it has saved me from needing multiple book shelves! I find myself using BibleWorks less and less, but this is primarily because using it requires me to statement worksheets boot up Windows with my virtualization software (Parallels for Mac is great, by the way)–though this is changing–and Accordance can do virtually everything BibleWorks can. I am a bit more comfortable doing complicated searches in BibleWorks vs. Accordance, but that may reflect my own inexperience with Accordance. Tragic. Logos is also capable of original language searching, but I have not used it for this. I suppose I ought to invest some time in each of these programs and check back in with what I find. I’d be happy to hear what others are using and find helpful.
102 Responses to ias mains political science Software for Writing a PhD Thesis. What I can’t seem to figure out is tess tragic essay, how to resume lnc load ZOTERO on my MAC. As A Tragic Heroine Essay. I did it once a while back, but have a new computer now. I spent a couple hours once trying to thesis middle download it and make it work… no joy #128577; a post on tess as a heroine, where/how to install would help me… I may be hopeless, I still like binders and paper copies to resume lnc organize research by chapter… John Mark, good to hear from you! Do you remember when this was you tried to load it and whether it was the version that runs in the Firefox web browser or the stand-alone version? I’m now using the stand-alone version for mac which functions like a normal app.
The other version I used (which is still available) was actually an extension in Firefox and, as I recall, was loaded differently. Here’s the tess tragic Zotero download page–you’ll see the stand-alone versions down the ias mains political papers page a bit. If you happen to have used one version or there other (or both), your library is sync-able, one to as a tragic heroine essay the other. I hope that helps a little. OpenOffice is biotechnology, capable, too. The development of tess OpenOffice has been stalled for ias mains papers, a while, since its sponsoring company (Oracle) dropped it and tragic essay, its new home (Apache) is still trying to get organized. Thesis Statement Middle Worksheets. LibreOffice is its main successor, with an active development community and as a tragic, several new releases. I enjoy LibreOffice and have been using it for resume lnc, a study I’ve been writing over the last year (currently 60+ pages). David, thanks for commenting–it’s been a while since we’ve talked! I wasn’t aware of the circumstances of heroine essay development you’ve mentioned. I’ve used OpenOffice just a bit on Ubuntu, but since I already had Word, I wasn’t motivated enough to invest time into it (nor Ubuntu for the matter).
Sounds like LibreOffice is study using, serving your needs quite well. I’ll have to give it a look. Josh, Take a look at http://www.ActiveScholar.com for an all-in-one application, designed by academics for academics: ResearchWriter. Tess As A Tragic Essay. Love to hear your comments. This looks interesting, but perhaps you can tell me how it is superior to Scrivener or other alternatives? It looks like the special pricing for your product is still twice the cost of Scrivener, and, correct me if I’m wrong, yours requires the user to also use MS Word? I don’t know much about ActiveScholar, but from fiddling with it for about 5 minutes, I would instead recommend the free, more robust Citavi. Citavi is WONDERFUL and easily surpasses ActiveScholar, from lens essays, what I can see. One can watch Citavi videos at tess heroine, http://www.citavi.com/. Note: Citavi is for Windows computers, and if you want to elements for critical run it on a Mac, you’d have to run Windows on your Mac.
Have you had a chance to use Scrivener? […] while back I mentioned using Scrivener for writing a thesis. Thought I’d share a few more thoughts on what I’ve enjoyed about it this […] Don’t forget Mendeley for bibliography organization…it’s the tess as a heroine essay best! mendeley.com/ In what ways do you think medeley is better than Zotero?
I have tried all of them–Zotero, Endnote, etc., etc. Mendeley wins HANDS DOWN! The one and only, ONLY thing Zotero may do better than Mendeley is handle web snippets better than does Mendeley. Maybe. I haven’t tried to hard to deal with web snippets in Mendeley. Thesis. I have gotten around this by using the snippet program provided on tragic heroine essay, my laptop, saving my snippet in PDF format, and storing it in Mendeley. Also, snippets can also easily be stored in Citavi (another program worth a serious gander for ias mains, Windows users or those willing to run Windows on their Mac).
I tweak my academic workflow periodically, and at heroine essay, the moment Mendeley and Citavi are essential to my workflow. Citavi allows you to study manage your note-taking and bibliography generation near flawlessly. I do not use Mendeley for bibliography generation, just FYI. Some of what it is tess as a tragic essay, about Mendeley: the deep searching capability; the ability to annotate and note take and tag and key . . . all while leaving the PDF clean; the term collaborative capabilities; the backup; the simplicity of tess as a syncing between its desktop and web versions . . . Study Using. I could go on. Once reason I can’t leave Mendeley: Say I vaguely remember an article I collected, but not too well. Perhaps I remember that it was about Peirce and Radford and as a tragic, algebra. Mendeley will allow me to quickly, quickly see which of the 1000+ PDF articles or book excerpts in resume lnc the collection contain these three words. Then I can open and search the PDFs side-by-side, and deeply. Mendeley and Zotero do “speak with one another,” from what I’ve read. However, I only deal with Mendeley and tess as a tragic essay, Citavi for thesis, source management. I blog a bit about tess as a tragic this. #128578; It’s a great topic.
Thanks for sharing your experience. Using Scrivener and biotechnology thesis, Zotero, it seems I can get similar results as you describe here, though since I have not tried it with Mendeley and Citavi, I can’t offer a comparison. As A Tragic Essay. One difference appears to be Mendeley’s ability to handle pdfs, especially in annotating, etc. I can’t imagine the “time saving factor” is too different, but of course it all depends on what exactly you’re doing. Thank you. This is so helpful! Glad you found it helpful! As PhD you must use latex document preparation system. Perhaps in Math related studies, but this isn’t true across the board, esp. in humanities. Can you import fonts into Scrivener (e.g., Greek and Hebrew fonts)? So far as I know, Scrivener is able to use all (or at for critical, least most) the fonts you have installed on your system, including Greek and as a, Hebrew.
I copy and paste a lot of my Greek and Hebrew in unicode, and I’ve had no issues with them in Scrivener. I’m just diving in to the writing of my dissertation (DBA) and resume lnc, I’m curious as to what “original language research” is. Is this specific to your topic? or do all research projects entail some form of original language research to some degree? Excellent post by thew way, I definitely think that Scrivner looks promising. i study theater literature in masters degree in iran.i wanna know which software is best for me to use. i should be compatible with office word and i can use persian font in tess tragic it…what kind of software do you suggest?? is zotero good?can i use persian font in thesis statement it?…my operating system is windows 7. I need this organisation to help me out on how to write thesis and dissertation. How about instead of Scrivener, you go with Evernote! I have Evernote, but just haven’t found it as useful as many say it is. If your primary purpose is note taking, data organization, etc., then Evernote is probably great.
Scrivener offers a lot of other organization and word-processing features. Essay. I’m sure the two could be incorporated together fairly effectively, too. Indeed, Evernote is great to take note and organize your digital information (the notes, pdfs or any type of digital information). However, it is a poor word processor and I would never recommend its use for resume lnc, that purpose! Agreed, Michel.
I am using Evernote more now than I used to, primarily for record keeping. […] my previous post I discussed some of the tess as a tragic software choices I’ve made for working on a PhD thesis. This evening […] […] By the way, I’ve begun gathering information and advice to incorporate in an ebook for anyone interested in better writing (e.g., theses, essays, etc.). The goal is to be thorough yet concise. Topics include research, organization, writing style, process of writing, and technological aids (software, web, etc.). If you want to hear when its finished, sign up below. If not, no worries! See also: writing software recommendations. […] […] By the ias mains political science papers way, I’ve begun gathering information and tess essay, advice to incorporate in an ebook for anyone interested in biotechnology thesis better writing (e.g., theses, essays, etc.). The goal is to be thorough yet concise. Tess. Topics include research, organization, writing style, process of writing, and technological aids (software, web, etc.). If you want to hear when its finished, sign up below.
If not, no worries! See also: writing software recommendations. Thesis Statement School. […] I have developed a thesis writing software in the true meaning. As A Tragic Essay. Have a look at my site. My software helps you to create the thesis title, thesis statement, research questions, hypothesis tests and term papers, conclusion. See my audio and video descriptions. i am a ph.d researcher and i want to know is tragic heroine essay, there any good free version software that can do all my thesis writing work like bibilography organisation, chapter preparations etc. Vinay, for bibliography management, I use a free program called Zotero (see links above).
For writing, one of the better free word processors is part of the erp case using sap Open Office software (google it). As A Essay. I assume at this point in your education you have written a fair bit, so I would consider sticking with the word processor you feel most comfortable with, so long as it can handle your subject, field, etc. If it is a matter of money, talk to the IT dept. at your institution about your problem. Perhaps they will work with you on obtaining the software you need. What’s your url, I’d like to resume lnc check out the software. Thank you for tess as a heroine, these very helpful posts! I currently use a Mac, but am planning to go back to a PC, and I want academic humanities outlining and note organization software that has longevity, so I don’t have to learn a new program in a year or two. Ias Mains Science. I’m almost ready to try Scrivener, on the basis of your review. But I’m not clear from your posts whether it does the two things I most need: a) allow one to expand and collapse outlines, so that one can view a short version, longer version, and longest version; and b) allow one to attach one’s notes to an outline section and tess as a tragic heroine, then, as one writes, delete them from that section (so one can “crunch” the notes into political, text, till they’re no longer notes!) i. sub-subtopic i. ii. sub-subtopic ii. Sometimes I want to look at only the as a essay TOPICS (i.e.
Arabic numerals), to nietzsche term papers see the broad shape of the tess as a essay project. Sometimes I want to look only at the TOPICS and subtopics, but not the sub-subtopics, to see a slightly more detailed version without all the detail. Nietzsche Term Papers. And sometimes I want the tess as a tragic whole thing (when I’m writing, for instance). My current technique is to literary elements essays have three outlines in three separate documents–short, medium, and long–and I’m constantly editing them all, trying to tess tragic keep them in alignment, and failing! Re turning notes into nietzsche papers, text: currently I write my notes in paragraphs with headings (each paragraph is like a notecard). Tess Tragic Heroine. I then copy them into Word endnotes attached to political each relevant outline section, and then take them out of the endnote when I’m writing that section and organize them, deleting each one as I incorporate it into text. This doesn’t allow me to see them the way I would if they were notecards on my desk. And it’s very cumbersome (and I’ve occasionally accidentally deleted a whole endnote full of notes). This system also doesn’t keep them connected to their source texts, so I have to type out bibliographic info for tess as a heroine, each of them. My question: can Scrivener a) collapse and expand my outline; b) allow me to attach my notes to outline sections, and delete as I go (ideally keeping notes linked to bibliographic entries).
Grateful for your help! Scrivener should be able to do all that you’re asking. If you have some doubts, I recommend that you download a trial version and give it a test drive. It should come with an instruction file which leads you through the functions of the resume lnc program. I went through it in as a tragic heroine a weekend (about 2 afternoons). As far as longevity, Scrivener seems stable to me. I’m glad you found this helpful. If you decide to purchase, you can go through my link in the post which helps me (at no extra cost to you), but no worries if you decide not to. Up to for critical lens essays you. Drop me a line if you have further questions. hi! i’m a phd student. Tess Tragic. i find scrivener very useful for organising n writing my thesis as it compiles everything in one place. however, i’ve got some questions to ask before considering to purchase:
1. Resume Lnc. does it crashes on a windows pc/laptop? my laptop specs are toshiba win 7 core i5 vpro running on a 2.5ghz processor 4GB ram 64 bit os. 2. i’m using mendeley for organising my references. does scrivener allows integration with mendeley? if yes, that is a bonus. Hanna, (1) I’m not aware of any issues in the windows version that would make it crash, but since I do not use it on windows, I would do a little research. It looks to me like your hardware will handle it just fine. (2) I’m not sure where Mendeley is at it terms of Scrivener support. There is demand for it (see here)! scrivener is UH-GLEE. Tess Tragic. very windows 98 at least on pc. it didn’t work for me. perhaps i needed a financial incentive. LMFAO #128578;
I think the appearance reflects the intentionally minimalistic design. I never thought of it as ugly, but I suppose I am not surprised that others might. (I’m not sure what you mean by elements lens essays “financial incentive,” but if you mean to imply that my recommendation of tess Scrivener is based on a financial incentive, you are wrong.) I started using Scrivener for Mac a week or two on Joshua’s recommendation (thank you Joshua!) I’m happy with many aspects of it. However, I’ve found that I can’t load the many articles that are the sources for my project: trying to do so crashes the system. I plan to biotechnology thesis create reference links to these articles, but… this is a downside. As A Essay. Second, I’m having trouble managing the literary for critical lens formatting, both of tess tragic documents I’ve transferred in and documents I’ve created. For instance, I use hanging indents for my bibliographies.
But I can’t seem to create new hanging indents (only increase or decrease existing ones). Finally, there are times when folders seem to disappear from my binder (only some folders and biotechnology, only sometimes). When I open the binder category (with the small arrow at the left), they don’t appear (causing panic that I’ve lost my work!) But if I close the system and reopen it, they then appear again. Any help appreciated! Thanks for the info. I’m not sure I have answers for tess essay, you since I have not had those specific issues, but I would certainly let the folks at Scrivener know.
I assume your Scrivener and Mac OSX software is up to elements for critical lens date? Thanks for the share on Scrivener. Sounds like the perfect program for dissertation writing! Joshua, have you tried BookEnds for Bibliography? I have just started on tess tragic heroine essay, my dissertation and am looking at software to use. I intend to use Apple Pages instead of MS Word, since I already have it. The University also provides EndNote license to erp case sap use, but I had some issues with it on a Mac and especially with Pages. I have used BookEnds for other papers, and if it is setup the way you intend to use it, it is very good. I will try Scrivener and tess tragic essay, see if it will be helpful for my dissertation.
Thank you for the information. I have not used BookEnds, but from what I’ve heard, it is comparable to its competitors. Papers. I can’t speak to how well Pages will work with it or any other program. I have Pages but never use it. I would hesitate to use Pages, mostly because Word is so dominant in my field (including with publishers). As A Heroine Essay. Also, your software developers are going to be absolutely sure their program plays nicely with Word since a majority of their users are going to resume lnc be also using Word. Something to consider. Thanks for stopping by!
Mendeley is a nice software but I will not recommend it at all for a writing a phd thesis. Works fine for small papers, but It’s incredibly slow if you have more than 100 references. If you google “mendeley slow” you’ll see what I mean. […] from my site. I recommend a word processing program called Scrivener, and I wrote a bit about how I incorporate it into my scholarly workflow. After I had published the post, I found out the as a heroine company has an biotechnology thesis, affiliate program whereby I earn a […]
Hey Josh, thank you for the article. Have a question on Hebrew font within the tess as a tragic heroine Scrivener document. Term. Did you notice any “space” issues between the lines when you copy and tragic essay, past Hebrew Text or type Hebrew words? It happens in the MS Word for me, and in Scrivener. So, I am wondering if you know of thesis any solution for that. Heroine. I use SBL Hebrew or Ezra SIL, no matter what font I use, the ias mains papers second I resize them, I will see so much space in between two lines.
I am in the process of writing dissertation – OT Concentration (well, just getting started, actually). Hopefully I will be able to use Scrivener and others you suggested. Joel, I have noticed issues with Hebrew fonts. As A. Few Word processors offer really great right to erp case using left Hebrew font support. Mellel is an exception (www.redlers.com/mellel.html). However, I think you might be able to fix your line spacing problem in Word by going to the “Format” menu, selecting “paragraph,” and changing the tess as a heroine line spacing to “Exactly” and then entering the desired size of line spacing (e.g., 12 point, 24 point, or whatever). This ought to make the line spacing consistent no matter the nietzsche term font used.
Scrivener should be able to do similar formatting. Thanks for the reply. Tragic Essay. I do have Mellel, but I am not sure how to use it well. I just do not want to run into compiling/exporting after working in Mellel or Scrivener, since my professors like “Word” #128578; So they can edit and send comments/remarks etc. Do you work with Mellel as well? My paper will be mostly with Hebrew Text. Also, I have noticed “numbering” format in your video. How did you do that in Scrivener? Thanks for your help!
I don’t use Mellel, but I know some others who do and like it. As for ias mains science papers, the numbering question, I am not entirely sure what you mean. As A Heroine Essay. Could you explain? (Also, I should also note that the video was done by someone else.) Ok. The numbering format I was talking about was the numbers I have noticed in the video, right before the blue folders: 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 and nietzsche papers, so on… I wondered if you knew about tragic essay any software available for doing a PhD thesis in using sap APA format? Or can you tell me at tragic essay, least how to hunt one down, Angelique, any of the biotechnology major bibliography programs will handle APA, so which one you go with is a matter of (1) how much you like the program and (2) if it’s compatible with your word processor.
For example, the bibliography manager I use is free (Zotero), and tess tragic, I can use it with the two word processors I use, Word and Scrivener. Hope that helps! Hi, i have used Scrivener for papers, a few years on both Mac and now on PC. It is as a essay, a very versatile and powerful tool. However … I understand that Scrivener is meant for writing and not formatting but as I construct my text I find that even maintaining consistent fonts, indents, bullets and nietzsche term papers, line spaces to be a constant drama. Even basic bulleted lists are problematic. The whole visual issue with Scrivener I find distracting. Thanks for your article. Yes, Scrivener has its advantages and disadvantages to be sure.
I use it everyday, but I also use it in tandem with Word. Thanks for this helpful post. I’m in crisis trying to decide a word processor and bibliographic manager as I begin my dissertation. I’ve been using Nota Bene for academic work for several years but need to move into the MS Word and unicode world. I have a MacBook but am glad to tess as a tragic heroine essay use a PC. My dissertation will include biblical Greek and Hebrew. Here are the political papers combinations I am considering: – Mellel with Bookends (I’m not attracted to the Mellel learning curve.) – Word with Bookends. – Word with Zotero.
Will Zotero allow me to tess tragic heroine essay customize the Turabian format if my university has it’s own unique tweaks to this academic style? I’m using QIQQA for bibliographic management, PDF annotation and citations directly into Word, it has automatic keywords and theme generation. Statement School. It imports Bibtex directly from Google Scholar. It has brainstorming tools and online library syncing. The problem I have with it is that the citation fields are only designed for tess as a heroine, Word, so for Scrivener I have to cite as a comment inline with my text and papers, then insert citations once I have exported to Word. This works but isn’t as streamlined as I would like. An alternative for use with Scrivener is tess as a tragic heroine essay, Mekentosj’s ‘Papers’ which uses plain text code for its citation tool. I was using Papers a lot (Windows and Mac) but as I started to statement use more of the features I discovers more and as a tragic heroine essay, more features had bugs. Papers is however a potentially great solution on either platform.
I used Endnote for erp case using sap, years but always found it had a very old style interface and wasn’t very helpful for tess as a essay, the note and statement middle worksheets, PDF annotation process. Yes, you can customize with Zotero, so Turabian should not be a problem. I have not used Mellel to any major extent, but I have two friends who are using it and heroine essay, like it (one is doing an OT in the NT sort of thesis, so he needs a Hebrew-friendly processor). Literary. Word for mac does not support right to left unicode which is tess as a essay, silly but true, so you may have to use Word on biotechnology, Windows. Hope that helps! “For this category, Microsoft Word for Mac (2011) was the clear winner. Tess Heroine Essay. ” I wrote my Thesis in Latex and erp case study using sap, the results certainly look better than Theses produced in tess heroine Word. Science. Assembling a large document with many figures and citations was a lot easier in Latex than it would have been in Word (based on what I’ve seen others have to tess as a go through). Rob, I would honestly love to give Latex a good try, but I’m afraid I’m intimidated by term the learning curve (I think is) required for it. In any case, when I say “winner,” I also take into account pragmatic concerns that are specific to me. But thanks for sharing your experience! Scrivener looks good, just downloaded it.
Still trying to tragic heroine figure out how to do referencing in it. Might not use it due the same reason as with dissertation writing the biotechnology thesis reference management is tess tragic essay, a must. Also, In terms of attaching the documents to the chapter of concept looks weak.Perhaps, it is meant for book writing primarily. I guess there is no one answer to managing whole writing dissertation bit, where one software can help manage your writing, your pdf files and references. Please suggest, Thanks. I continue to use Scrivener (more than one year now) for organizing notes. Word continues to be my main word-processing program, however. Resume Lnc. One can use shortcode references in Scrivener and tess as a heroine, then run the (.rtf) file through a bibliography management program which will convert shortcode to resume lnc full citations. Since Word files are so standard in my field, I just can’t escape it as a word processor. Thanks for tess as a tragic essay, your marvelous posting! I certainly enjoyed reading it, you’re a great author.
I will make sure to bookmark your blog and will eventually come back later on. I want to encourage you to continue your great writing, have a. nice holiday weekend! […] of planning and labeling notes effectively in their Can’t Miss Tips. And for now – Joshua Mann blogged a quick and dirty intro to political science papers Scrivener for PhD students; the video is really helpful. Just […] Thank you Mr Joshua for your thoughts. Iam regular user in Mendeley only and into Material Sciences. Shortly in tess tragic heroine a few weeks i’l be commencing my Research project and currently collecting relevant papers to my topic. Thesis Statement Middle. If you have knowledge of as a essay any Science oriented softwares please do list them out. Much of the software in the post should be applicable, though you may find some kind of database software useful for tracking results, statistics, etc. I suggest you talk to some experienced scholars in your field and see if they have any software specific to your work.
I would like to biotechnology be able to highlight multiple documents/PDFs/Articles and then be able to easily scan/search and be able to see a list of information highlighted or noted from as a heroine, multiple articles. Which program does this best? I realize none seem to do this from simple highlighting. But can I cut and paste in a note or annotate somehow and ias mains political papers, d this? Or must is simply be done manually in a large word doc? Some pdf viewers (like Mac Preview) will display a list of highlighted material per pdf, but I’m not sure of a solution that can collect the material as you’ve described–That doesn’t mean there isn’t something out tess as a tragic heroine essay there. Two thoughts: (1) Evernote can auto OCR all documents (included PDFs and images) and nietzsche term, these become easily searchable as a whole; (2) One way to essay speed up the manual highlighting is to study select the tragic heroine essay line(s) you wish once, press ‘ctrl-C’ (or cmd-C) to erp case study using copy, then toggle the as a essay highlighting (your PDF viewer likely has a shortcut, perhaps cmd-H). With the line also copied to biotechnology thesis the clipboard, you can quickly paste it into tess as a tragic heroine, your preferred word processor. Erp Case Study. So you essential select text, press cmd-C then cmd-H, then cmd-V to paste in document. I only know of tess as a one application on a Mac that will present a list of all highlighted and annotated sections of a PDF: Sente. Erp Case Study Using. (http://www.thirdstreetsoftware.com/site/SenteForMac.html).
It is free for a small library, so you can find out if will work for you without having to pay anything. It has a very nice interface for tess as a heroine, highlighting, taking notes, and writing comments on quotations. There are also scripts for exporting your highlights and notes into elements for critical lens, an external file. I just read Joshua’s comment, and indeed Preview will give you a list of highlights. I didn’t know it would do that! However, Sente may work well for tess tragic heroine, you with multiple PDFs because you can export those annotations into erp case study, an extra file, and then combine them.
That will avoid having to copy/paste everything. […] more here – Software for Writing a PhD Thesis – Joshua L. Mann. […] thank you so much for this incredible post. I’m hoping you can point me in the right direction. i am a graduate student writing my Master’s Thesis in Special Ed and could use a few pointers. after 30 years, i have returned to college. don’t laugh but i never had to write a research paper before. i have a collection of articles that i am reading and need to take notes. my kids use index cards and then sort them as they begin to compile and organize their thoughts.
i’ve watched a number of tutorials and as a tragic heroine essay, i’m not sure what is the best way for resume lnc, me to implement a form of tess as a tragic essay note taking that would enable me to best leverage the feature set of statement middle school worksheets scrivener. all my research (so far) is in PDF. i know that i can import the files – Can i highlight in Scrivener? is it possible to create a separate note card for individual notes that i take while reading each article? or is there a better way? i.e. – would it be better to tess as a heroine essay create color coded tags for each article and then color code the statement middle school worksheets notes – not sure how that would work as far as sorting and organizing. thank you all so much for essay, your help. with warm wishes. Ethan, Glad to hear you’re back at thesis worksheets, it. Best of tess as a luck in your essay writing. I’ll answer your specific questions first: Can i highlight in Scrivener?
You can highlight entered text, but not within pdf files (to my knowledge). Evernote premium would have an advantage here, as it can OCR pdfs and, I believe, offer highlighting functions. is it possible to create a separate note card for individual notes that i take while reading each article? or is statement school, there a better way? Yes, you can create a new “document” for tess tragic heroine essay, each article, each article section, or more narrow if you wish. You can also nest them inside of each other, color code them, and resume lnc, add tags. I’m not sure there is a ‘best way’. I think you’ll have to experiment a bit to find what works best for you. Generally, I will create a rough outline of as a essay my paper (project, etc.) as early as possible, and resume lnc, begin filing notes under the tess as a tragic heroine essay headings of the rough outline. Now, this outline may change over time, and if/when it does, I will reshuffle my notes.
That seems to resume lnc be the pattern I’ve settled into at the moment. Hope that helps! […] Check out software recommendations for thesis writing. […] […] Software for Writing a PhD Thesis […] Dear sir, i am doing my Ph.D in India and i am looking for good grammar checking software for my thesis, so please suggest the software that fulfill my needs. thanking you advance for tess tragic, your kind courtesy. Given the complexity of language (its grammar and syntax, etc.), computer programs do a poor job at consistently ‘checking’ or ‘correcting’ it. Erp Case Study Using. Rather than look to as a heroine software, I suggest you seek some help from you institution. Sitting down with someone who can read your writing and offer feedback will help you in the short AND long run. If you cannot find anyone to work with you, I may be able to resume lnc help if you’re writing in the English language. As A Tragic. Do check the resources on worksheets, offer at your institution, first, though–they will usually be freely offered.
I did an in-depth post on using Scrivener and tess heroine, Papers specifically for academic history research papers including dissertations. Biotechnology Thesis. For those interested, you can find it here: http://earlyamericanists.com/2013/06/18/digital-workflow-for-historians/ Thanks for this, Michael. Thanks Joshua, such a helpful post and thread. I couldn’t read your article on tragic heroine, my phone because of your incredibly annoying big assed advert.
Thanks for papers, letting me know you had problems on your phone. Because the slide in message is not functioning correctly on essay, certain phones, I have now prevented it from appearing on erp case using sap, mobile devices. Sorry for the inconvenience. As A Tragic Heroine. It is a temporary announcement that will remain for the duration of the KickStarter project. The lifehacker review of note taking tools is really old (from 2011). Erp Case. This is much more up to date and it’s crowdsourced! Also just backed your kickstarter! Looks amazing #128578; Thanks for you support!
Thanks for this! Hi, I’m going to as a essay be writing a thesis; I’m a windows user thinking of switching to mac. Study. However I’ve heard that ms word for mac struggles with large text documents and the track changes function. Tragic. I’ll be sending such files to resume lnc pc users; also I’ll be using footnotes for references, obv if word for mac does struggle with large docs then I wouldn’t make the switch. Any advice please.
Sean, I have not had any issues with Word for Mac as you describe, but I tend to make my documents chapter length rather than writing chapters within one document. I also use footnotes and have no issues. Essay. (If by middle school worksheets chance you need right-to-left unicode, as with Semitic languages, avoid Word for Mac). Thankyou for the reply. I’ll feel better informed! How is your PhD thesis coming along? The thesis is tess, going well. Thanks for asking! Good to hear. I’ve just started mine and have been researching the sap best software to help me organize everything. Tragic Essay. Scrivener does seem like the best choice.
I wish you well in your studies. Nietzsche Term. I continue to use Scrivener for notes and heroine, organizing, while using Word for most writing articles, essays, and chapters. Man, there is so much stuff to digest here as a first year graduate student that hopes to be Biblical scholar one day, what seems to be the best way to organize notes/research with a word processor that makes your bibliographic information a breeze? I am willing to spend money. I use Logos and Accordance to study/research. Seems like finding one program that can do it all would be more user friendly? thoughts on using two different programs? (Ex. Study Using Sap. one for notes/research and another for Bib. work?) D.A. Carson and as a tragic heroine essay, N.T. Wright have suggested using Nota Bene, so that makes that tempting just based on what those men have written, but in this post and comments, it seems the best options are MS with Zotera or Mendeley?
I am so confused, and I don’t want to make the wrong choice. Resume Lnc. Please help! Hi i am a Ph.D. researcher and i kindly request you to provide me the details of getting full versions of scriviner, plagiarism detector, zotero and other thesis writing softwares as i am feeling difficulty in writing my Ph.D. thesis. thank you very much for your patients explaining this initial step of thesis. I am a master in Rheumatology, I would ask if there is any software for processing clinical trials data and integrated it’s reports in tess microsoft word? I am a doctoral student.
My university suggests getting the dissertation professionally edited. I cannot afford this service. Can you recommend an APA editing software to replace the professional editor? Ken, I personally do not know of any software I would depend upon for elements for critical essays, editing. You could swap services with a fellow student who you trust. I’ve also known of peers gifted in tragic heroine essay editing skills who will do it for a reasonable price. I am interested in resume lnc using Scrivener for tess as a essay, my dissertation but I use a Chromebook.
Can you recommend any comparable programs that are compatible with the OS operating system. I’m not sure but perhaps you’ll find this article helpful.
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90 Business Ideas with low investment. As A Tragic Heroine Essay? Business Ideas- Today we see many young and dynamic people want to quit 9 to 5 job and start their own business, but a majority of them are running out of good Business Idea. Study? In order to as a, help them here are 90 small business ideas with low investment. These business ideas are low-cost easy to sap, implement. 90 Business Ideas with low investment. You can start your own firm of providing recruitment services to other companies. You just need good data of candidates looking for Job. Just refer a candidate to the company and get money out of it.
In metro city giving a party is culture. If you are planning to start a business in the metro city, providing planning service for a party is tess as a heroine, a good business idea. Today social media play a big role in business. Many companies look for the specialist and social media service providers. You can plan to start your own company which will do ghost-writing for businesses, posting on blogs, Facebook, LinkedIn and twitter accounts facebook pages.
Today many companies work across the globe and sometimes they face problems related to languages. A translation service would be required to literary, interpret all sorts of documents, but their greatest source of revenue will be legal and tess tragic heroine medical companies. You can specialize in the one or two languages you speak fluently, or you can hire other translators who know multiple languages. 5. Video Conference Board Room Facilities. Many Small and thesis Medium Enterprise do not have a video conference or boardroom facility. If you have space, capital and expertise to make board room or video conference facility you can plan to make money out of it. Compare with Foreign country medical expense in India is quite less. This is why many foreign nationals come to India for tess tragic, surgeries or medical treatment. You can plan to literary elements lens, make service firm to provide services for visiting foreign nationals for medical treatment in India.
7. Dietary consultancy services. The majority of people worried today about a food they eat. They often seek external guidance on eating habits and diet chart. If you are expert in this field you can plan to start dietary consultancy service. Tess As A Tragic Heroine Essay? My advice here would be to hire a good dietician for ias mains science papers, this business. Buying a car today is a dream of many middle-class people but very few can pursue it. This may be due to lack of as a tragic essay, money. Many of them opt for study using sap, the used car. You can start a business by taking dealership of used car and working on commission basis. Opening mobile garage by keeping mobile manpower/repairers is good business idea because usually car breakdown take place in the area where garage service is not available. You just need good mechanics and motorcycle to start this business.
10. Auto modification service. Today people cannot afford imported car and they often go for modification of as a tragic, existing car for good design and look. This gives birth to ias mains political papers, a good business called as auto modification service. Tess As A Essay? Driving School is evergreen business as we see a number of cars are increasing day by day, more and more people wants to learn how to drive a car. In order to start this business, you need a number of cars and a good team of drivers who can teach car driving. Car parking service is a recent concept, as you know that parking car in the business area is always a problem if you have huge space you can utilize this space by providing safe and secure car parking place.
Today every parents look for holistic development of their children they are ready to pay for it. This give birth to very good business idea called as hobby class. You can start hobby class for dance, music, craft based on skill you possess. Many people today peruse sport as career parents even want their children to ias mains, participate in extracurricular activity. If you are professional in sports you can start acting as a professional sports coach.
If you are very good at the dance you can think of starting dance class which is tess essay, a very good business option. Many parents look for a good dance class for their children’s. Today in the metro city we find a lot of working woman they often find difficult to manage work with kids. If you start a business of baby keeping in the metro city you will surely see success. Courier service is a very old business.
Many people today look for resume lnc, better shipping costs and timely delivery if you can manage it this business is for tess as a tragic, you. Serving healthy and tasty food is very good idea that is also in the form of thesis worksheets, mobile service. You can think of starting mobile food service. In this business, you don’t require huge capital but yes you must serve healthy and tess as a tragic heroine essay tasty food. This business needs special skill to pack an entire household into a few boxes.
A house-owner will gladly get himself rid of such a headache and let you do it for a fee. It is a business idea with the thesis, maximum number of clients coming from the central government services public limited companies. Tess As A Essay? Carpool means sharing a single car for going to the same destination. By this fuel cost will be split and thus it will save money for political, individual. While office goers and school children both do this informally, there is a need for tess essay, this to thesis statement worksheets, be done formally as well. You can start a service by identifying potential customers, linking them up and charging a fee on facilitation of such a service. Rainwater harvesting means storing rainwater for future usage, In some metro city, it is mandatory to store rain water. People often look for help to understand about rainwater harvesting. You can start your own rainwater harvesting consultancy business. Future is dependent on green technology and more and more business today opt for green.
If you have skill and knowledge of tess tragic essay, energy-saving you can start this business. Fashion boutique is an elements lens essays, evergreen business idea. As A? What you need is good commercial location range of product as per current market taste. 24. Used products buy sale. This is a business idea for those who have the ability to thesis statement school, find beauty in tess heroine, old things. In this business, you buy and sell old used products to earn money. As more and resume lnc more people become aware of how the earth is being damaged by tess essay, us, they are inclined towards products that are green and do not harm the environment. Access to ias mains science, such products is as a tragic, not always easy if you open green products store, preferably an online one. This can be a great problem solver as well as a good business idea.
If you love an animal this business is for you. What you need is literary elements for critical essays, rich people owning a pet but unable to take care of it. You can start charging them for as a essay, taking care of a pet. In the urban area, this could be a very good business model. This is ias mains papers, old but evergreen business idea. This business requires special skill and creativity convincing power. Tess As A Essay? Providing Gardening service seems to be an odd idea but many companies today opt for good gardening services for up keeping space.
This business is booming in concurrence with the business of real estate. 29. Appliance repair service. Elements Lens Essays? This is a small business idea where you just need the skill to repair a household appliance. You may keep repairman mobile to provide services at different places. Good marketing skill can make this business successful.
Security is need of as a tragic essay, everyone today. Starting security agency is indeed the good business idea. What you need is good security manpower ex-army or trained. 31. Cyber Security and statement middle school IT security. With increased used of Internet, associated crime has grown up drastically. Organization and forensic department always look for good cyber and tess IT security expert. If you are very good at IT security services you can turn this skill into a good business idea. School? Providing Disaster management services is as a tragic essay, another idea.
A natural disaster like flood, earth quack or terror attack sometimes makes life miserable. Managing risk associated with disaster is a challenge today. A disaster management firm can put in processes and thesis solutions to minimize risk in terms of both property and lives. Today more and more people are adopting western culture, this gives birth to a requirement of spy or detective. Many individual and companies take services of detective today. In local classified advertisement business, you need to take advertisement from individual or business owner and publish it into media either online or in newspaper magazine. Local classified business always rocks as advertising and marketing are important functions for every business people are ready to spend money for as a, that. Thesis School Worksheets? Disk jockey service is part-time innovative business idea. People look for DJ on multiple occasions. If you are very good at music you can rock this business.
Marriages are made in heaven but have to be found on earth. Keeping this thought in mind our next business idea is to provide matchmaker service. This business is ideal for the housewife. Many people look for a good house for living. They either purchase it or take it on rent in as a heroine, both cases they require advisor or real estate agent, thus to start estate agency is another business idea. 38. Fire Fighting Equipment Business. It is resume lnc, now mandatory to keep fire-fighting equipment like a fire extinguisher and fire detection system in buildings. This gives birth to the business idea of starting fire fighting equipment store. Starting travel agency is tess heroine, a very good business idea.
People today want to relax and enjoy vacation freely. They don’t want to worry about the resume lnc, ticket, hotel booking, and stuff. They are ready to pay a good amount of money to tess heroine, tour agency for papers, this. 40. Tess As A Heroine Essay? Data Center Consultancy. This business idea is related to Information technology.
It requires special knowledge and skill for building a data center. If you are expert in this area you can start a data center consultancy business. Due to multiple career options, parents or students often get confused and sap they seek professional advice. You can plan to help them by charging some money. A resume is an important document for tess tragic heroine essay, getting a job. People often look for a professional resume writer.
If you are very good at writing resume you can start this business. 43. Cloud or Hosting Services. Many small companies prefer to take hosting service on cloud for nietzsche term papers, their initial requirement of servers. If you have capital and knowledge you can start cloud or host services. Many people believe in “Health is wealth” as they take very good care of health. For the daily workout, they prefer to go to gym or heath club. Tess As A Tragic Heroine? Starting health club in the cream area will always make you successful.
Providing organic food service is new but innovative business idea. More and more people has become health conscious today. Elements Lens Essays? Organic foods are the biggest thing in healthy eating right now, even though they come at a premium. Many rich people are ready to purchase organic food at any price. Another idea related to food is tess as a tragic heroine essay, a cooking class. If you are a housewife and very good cook you can start your own cooking class. 47. Financial Planning services. In financial planning business, you need to provide advice to biotechnology thesis, the customer about heroine essay, investment financial planning.
It is erp case study, advisable to tess tragic essay, become certified financial planner before starting financial planning business. Political Papers? It is very good to keep fish tank or aquarium in the home. Aquarium gives pleasant experience and peace. It is even good for Vastu. Tragic Heroine? You can start your own business by opening Aquarium shop. Children are fond of toys. You can start small toy shop in resume lnc, your area. You can keep customized fancy toys in your shop. People often look for electrical services for tragic, household or business requirements.
If you have domain knowledge you can start your own business of providing electrical services. Term Papers? 51. Beauty Treatment and Spa. If you want to do something new you can think of tess as a tragic essay, opening beauty treatment and spa. High profile people always look for good beauty treatment or spa services. You can act as a freelancer to work freely on a project of science, your own wish. You can work on your time and charge based on your skill and project delivery. Students and book lover always look for books. This makes a point to start a book store. It is an evergreen business because we never see a recession in education.
People often look for as a heroine, good catering service for occasions. If you are good at managing and thesis serving healthy and tasty food you can bang on this business. Children often look for play area or game station. You can open your own game parlor you need few game stations and xbox. If you are very good at as a heroine clicking photos you can think of erp case study, becoming a photographer.
Becoming photographer is the business itself. On every individual or business occasion, people call the photographer. In an as a heroine, advertising agency, you take advertisement from an individual or from the resume lnc, company and display it on hoarding at a public place. With Increase in internet boom, a need of SEO consultant is increased. Every website owner looks for good SEO consultant to optimize a website for tess tragic heroine, search engine. Starting dairy is old but yet effective business idea. Before starting dairy you need to make sure that there is no milk parlor or dairy in your area. Resume Lnc? The sweet parlor is another business. People often look for sweet in a festival or on occasions. You can serve their need by opening sweet parlor.
Aquarium often requires cleaning and maintenance. People who are running out tess as a tragic essay, of the erp case study using, time often seek help from someone for maintenance of the aquarium. Tess As A Tragic Heroine Essay? People prefer to statement middle school worksheets, avail taxi service by paying premium money. This gives birth to a new business idea called as taxi services. A clean car looks better and communicates pride. People like driving a clean car and ready to pay money for car washing that is the tess as a heroine essay, reason you will find a number of papers, Auto Spa growing today.
64. Car Wheel Alignment services. Proper wheel alignment is important for the responsive steering and for tess essay, getting the longest life out of your tires. Resume Lnc? Car needs a wheel alignment after every 5000 Km, thus starting wheel alignment business is a good idea. 65. Battery Sale and Charging Point.
Today almost every vehicle comes with battery and life of a battery is as a heroine, limited. This battery needs charging after few years. So, starting Battery and nietzsche papers charging point is good. 66. Tragic Heroine? Antique Furniture Sales. Rich people spend a lot of money on erp case study, antique articles and furniture. Starting good antique shop is next business idea. This idea requires a good amount of as a, investment. People often look for Pest control in the home and office areas. In order to serve this need, you can start your own pest control business.
If your mind is creative you can opt to become advertisement guru. Companies often seek someone who is creative and add value to the advertisement. Animation and game business is growing at jet speed today. If you have knowledge about making cartoon or animation you can rock the world. Literary For Critical? Getting medical treatment and tragic medicine are vital need today. If you are an biotechnology thesis, expert in as a heroine essay, pharmaceutical you can open medical store. 71. Home Attendant Service. Biotechnology? Attendants and maids are in demand today. People are ready to pay money for getting good attendants.
You can opt to start Home Attendant service on chargeable basis. 72. HVAC Installation and as a heroine essay Service. Every home and offices are equipped with air condition. If you are expert or intended to be expert in this field you can start your own business for HVAC installation and service.
Starting small tailoring service is a good idea for a house wife. This idea even does not require much investment. Today lot of people takes a loan and don’t pay EMI on time. Resume Lnc? In order to collect outstanding money, bank appoints collection agency who collect defaulted money. 75. Electrical and Machine Tool Shop. You can think of starting electrical and machine tool shop. These products usually remain in demand. 76. Steel Dish and Utensils Shop.
Steel dish and Utensils are required by every household at starting of home, hence starting of steel shop in small place could be a good idea. Tess As A Heroine Essay? 77. Geyser sale and Service. If you want to start a business in the household segment you can start sales and service of Geyser. You can keep both electrical and gas geyser.
78. Water Purifier Sale and Service. Water purifier sales and service is another business idea in household segment. With growing demand for furniture in home segment, starting hardware and a ply shop could be a good choice. If you have a small shop and want to start a business with a small investment you can think of starting small used book store. Today many MLM company gives good business opportunity. If you are good at marketing and selling you can start this business with very low-cost.
You can start small store for optics and nietzsche term frame. Along with this you can also keep other items like watch etc. If you can afford a good amount of investment you can start business of as a tragic essay, electronic goods like TV,LCD, MP3 Player etc. If you have space and willing to invest some money, Business process outsourcing could be another opportunity. Health conscious people take advice from Nutritionist on daily diet.
You can do professional course to become a nutritionist. Fast food parlor is really good business, especially in business or school area this business brings good revenue. You can start your own bakery. This business demands expertise in making cakes, bread and other baking items. If you are good at making food you can start a homemade food business. Food should be perishable and literary for critical tasty. Flour mill service could be another good business. This idea will work in residential area require good capital investment. 90. Share Market trading services.
Open Share marketing trading firm and provide brokerage services to end-user. This is heroine essay, quite a competitive idea as so many firms are already in this business. Which business idea you will adopt from above and why? Do share your favorite business idea in thesis middle worksheets, comments. Tess As A Tragic? I hope you have enjoyed reading this article.
Do share it with your friends on facebook and Twitter! 90 Business Ideas with low investment. Hi, I am Raviraj. I am passionate about money matters and finance. I have 11 years of resume lnc, rich experience in the field of financial planning, Investments Insurance. Heroine? I have written 900+ article on this blog. If you like my efforts kindly subscribe to this blog and also let your friends know about middle school worksheets, this website by sharing.
I have no capital, but I intrested in tragic, business so plz give me some ideas techniques . you can start Rental Service and Real Estate Agency. I am interested please help me. Hi any body interested to business with me,, in film production company, ,, I have done 40% work in term papers, my own investment, , now in 6 to 7 months u can take over the profit with 50% extra,, on tess as a essay, u r investment. Resume Lnc? if any details I will give u all my details and updates process and idea …. call me 09886637746. As A Tragic Heroine Essay? want to start a new business. Try with a lowest investment bro. Ias Mains Political? Like gold,silver,rental service,delivery agent. Good luck. Try with a small investment bro.
Good luck. Start your own find your capital.
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essay gothic study WITH VARIOUS PLANS AND DRAWINGS. DESIGNED CHIEFLY FOR THE USE OF. BY JOHN HENRY HOPKINS, D.D. Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in tess as a the Diocese of Vermont. PRINTED BY SMITH HARRINGTON.
IN presenting the following work to those who are interested in Church Architecture, the author is sensible that he is liable, amongst professional architects especially, to the charge of presumption, for meddling with a science which he cannot be supposed to understand. Perhaps the best mode of term, defending himself against this accusation, and of making a true apology for tess as a tragic heroine the book itself, will be to state the simple facts which gave rise to the undertaking. About the resume lnc latter part of the year 1828, the author entered upon his first ministerial charge, in the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and the blessing granted to his humble labors soon excited his congregation to tess, attempt the nietzsche term papers erection of a new church, which was designed to be in every respect superior to the building then occupied as their house of worship. The first point which presented itself, was, of course, the adoption of a plan; and tess, amongst a variety of drawings produced for the occasion, the author saw none which satisfied him. His early youth had been passed in biotechnology thesis more than ordinary familiarity with the tess as a tragic heroine essay Fine Arts, but, except as a topic of taste and general science, he had no knowledge of resume lnc, Architecture. Admiring, however, the Gothic style above all others, and seeing nothing in the drawings presented which accorded with it, he took up the pencil himself, and tried to embody his own vague conceptions in a regular form. The attempt thus made, was preferred by the gentlemen of the vestry; and tess as a tragic, the plan was adopted with all its imperfections on its head. But the author was conscious of term papers, his deficiencies in this new department; and tragic essay, felt himself bound, as far as possible, to supply them. Nietzsche Papers. With this view, he collected many of the as a tragic best engravings of the fine English Cathedrals, studied them, and copied carefully what was most applicable to his purpose. Biotechnology. And in this stage of his labors he was aided [iii/iv] beyond his hopes by the acquaintance of a European architect who just then settled in his neighborhood, and kindly loaned to him the valuable works of Britton, in which he found a real treasury of tess as a tragic heroine, taste and information. [John Behau, Esq. a gentleman of great skill in his profession, of whose services the resume lnc author would gladly have availed himself, if the funds of the church had justified him.] The result was the completion of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, in a manner which at least exceeded the expectations of as a heroine essay, all concerned; and drew upon the author, from that time forward, more applications for term church plans, than he found it either convenient or practicable to tess tragic, furnish. In the progress of his subsequent observation, he discovered that even several of our large cities were chiefly indebted to the voluntary labours of amateurs for their Gothic architecture; that with some rare exceptions, professional architects had paid but little attention to the Gothic style, or to the peculiar structure of churches; and biotechnology, that the works most easy of access on architecture in general, gave few if any instructions on the subject.
While, throughout the tess as a heroine essay country at large, he saw every where the most uncouth combinations of the Gothic arch and battlement, with columns, entablatures, and thesis middle school, pediments, of the Grecian order; clearly proving the general deficiency in this department of ecclesiastical taste, and calling for tess as a heroine essay some attempt, however humble, to nietzsche term, establish a better standard. Under these circumstances, and stimulated by the repeated calls made upon as a tragic essay him for erp case plans of as a tragic heroine, churches by his clerical brethren, the author commenced the following essay several years ago; and committed the greater part of the drawings to the lithographic press, during his residence near Boston. Availing himself of the resume lnc excellent aids which he found in the Athenaeum of that city, and devoting to the work the chief portion of his leisure hours, he found it grow almost insensibly upon his hands, to a size which seemed, at tess essay length, to statement worksheets, warrant publication. He puts it forth, however; not presuming that it can teach the professional architect, nor claiming for it the rank of a regular and systematic treatise; but as the essay of a mere amateur, only intended to tess essay, be of study, service, where better guides are not at hand. And above all, his desire and hope, are that it may induce our rising [iv/v] clergy to tess as a heroine, give attention to a subject which peculiarly concerns themselves; and erp case using sap, which must, in the nature of things, be principally committed to their management in a country like ours; where the assistance of professional architects cannot often be obtained, and where, in a majority of cases, the funds provided for tess as a the building of our churches so seldom warrant the employing them. It would have much increased the papers value and acceptableness of the following pages, had they contained drawings of the Gothic churches in our principal cities which reflect so much credit on as a tragic essay, the gentlemen who designed them.
But the political papers author omitted them on purpose, for two reasons first, because he considers the plans of these edifices as being the property of others; and secondly, because one of the benefits which he should rejoice to derive from the publication of the present work, is the provoking some of essay, his qualified brethren to put forth a better one. The author cannot dismiss these prefatory remarks without adverting to the possibility, that some of his Christian brethren may regret the appearance of his book on another ground; as thinking that his whole time is little enough for the due performance of the higher and more strictly spiritual duties of his responsible office, and thesis statement middle school worksheets, that the care of the as a outward edifice might be better left to other hands. To this he will only say, that every thing connected with the service of the thesis Most High, is worthy the attention of tess tragic heroine, his ministry, and indeed; devolves upon them, as forming a part of their peculiar office, which, if they will not take pains to understand, they cannot expect that other men will. And many are the names honorably recorded in thesis worksheets English Ecclesiastical history, for their skill in tess tragic essay the science to which this humble volume is devoted. The famous William of Wykeham, bishop of Winchester, in the reign of Edward III, Archbishop Chichele, Alcock, bishop of Ely, Richard Beauchamp, bishop of erp case sap, Salisbury, who was appointed Master and Surveyor of the works, by Edward IV, in the rebuilding St. Tragic. George's Chapel at ias mains papers Windsor, bishop Waynflete, in tess tragic 1447, and the abbot of Westminster, Islip, in study sap 1500, were all celebrated for their architectural knowledge, when the finest monuments of England's ecclesiastical glory were erected.
But far beyond these--Moses, the leader of Israel, took charge of all the details of the earthly sanctuary--Bezaleel the tragic essay son of Uri, was called specially and filled with the Spirit of resume lnc, God (Exod. xxxi. 1, 2,) [v/vi] to tragic heroine, make the work belonging to the tabernacle. Yea, the Lord himself condescended to furnish, in the mount, the pattern of every thing intended for his earthly worship. On a similar principle, David and Solomon, the most distinguished kings of Israel, employed themselves, the one in nietzsche papers preparing for, and the other in erecting, the Temple at tess Jerusalem: and the volume of heavenly wisdom--the blessed word of God--is occupied to a considerable extent, in the description of each minute appendage of his sanctuary. Most unscriptural, therefore, would be the censure--most misplaced the affectation of regret, which should seek to dissuade the clergy from applying themselves to the art of erecting the earthly houses of God in a fitting and appropriate manner. The author would be among the first to maintain the biotechnology superior claims of instruction, and devotion, and pastoral government, over every other branch of ministerial accomplishment. But he is fully persuaded, that a moderate degree of tess as a, industry and application will find time for them all. He cannot understand, why the clergy Should not possess a competent familiarity with the whole range of subjects connected with their sacred calling; nor has he ever been able to see how a reasonable knowledge and zeal in the construction of the outward tabernacle, should lessen their energy and success in the preaching of the Gospel. BURLINGTON, VT.
MARCH, 1836. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE GOTHIC STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE. THE Gothic style of architecture has long possessed a high rank in resume lnc the estimate of ecclesiastical taste, and has drawn forth no small share of, erudition in tess as a heroine essay the various attempts made by European writers, to trace its derivation. Hitherto, however, these attempts have not led to any clear or positive result; and the field is still open to the claims of any reasonable theory. We design, therefore, to devote this chapter to the question: What was the probable origin of this admired style of building? The distinguishing features of the Gothic style seem to consist in two particulars--the effect of the perpendicular line, and the terminating the various parts in a point. It must be understood, however, that we are not speaking of the. Gothic style in its application to castles or colleges, where its true principles are obliged to give way to the superior claims of strength and convenience. Our remarks are to be applied to that pure and elevated species of it which belongs to ecclesiastical purposes, and to them alone. In this--when exhibited in its best specimens--we find that all the upper horizontal lines are broken into ias mains political science papers battlements, while the multiplied perpendicular lines of the buttresses, crowned with pinnacles diminishing to a point, the mullioned windows, and the slender clustered pillars, lead the eye of the beholder upwards; causing, by a kind of physical association, an impression of sublimity more exalted than any other sort of architecture can produce.
 Now it is here that we find the superiority of the Gothic over the Grecian style, for ecclesiastical purposes. The Gothic, breaking the horizontal line, and leading the eye upwards till its pinnacles vanish in the sky, seems adapted, by an easy correspondence, to the offices of that blessed religion, which takes the heart from the contemplation of earth, and directs it to its heavenly inheritance. While the Grecian, with its lengthened colonnades and its horizontal extension, running in lines parallel with the ground, seems suited, by its characteristic expression, to secular objects and pursuits. Hence we should recommend the Grecian and Roman architecture for all buildings designed for tess as a essay legislative, judicial, commercial, civic, or merely scientific purposes; but wherever the spiritual interests of our race are to be the primary concern, the elevated solemnity of the Gothic style is far more appropriate. The origin of this interesting species of architecture has been much disputed.
Some have contended that it is of English growth; others, that it is French or German; others, that it is Saracenic, and was introduced into Europe by the Crusades. [The opinion of Sir Christopher Wren was that the Gothic style is of Arabian extraction, and he has been followed by the majority of other writers. Bishop Warburton's theory has an resume lnc, interesting mixture of truth with error. Heroine Essay. 'The architecture of the Holy Land,' says he, 'was Grecian, but greatly fallen from its ancient elegance. And from this it was that our Saxon builders took the whole of their ideas. But when the elements for critical Goths conquered Spain, through emulation of the heroine Saracens, they struck out a new species of architecture upon original principles, and ideas much nobler than what had given birth even to classic magnificence. For this northern people having been accustomed to worship the Deity in groves, when their new religion required covered edifices, they ingeniously projected to make them resemble groves,'--'and with what skill and middle school, success they executed the project by tess as a essay the assistance of Saracen architects, whose exotic style of building very luckily suited their purpose, appears from hence, that no attentive observer ever viewed a regular avenue of well grown trees intermingling their branches overhead, but it presently put him in mind of the long vista through the Gothic cathedral.' This notion of the learned Bishop, that a new style of building could thus arise in the 10th century, upon an original model, without any record of the design or the name of the designer, is certainly, to middle worksheets, say the least, a violent presumption. But his idea of a grove is beautiful and just; only that instead of tess as a, referring it, on a mere conjecture, to an ordinary grove, and to the middle ages for its origin, it seems much more reasonable to erp case study using, trace it to the palm trees, which we know were represented, within and without, in the celebrated temple of Solomon.
Probably Bishop Warburton was influenced by tess tragic essay the term Gothic , which is now generally conceded to be a nickname of reproach, instead of a note of history. The notion of the poet Gray is nietzsche term, strangely absurd, that the buildings of Turkey, Persia, and the East Indies, are plainly 'corruptions of the Greek architecture, broke into little parts indeed, and covered with small ornaments, but in taste very distinguishable from what we call Gothic.' And he asks 'Whoever saw a Gothic cupola? It is a thing plainly of Greek extraction.' Now really this is amusing; for the cupola is found frequently, among the English Gothic Churches; of which St. Heroine Essay. George's Chapel and King's College Chapel are familiar instances. Indeed, the question might be most justly retorted, Who ever saw a Grecian Cupola among the models of pure antiquity? The Cupola was added td the genuine Grecian style, by mixing it with ideas borrowed from the East. A French writer in the 'Souvenirs du Mus©e des Monumens Fran§ais' so late as the year 1820, shews the doubtful state of using sap, this question very clearly by these questions; 'Le style' says he, 'qui, dans le onzieme si¨cle, fit oublier l'architecture Carlovingiaque, fut il cr©e par des artistes descendans des anciens Goths , et doit il, pour cette raison, ªtre appell© Gothique ? Dut il son origine aux artistes de notre pays, et doit il recevoir l'©pithete de Fran§ais? N'est il autre chose qu'une imitation mal dirig©e des monumens ©lev©s par les Sarrasins en Espagne, et faut il appeler Sarrasin, on Mauresque le style de nos constructions du 11, 12, et 13 si¨cle? The title given by some to the Gothic style, viz, that of the English style, 'must appear,' (says the admirable work of Pugin) 'ridiculous to our brethren on the continent. Germany, France and tess as a tragic heroine essay, Flanders possess Gothic churches, palaces, and towers, at nietzsche papers least as magnificent as those of England, and tess as a, of as early date.
And we are convinced, whatever may be its true origin, that it is not of English invention.' 'The pointed arch,' says he elsewhere, 'may have been brought from the East.'] Of these opinions the latter has by far the greatest plausibility: as may [2/3] plainly appear from the following considerations. First, because it is acknowledged that no specimens of pure and tasteful design in thesis school worksheets Europe, can be traced farther back than the twelfth century, a little after the first crusade. Secondly, because there is abundant evidence to prove that the tess as a essay ecciesiasties were the architects, and often the very workmen, by whom those splendid edifices were erected, which are thefl admiration of the civilized world to this day. Resume Lnc. Thirdly, because the architecture of Palestine and of the East generally, displays all the distinguishing characteristics of the Gothic style--the pointed arch--the ogee--the pinnacle--the fretted tracery--the lofty minaret--the panel fbrmed by segments of circles--the ornamental foliage and fourthly, because multitudes of tess as a heroine essay, abbots, friars, priests, and monks, accompanied the armies of the cross to the very regions of this peculiar architecture. Ias Mains Political Papers. It is an tess, obvious Inference from elements these premises, that the clergy of that [3/4] day brought home from tess tragic heroine essay Palestine all that had impressed them as most attractive and beautiful in the architecture of the East, adapted it to ecclesiastical purposes, and thus became designers of a style of building, previously, indeed, unknown in nietzsche term papers Europe, but for which they did not feel particularly anxious to acknowledge themselves indebted to the paynim of the Holy Land.
But if we suppose that such was the mode in which the as a Gothic style was introduced into Europe, a difficulty occurs in the name by which it has become generally known; for why should it be termed Gothic if its origin was in Palestine? In answer to this, it may be sufficient to state that this name is commonly agreed to be the product of the dislike entertained against it by the architects of the sixteenth century, who, being desirous to establish the Italian style, in their devotion to the works of Vitruvius and Palladio, called the eastern style Gothic , in order to express their opinion of its comparative barbarism. ['A pedantic affectation of Italian taste' says Pugin, (1. Ias Mains Political. vol. p. 10) had branded the pointed arch and all the buildings constructed on tess, its principles, with the opprobrious term Gothic , an epithet inconsiderately applied, merely as designating something barbarous and devoid of thesis, regular design.] All late writers seem to admit that this name is every way objectionable; and many other appellations have been suggested as more appropriate. It may be doubted, however, whether custom, the tyrant of language, has not established this too firmly to allow of its being superseded. But if another term could be generally agreed on, perhaps the Eastern style, or the Ecclesiastical style, would be preferable to most of the phrases recommended by writers on the subject. Still the question recurs, what was the origin of this style? Granting that Palestine may have given it to Europe, what produced it in as a tragic heroine Palestine? In reply, it ought to be observed that the distinguishing features of this style are not confined to Palestine, but are diffused generally throughout the East. Thus, in elements for critical lens essays India, the mausoleum of Sultan Chusero, and that of Sultan Purviez near Allahabad--the Jummah Musjed at Delhi--the Punj Mahalla Gate at Lucknow--the ruins at Cannonge--the gate of the mosque built by Hafiz Ramut at Pillibeat, and the interior of the palace, Madura,--all exhibit striking coincidences of forms, proportions, and details, with the style in question. Tragic Heroine Essay. At Constantinople the mosques of Sultan [4/5] Ahmed, and of St. Sophia, and the sepulchral chapel of the Sultaness Valide, exhibit the buttress, the ias mains papers pointed arch, the lattice sash, the embattled top, the dome, the fret-work of the ceiling--all of the same character. As A Heroine. [See 'Tableau General de l'Empire Ottoman, par D'Ohisson.'] Nay, in the mosque of St.
Athanasius, at Alexandria, which cannot be later than the fourth century,. we find, in the accurate drawing of Denon, the ogee pointed arch, the quatre foil, and the common pointed arch, together with the battlement, the buttress, the dome, and political science papers, a lofty minaret, clearly proving that this style was then familiar. To these proofs we may add, that the public buildings of the Chinese display in many important particulars, a close correspondence with the tess tragic essay same style. ['In both the antique and Chinese architecture' says Chambers, 'the general form of almost every composition has a tendency to the pyramidal figure--fret-work is likewise very frequent among the resume lnc Chinese,--and (like the Goths ) they always leave the timber work of the roof exposed within side, and tragic essay, often make both it and the columns which support it of resume lnc, precious wood, sometimes enriching them with ornaments.' c. In the plates belonging to Chambers' work on Chinese architecture, although they are neither various nor of the best selection for such a purpose, we may discover the Gothic forms of panel and fret-work, the foliage at the corners and the top of the tragic essay roof, and political, the lofty towers, which are peculiar to the Eastern style, and are entirely foreign to the Greek and Roman architecture, the corroborations of our theory furnished by Chambers are altogether accidental on his part, for heroine he seems to have had no taste nor knowledge on the subject of the Gothic style.] Now when it is elements for critical lens, remembered that a peculiar species of architecture, and tess, one, too, which demands great skill and labor in its execution, cannot spring up and reach perfection in a period less than many centuries--when we recollect especially, that the Eastern nations in general are noted for the wonderful constancy with which they retain their ancient dress, manners, and customs--a constancy incomparably greater than that of Europe-- and literary elements for critical, when we call to mind the fact, that notwithstanding the disposition to innovate, the art of Architecture, in as a heroine essay all other respects, is much the same that it was two thousand years ago, it will I think be sufficiently plain, that a style so prevalent in its principal features through all the resume lnc vast regions of Asia, which were first settled after the flood, must in all probability have been invented long before the tragic heroine essay Grecian orders, since these were confessedly improved from the lens essays Egyptian architecture. [Thus Dr. Shaw remarks (Travels, p. Tess As A Tragic. 273,) that there is 'a near relation between the architecture of the Moors and that of Scripture.']  But in my mind, there are traces of something like positive evidence in favor of this conclusion; for I think there are remarkable indications, at least, that the Temple of Solomon claimed affinity in many respects with what we now call the' ecc'esiastieal Gothic style. And it may be well to state, somewhat in detail, the reasons for this opinion. First, then, the proportions of the temple were of this character, viz. Length, (counting twenty two inches to the cubit) 110 feet. Breadth, 36 feet. Projection of the front porch, 18 feet. Height of the main building, 55 feet.
Height of the porch or tower, 220 feet. Excluding the thesis space occupied by the Holy of Holies, which was 36 feet square, it was twice as long as it was broad, and twice as high as it was long, approximating closely in its three principal dimensions to the proportions generally adopted in the best cathedrals. Secondly, it had chambers on as a tragic heroine essay, the outside, three stories in lens essays height, each story being five cubits, making 27 1/2 feet in the whole. Of course, they occupied half the height of the main building, and presented an accurate correspondence with the cloisters of a Gothic cathedraL. Thirdly, the temple had windows of narrow lights . What kind of windows these were, it would be impossible to prove; but we know that the Hebrew form of expression is altogether different from the tragic heroine description applied to the windows of the king's own house. Biotechnology Thesis. We also know that the Gothic window is extremely narrow in proportion to its height; and further, we are certain that these windows of the temple must have been over the chambers of the priests, and tess as a tragic heroine, thus that they admitted the light from resume lnc above, which gives us another correspondence with the mode in which the nave of a Gothic cathedral receives its light from the windows over the roof of the cloisters. [The Hebrew phrase here translated 'windows of narrow lights,' is tragic heroine, very obscure, and has given rise to a singular variety of interpretations. The original is (1 Ki. 6. 5,) which Montanus translates 'fenestras prospectivas occlusas,' and Taylor's Concordance agrees with this, while it also justifies the common version. The Septuagint has quridaV parakuptomenaV kruptaV . The Vulgate has ' fenestras obliquas :' the German has 'Fenster inwendig welt, auswendig enge.' The French agrees with it, calling them ' Fenªtres la maison, large en dedans, et ©troites par dehors .' The Italian gives us ' finestre reticolate ;' the Spanish ' ventanas transversales ;' and Jahn, in his Archaeologia Bib. in Comp. Papers. Red. § 338, says on the passage ' Fenestrae erant decussatae et clathris clausae .' From this diversity it is manifest that the meaning of the original is by as a heroine essay no means clear.
It is sufficient for my purpose that the windows of the nietzsche temple were peculiar in their form, and described in words altogether different from those of the king's palace.]  Fourthly, we find that the tess as a heroine essay cedar. wood with which the temple was lined, was carved with 'knops and flowers,' and this gives us a very good description, in popular terms, of the rosettes, crocketts, and finials, which so profusely adorn the enriched, or florid Gothic style, and which form a regular part of the Turkish, Indian, and Chinese architecture. Fifthly, we read that the temple was carved all round, with cherubim and palm trees and open flowers within and without. Literary Elements Lens Essays. Now it is remarkable that in this description we have the tess tragic essay very elements of the resume lnc Gothic pillar and the groined arch. For palm trees, with their lofty and slender trunks and branching heads, if placed in tess as a essay rows so that their boughs should interlace, would form the middle school worksheets best imaginable prototype of the cathedral fretwork ceiling, springing from the heads of the pillars, and arching round in every direction. As A Tragic Essay. And the cherubim placed between, with open flowers, would seem to ias mains, have suggested the idea of the statues of the ancient churches, under their canopies of tracery and foliage. Sixthly, we read of two pillars ornamented with 'net-work, pomegranates, and as a tragic heroine, lily work upon the top of the thesis middle school worksheets pillars;' which certainly bore no likeness to any thing we know of, unless it be the Gothic pinnacles which sometimes surmount the pillars, with their leafy ornaments; or the richly carved minarets of Asiatic architecture. It appears deserving of tragic essay, much observation, in estimating the testimony of the Scriptures on this subject, that soon after the temple was completed, Solomon erected another building, with parts and proportions of the Egyptian, or what was subsequently refined into for critical the Grecian style.
I allude to 'the house of the forest [7/8] of tess as a tragic, Lebanon,' perhaps so called from resume lnc its multitude of as a tragic heroine essay, cedar pillars. The dimension of this building were as follows; viz. Length, 183 feet. Breadth, 91 feet. 'It stood upon four rows of cedar pillars, with cedar beams upon resume lnc the pillars, and it was covered with cedar above upon the beams, that lay on tess as a tragic, forty-five pillars, fifteen in a row, and there were windows in thesis worksheets three rows, and light was against light, in three ranks. And he made a porch of pillars, the length thereof was 50 cubits,' (91 1/2 feet) c. 1 Ki. 7 Ch. 2nd to 6th v. We see here plainly indicated another and tragic essay, very different style of architecture, closely resembling the Grecian; and the contrast between the two is literary lens essays, very strong. The temple is almost twice as high as it is broad, but the house of the forest of Lebanon, is almost twice as broad as it is as a heroine, high. The first has no pillars.
The lofty palm trees fill the essays place which the slender Gothic pillars would now occupy. But the other displays extensive colonnades with horizontal entablatures. The first receives its light from above: the other has light against tess as a essay light in three ranks. The first is adorned with knops and flowers, but the other has no ornaments of this description. Hence we see Solomon executing two kinds of edifice of very different proportions and character the one, sacred; the other, secular; both corresponding with considerable exactness to the two great styles of architecture which we behold at for critical lens the present day. And if, indeed, this celebrated king was the founder of Balbec and Palmyra, as some have supposed, we need not be surprized at the Grecian taste of their ruins, when we recognize, in the description of the tragic essay house of the forest of biotechnology thesis, Lebanon, the as a heroine very same features; and recollect that what Solomon began, others must have enlarged and improved at a subsequent period. In researches of this nature, absolute demonstration is, from the nature of the case, impossible.
The true origin of Architecture, like that of all other arts, lies buried in remote antiquity, and it is by no means improbable that it had reached a degree of perfection even before the flood, of which we have no idea. Cain, we know, built a city. Tubal Cain was an artificer in nietzsche term brass and iron; and what progress might not have been expected in tess heroine essay knowledge as well as vice, when the [8/9] age of man averaged eight hundred years! But of the extent of these primaeval acquisitions, we know nothing. Nor, at a period long subsequent, are we able to ascertain the biotechnology details of taste which characterised the magnificence of ancient Nineveh and Babylon. All that we can do, is to form the most rational conjecture from the scattered materials which remain. While, therefore, we have the most distinct evidence for the antiquity of tess tragic, both the Gothic and statement middle worksheets, the Grecian styles, if not in all their minutiae, yet in their leading peculiarities--while we see the Asiatic nations, which are undoubtedly the oldest, universally employing the characteristics of the Gothic style; and tragic essay, the whole posterity of Shem exhibiting the same general affinity in this, as in their language, their dress, and their social habits--while, above all, we see considerable points of correspondence with this style in thesis statement middle school the temple of Solomon--we cannot err in assuming it as highly probable , at least, that the style in question is the most ancient, in the world which has been applied to sacred purposes; and tess as a essay, that it deserves to be esteemed, not only for its solemn beauty, and its general fitness for political the offices of religion, but for tragic essay its special application to study, those very objects by the chosen people of God, ON THE EXPENSE REQUIRED FOR THIS STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE.
IT is the opinion of some very judicious writers, that the Gothic, or Eastern style, is only fit for large buildings, where it can be carried out in full perfection. But I doubt the correctness of tess as a tragic, this idea. On the contrary, it appears to me, that there is no style of architecture which admits of such variety, which is ias mains, so beautiful on any scale, and which is so little dependent on size for its effect. The utmost latitude of embellishment, is, indeed, allowed by it; but it is fettered by no precise rules with regard to the degree. And although the kind of ornament and finish is as a tragic heroine, fixed by examples, from resume lnc which no man of judgment or good taste would venture to depart; yet the tragic distinctive characters of the style may be preserved in union with the utmost simplicity. The general proportion, securing a due height in all its dimensions--buttresses, producing strong perpendicular lines of light and shade, and terminating in pinnacles--battlements, breaking the horizontal line, where it is next the sky--pointed arches, enclosing at least two subdivisions in the windows; and both windows and doors retreating from the outside of the walls, so as to furnish strong shadows, and increase the solemnity of the effect--these seem to present the literary elements for critical lens essays prominent external features of the style, and may be preserved in connexion with the tragic heroine essay highest ornament, or with none at all, just as circumstances may require. The interior admits of the same variety, and demands attention to ias mains political science papers, the same general principles. The ceiling may be groined, ribbed, and filled with tracery in the most costly manner, or it may consist of a simple pointed arch.
It may be supported on clusters of slender pillars, or it may spring from the walls [10/11] in the plainest form. But its terminating line should never be horizontal. The upper line of the galleries should be broken by foliage or battlements, and the lower line should take the form of the pointed arch. All the panel work should give preponderance to as a tragic heroine, the effect of the perpendicular line, and every termination which admits of it, should come to a point. But still, the gradations of finish are such, that where economy is the object, the style may be preserved in reasonable consistency with it. Proportions and forms must be marked, but ornament, in which the resume lnc expense is chiefly involved, is arbitrary; and may be added afterwards, when the circumstances of those concerned shall allow. But I cannot forbear to say, that it is a reproach to any Christian people to study economy too much in the erection of Churches. The Church is the house of God.
It is the tess as a tragic heroine essay place where his people assemble to sap, transact the concerns of eternity, and it is a disgrace to our profession of zeal in behalf of religion, when the private dwellings of the worshippers, exceed the temples of the Most High, in beauty and costliness of tragic, workmanship. The principle runs throughout the whole Bible, and is in accordance with right reason, that we should dedicate nothing to God, which is not the best of its kind in our power to thesis statement middle school, procure; and although it is very true that the tess tragic unhappy state of division which deforms the ias mains Christian world puts it out of tragic, our power to equal the magnificent erections of other days, yet the average standard of our efforts in this respect. might be raised vastly above its present height, if Christians would learn to come up to the scriptural rule of 'honoring the Lord with their substance and with the first fruits of all their increase,' and remember that no rule of liberality is so likely to be acceptable in political papers His sight as that which he himself enjoined upon ancient Israel. True, the [11/12] spiritual Church, composed of the living stones of the faithful, is the abiding temple which the as a tragic essay Lord has promised to inhabit, and 'he dwelleth not in temples made with hands.' But although the wise king of Israel uttered this very sentiment in the dedication of the temple at Jerusalem, yet he made that house 'exceedingly magnifical,' and for an obvious reason; because it was a symbol of the papers heavenly temple where the redeemed should one day be privileged to worship with celestial joy. And why should not the same correspondence still lead us to the same principle? As the Sabbath of God is the most precious day to the Christian--as on that day he clothes his body in his best attire that it may answer to the clothing of the soul--Why should not the house of God be the most precious of all earthly edifices, and tess tragic essay, why should not every thing about biotechnology, it answer to the sublime and tragic heroine, glorious end for which it was erected--the congregating together on earth, those who desire to worship him together in heaven? [From the learned and ingenious work entitled 'The ornaments of Churches considered,' Oxford Ed. of 1761, I extract the following just and eloquent argument of the famous Mede on this subject, which the scholar, the man of taste, and the divine, will read with pleasure.
[De Templorum magnificentia dicturus, ut caveam quae in hac causa multi in thesis hanc vel illam ornatus speciem importuni objiciunt, non simpliciter sed comparat© definio de modo et mensura ornatus sacri, nempe Dei domum esse debere que, imo magis quam profana magnificam. In urbe Templum aedificas? pulcherrimum id sit omnium in urbe palatiorum. In villa? aequet imo vincat reliquas in villa aedes. Ratio mihi talis, quia Deo non fuerit dignum, quod non sit in quocunque rerum genere optimum et dignissimum.' 'There are two other objections to as a, the decoration of Churches,' observes the author of the work above mentioned, 'one of which is taken notice of by literary elements for critical Mede in the following words: 'At magnam nobis invidiam conflatum eunt de pauperum indigentia, indignum enim esse, ut auro splendescant templa haec externa, dum viva Spiritus Sancti habitacula fame contabescant et inedi , in pauperes ut simus lapides, nimium in lapides profusi.' His answer to this is spirited to a great degree. 'Sciant non Templa sola hoc quod intorquent ariete, sod et regum conquassari palatia, sed multas privatorum aedes. Tess Heroine. Pauperes egent? Quin igitur tu aedes tuas dirue, quin regum et nobiliorum demolire.
Pauperes egent? Quid tibi tantus domi aulaeorum et tapetum apparatus? Quid tot contignationum et concamerationum deliciae? Quid reliqua supellex otiosa, ornatus super vacuus? Aufer, aufer haec, inquam, sine quibus et tibi satis exit domi et pauperi inde multum eleemosynae.' 'The other objection is drawn from the tendency which ornaments have to statement middle, introduce. superstition and popery.
But the proper question with respect to the magnificence of our temples is, whether we have passed the medium. 'What,' says the great Chillingworth, 'if out of devotion to God, out of a desire that he should be worshipped as in as a heroine spirit and in truth in the first place, so also in the beauty of worksheets, holiness? What if out of fear that too much simplicity and nakedness in the public service of God, may beget in the ordinary sort of men, a dull and tragic essay, stupid irreverence, and out of hope that the outward state and glory of it, being well disposed and wisely moderated, may engender, quicken, increase and nourish, the inward respect and devotion which is due unto God's sovereign majesty and power? I say, what if out of these considerations, the governors of our Church, more of late than formerly, have set themselves to erp case study sap, adorn and as a heroine essay, beautify the places, where God's honor dwells, and to make them as heavenlike as they can with earthly ornaments? is resume lnc, this a sign that they are warping towards popery? Is this devotion in the Church of England, as argument that she is coming over to the Church of Rome?' ON THE DEGREE OF LIGHT EXPEDIENT IN CHURCHES. THERE is as a tragic, no fault more common, and none more opposed by every principle of good taste, than the having too many windows in Churches.
There should be no more light admitted than will suffice for the purpose of reading with comfort. More than this increases the expense, exposes to cold, and, above all,--so far as the elements for critical lens eye is concerned,--destroys solemnity, and is unfriendly to devotion. Thus H. Wotton, in his elements of architecture, p. 35, asserts, that 'Light can misbecome no edifice whatever, temples only excepted, which were anciently dark; as they are likewise t this day in some proportion; devotion more requiring collected than diffused spirits.' And Sir Thomas More, describing the tess essay temples of statement school worksheets, his Utopia, says that they were somewhat obscure; not on account of the unskilfulness of the architects, but by tess as a the choice of the priesthood: because immoderate light scatters the thoughts.' ['Templa erant subobscura, nec id aedificandi inscitia factum, sed concilio sacerdotum, quod immodica lux cogitationes dispergit.'] The custom of staining the glass of Church windows, was admirably adapted not only to moderate the glare of light, but also to give it a rich, mellow, and solemn effect. If this country, it is not yet practicable to apply this expedient extensively. Instead of it, however, a very beautiful effect may be produced at a small expense, by transparencies painted on linen or muslin, in the Gothic style, and fixed inside the study sap windows. As a general principle, it would be well if the windows were not brought near the floor.
A congregation assembled for worship have nothing to do with looking out, and the light has always the best effect when it enters the building as near to the top as possible, consistently with true proportion. ON MONUMENTS, CENOTAPHS, STATUES AND PICTURES, IN CHURCHES. THE Church being the house of God, dedicated to his service, and designed to assist in the preparing his people for his kingdom in heaven, it is plain that every thing in tragic essay it should be connected with those purposes, and that whatever savors of human pride and ministers to middle worksheets, the gratification of human vanity, is there utterly out of tess as a heroine essay, place. Judged by this rule, monuments or cenotaphs seem altogether inadmissible. It is true, indeed, that they are common in many fine Gothic structures in Europe, and that some of our Churches in this country have, as might be expected, fallen into the same custom. But there was nothing of this sort in the temple of Jerusalem, neither was there any thing like it in the Primitive Church. The early Christians did undoubtedly hold their worship in cemeteries, during the times of persecution; and at a somewhat later day they were fond of building Churches over the tombs of eminent saints; but it was long afterwards, and in a very dark and barbarous period when the monuments of kings, and lords, and barons, were privileged with a place within the walls of the sanctuary. What renders this thing, in my mind, the mare unbecoming, is the indisputable fact, that the distinction thus granted is a boon conceded to rank, or wealth, and not to piety.
So tar, indeed, is religion from having any thing to do with it, that there are instances--not a few--where the Churches of the God of Holiness contain a standing commemoration of men whose lives would have scandalized, and whose deaths would have disgraced, a Christian profession. And shall the resume lnc pride of surviving friends be gratified, by putting the lofty memorials of the sculptor's [14/15] art upon the very walls of the tess tragic sanctuary, in favor of such men as these? Surely it is enough if the church yard is left free for the pageantry of this poor ambition, without having the very enclosure consecrated to statement school worksheets, the Most High, profaned by these shrines of as a tragic, vanity and ostentation. It is, doubtless, an invidious and painful task, to discriminate among those that may be applicants for such a posthumous distinction. The better and the safer rule therefore, would be this: That no man, whatever, should have any such memorial in the house of God, unless he had already a place on the Church's calendar: This principle would prevent all difficulty, since an honor which the clergy disclaimed for papers themselves, could not and tragic, would not be expected by their people. Pictures and statuary representing the characters and events recorded in the Scriptures, stand, of course, on a very different foundation. It is the design of the Lord that these characters and events should be commemorated in resume lnc the Churches, and to that end, the reading of the tess essay Bible is an established part of our duty in his temple. And therefore it would seem that the same events might lawfully be presented to the eye by pictures and statues, since these would assuredly aid to fix them in the memory.
Besides which general argument, it is to be remembered, that statues of cherubim were sculptured all round the temple of Jerusalem, and that the veil was covered with embroidery. Still it is very certain, that one of the early Councils of the Church expressly forbade pictures in Churches--that statuary, when first introduced, was warmly and violently opposed--that the case of ancient Israel was confined to the depicting of the cherubim, and that in neither temple nor synagogue was there any thing else that could be called picture or statue. Equally certain is it, that the custom, when finally established, led the way to a species of idolatry, at least, amongst the ignorant and superstitious; and that it is a kind of ornament, which, in its own nature, is liable to abuse. On the whole, therefore, I should recommend the adorning the walls of thesis, Churches only with the appropriate architectural enrichments, and with judicious and edifying selections from the word of God. These last cannot be too abundant, and should be so disposed, that the wandering ye might be arrested, on every side of the sacred edifice, by some counsel or warning of heroine, Divine truth, calculated to enlighten the conscience and amend the heart. ON THE PEWS OF CHURCHES. PEWS, or, indeed, any special seats appropriated to the individuals of the congregation, have no authority in Scripture or ancient usage. 'Before the age of the Reformation,' says Burns, (Eccl. Law, vol.
1. Papers. p. 358,) 'no seats were allowed in the Churches, nor any distinct apartments assigned to tess as a tragic heroine essay, individuals, except for some very great persons.' And Pugin remarks, (p. 42) that 'the fastidious habits of modern times have sadly disfigured the interior of our Churches by the introduction of close pews. Instead of being shut up in square boxes, the congregation, formerly, were seated on long benches, ranged on each side the nave of the Church, with their faces turned towards the altar. Study. A separate pew was a distinction appertaining only to the Lord of the Manor, or some other person of rank; and these manorial pews were like small chapels, generally occupying the upper end of a north or south aisle, and made highly ornamental with screens, canopies and tracery.' The objections to the modern custom, however, are much more serious in other respects, than in point of architectural beauty.
The right to occupy a place in tess as a tragic essay the house of God, and that, too, the best place, is, in ias mains science papers our day, a pure matter of merchandize. It is a right sold at auction, to the highest bidder. Religion has nothing to do with it. Personal piety has nothing to do with it. The seats next to as a tragic, the altar, and in the immediate eye of the ministers of Christ, may be occupied by men who have no real respect for the Gospel or its ordinances, and who exhibit, in the gaze of the whole congregation, a constant example of biotechnology thesis, ungodliness. Still, [16/17] they pay for their seats, and the omnipotence of gold covers the glaring inconsistency. And while every desirable place in a fashionable Church is thus appropriated to a special owner, the poor man--though pious and tess tragic heroine essay, sincere, and longing to have his portion of the bread of life--is afraid to come forward in the midst of term, so much exclusive pride: and either takes his seat afar off, or goes away to some humbler assembly, where he can worship on a level with his fellow creature before that God who is no respecter of persons. Neither is this the whole of the evil.
Pews appropriated to individuals operate directly to keep many away from the house of God. Tess As A Tragic Heroine. Strangers do not like to intrude on other persons' property, nor to run the resume lnc risk of being turned out of their seat by the owner. And it scarcely ever happens, that those who pay for their pews, can all attend at once: so that our Churches usually display an abundance of vacant room, in seats which have owners, but yet are seldom filled; as if men thought it was sufficient to pay their minister, without being obliged to listen to him. The luxurious accommodations of particular pews produce another variety of the same evil; for even when strangers ace determined to meet the risk of being turned out of their places, it is by no means pleasant to use the silken couches, and tread the rich carpets, and open the splendid prayer books, prepared for tess as a heroine the sons and daughters of resume lnc, opulence and fashion; when the intruder is conscious, that if the owners were present, they would probably give him the cold look of unwilling sufferance. But worst of all, is tess heroine, a method of political, constructing the pews, which has become very common, and which looks as if it had been contrived by some enemy to tess as a tragic, the work of resume lnc, devotion, We refer to as a heroine essay, the making them so narrow, that kneeling is impossible; and all that the worshippers can do is to adopt a compound posture, half sitting and middle worksheets, half kneeling, which usually ends in as a heroine sitting altogether. And a foul reproach it surely is, that a Church which boasts of biotechnology thesis, her liturgy, and in this very point of kneeling in prayer, claims a superiority over tess essay, other portions of the Christian family, should have slidden into a practice, within one generation, which is not only in resume lnc direct contradiction to her own formularies, and to the authority of Scripture, but [17/18] which must inevitably tend to prevent the Divine blessing on as a heroine essay, the worship of her peop1e. On the other hand, there are two arguments in favor of pews, which justice requires we should mention. The first is, that they afford families a better opportunity to political, worship together; and the second is, that they facilitate the collection of the Church revenue. We grant both these positions, although we think them by tragic essay no means of sufficient force to justify the thesis custom. On the whole, however, we should recommend the following rules on the subject.
The old mode of benches, would be best. They should be substantial, made in as a tragic essay Gothic style, to correspond with the building, and should have backs, for the comfort of the erp case using aged or infirm. But they should be open to the occupancy of all the congregation, and the only right of precedency should be that which would naturally follow the claims of years, or the as a character of experienced and consistent discipleship. Those who had children to watch over, might take their place a little earlier; but no children should be carried to the house of public worship so young, as to trouble and interrupt the ias mains political devotions of others. It is as a, obvious that on this plan the revenues of the Church could not be charged upon the seats, but they could be collected, as they now are for all other purposes, by voluntary subscription. But if pews must be retained, in resume lnc compliance with the present custom, they should be made at least three feet wide, to allow abundant room for kneeling; and they should never be furnished in a style beyond what reasonable comfort and moderation would justify.
The house of God is no place for the display of vanity or ostentation; and there, at least, if no where else, men should learn to feel, that however they may differ in their worldly circumstances, they are nevertheless equal, by the rights of nature and of grace; and that the superiority of tess heroine essay, their earthly tank can avail them nothing before the lens final tribunal. The principle that should govern as far as possible in this matter, is, that there should be nothing adopted in the architecture of Churches, which should have a tendency to flatter the pride of the rich, or to discourage the just claims of the poor to the privileges of the Gospel. ON THE COLORS APPROPRIATE TO THE GOTHIC STYLE. SOLEMNITY and repose, being the characteristics of this mode of architecture, every thing light and gaudy should be excluded. The only contradiction which might seem to oppose this rule is found in the windows, which we have recommended to be either of stained glass, or covered with transparencies in imitation of it. But this is an exception strictly proper, not only as a tragic heroine, because the light admitted through such a medium is in reality much softened and subdued, but also because the crimson and gold and blue, in the midst of which the light of term, nature--the sun in the firmament--is presented to the eye by the munificent hand of the essay Creator, seem to afford an analogy which justifies us in connecting the same hues with the light transmitted into the house of God.
But in all other particulars, the colors selected should be of a sober character. For the stone work, the light brown or yellowish drab varieties have a better effect than the grey. Elements For Critical Essays. And for the wood work, either an as a tragic heroine essay, imitation of the English oak, or the light olive brown produced by the mixture of white lead with raw umber, is to be used in preference to any other. In our judgment, this last is the best of all, besides being less expensive than an imitation of the oak. Blue, grey, and lead color, have a cold and chilling appearance which forbids their use, excepting in the sashes of the windows; but the raw umber mixed with white (when the umber is statement worksheets, of a good quality) gives a great variety of shades, from light drab color to as a tragic heroine, a dark brown, by a judicious employment of which, great richness and harmony of effect can be secured in biotechnology union with solemnity. For inscriptions on the walls, [19/20] it is best to make the body of the letters considerably lighter than the ground, and tess as a heroine essay, shade them with a tint nearly as dark as the pure umber, which gives them the appearance of being raised, and looks, to our taste, better than gilding. For cushions, chancel chairs, and the drapery of the pulpit and desk, the old fashioned crimson is decidedly the best color. The purple which has been employed of late instead of it, looks very well in a strong light; but when the day is cloudy, or by lamp light, it cannot be distinguished from black, and reminds the spectator of clothing the Church in nietzsche term mourning.
Besides which, crimson harmonizes with the wood work, which purple does not; and for this reason, too, the crimson seems preferable. Tess Tragic Heroine Essay. It is to be observed, however, by biotechnology those who are not much skilled in colors, that while crimson is appropriate, bright red or scarlet is altogether inadmissible. The ancient mode of making the sash which contained the glass of Church windows, was in lattice work of lead or pewter. Hence the sash in tragic heroine Gothic windows should be painted to resume lnc, resemble this material. And as a general rule, there should be nothing painted white in a Gothic building. The lightest tint should be a shade of tess tragic, drab color.
This does not seem a very desirable hue for thesis any thing, according to the common judgment; but being in fact a stone color, it forms the most sober and pleasing finish, for the inside walls and heroine essay, wood work of a Church. It is solemn without being gloomy, and skews the workmanship of every part to political papers, the best advantage. These are little things , and we should not mention them if it were not for as a the instances we have seen, where mistakes in them had spoiled the resume lnc whole effect of an otherwise fine building. ON THE CEILINGS OF CHURCHES. THE most beautiful mode of constructing the tragic heroine essay ceilings of large Churches, is in groined arches, the rules for which are the same in this, that they are in the Roman style; the only difference being, that the arch in Gothic architecture must always be pointed in the centre, instead of being a regular segment of a circle. On this, or any common point of mechanism, it is not the design of the present book to enlarge, because every regularly bred workman can find such matters laid down in the ordinary treatises on carpentry, and statement, would doubtless understand them much better than ourselves. We would only remark, that for small Churches, a flat ceiling would probably be preferable to tess essay, any arch whatever, on account of the echo produced by the arch whenever the ceiling is study using, not very high, and which is a serious obstacle to the distinctness of the preacher's voice.
In this case, however, the tess as a tragic Gothic effect must be provided for by spandrils across the political ceiling, of heroine essay, which there are several examples in the plates. For the rest, the reader will probably need no other observations of a general character. The plates, together with the explanations and dimensions attached to them, will be his best directory; and to these we will now refer him, only premising a brief history of the Gothic style in England, and a Glossary of the technical terms used in this kind of architecture. A CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH OF ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM THE WORK OF PUGIN. 1. The Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon style, from A. D. Nietzsche Papers. 597, to tess as a tragic heroine essay, A. D. 1066. THE buildings erected in England during the four centuries preceding the Norman conquest, have usually been designated Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon; but as there is no positive proof that we have any examples extant of this style, it can only be conjectured to have been a modification of Roman architecture.
2 Anglo-Norman or Norman style, from A. D. Erp Case Study. 1606, to tragic heroine essay, A. D. Elements For Critical. 1189. The Normans rebuilt almost every eminent Church during this period, and tess as a, a prodigious number of castles The style of these buildings is distinguished by strong and ponderous dimensions, round arches, and various mouldings peculiar to itself. This style resulted from statement middle worksheets sundry modifications of the Roman, and it has been very properly contended that it ought to be called the Romanesque . 3. From A. D. 1189, to tragic, A. D. 1272. The general adoption of the pointed arch, and a change from nietzsche papers broad and massy forms to tall and slender proportions, were fully established in the reign of King John, but had appeared a few years earlier in two or three instances. The several appellations of Early Gothic , Simple Gothic , Lancet-Arch Gothic , English and Early English , have been given to the first period of this change. The most complete specimen of it is Salisbury Cathedral, and it may be considered as extending through the reigns of Richard I, John, and Henry 3. 4. Tess As A Heroine Essay. From A. D. 1272, to 1377. The 13th century was not closed before the simple style of Salisbury Cathedral [22/23] became superseded by one of a richer character.
Westminster Abbey is perhaps the earliest example on a large scale. Lincoln Cathedral in its eastern part, is biotechnology, a richer specimen. About the middle of the 14th century a new fashion of tracery in heroine essay the heads of for critical lens essays, windows became apparent, wherein the curves were blended like the tess as a heroine fibres of a leaf. Nietzsche Term Papers. Beautiful specimens of this ramified or foliated tracery, are to as a, be seen in the western window of erp case study, York Cathedral, that of as a heroine, Durham, Carlisle, c. This has been termed pure Gothic, absolute Gothic, decorated English , c. 5. From A. D. 1377 to A. D. 1460. The lofty and simple form of the pointed arch, when struck from two centres on the line of study using, its base, began to as a tragic heroine essay, be given up for a lower and ias mains political science papers, more complicated form, in the reign of Richard, 2. But besides the introduction of the compound flat arch, this period is farther marked by the laying aside the carved interweaving of the, mullions, and carrying them up in perpendicular lines. This style has been called ornamented Gothic , perpendicular English , c. 6. From A. D. 1460, to A. D. 1547.
The last period of the Gothic style is marked by tess tragic heroine essay the general use of the flat or compound pointed arch. The mullions of the windows continued to be carried up in perpendicular lines, but every part was wrought with increased complexity and delicacy. King's College Chapel, Cambridge, St. Thesis Statement. George's, Windsor, and Henry the Seventh's Chapel at tess tragic Westminster, are the grandest examples of this style, which has been designated Florid Gothic, Florid English , c. For my own part, I regard the foregoing distinctions as important, chiefly because they mark the introduction of the style, and its progress to its latest point of excellence. They evidently prove the commencement of Gothic architecture to have been subsequent to the first Crusade; but as to the terms affixed to them, I regard them all as based upon the supposition that the Gothic style had an English origin. I have already shewn my reasons for considering this idea to term papers, be totally without foundation. A GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS IN GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM PUGIN'S SPECIMENS.
Vol. I. [It may be proper to observe that the literary part of Pugin's excellent work is by EDWARD JAMES WILSON I have inserted in this Glossary, many terms which do not come within the strict design of my humble performance, but which it will be interesting and useful to the general reader, to have explained.] AILE, ( ala ecclesiae , Lat. L'aile de l'eglise , Fr.) the heroine essay wing, as it were, the inward portico on each side of a Church, supported by pillars within. Resume Lnc. Hence, middle aile seems improper, and side aile is essay, tautology; yet custom has fixed both too firmly to biotechnology thesis, be shaken. ALLEY, ( all©e , Fr.) an aile, any part of a Church left open for walking through. Hence in as a heroine essay some old surveys of Cathedrals these terms occur, 'the Dean's alley, the chanter's alley, the cross alley.' ARCH-BUTTRESS, ( arc boutant , Fr) an arch springing over the roof of an aile or cloister, and abutting against the wall of a clere-story.
It is also called a Flying buttress, and it is political science papers, applied to the sides of spires, lanterns, c. BARBICAN, in antient fortifications, an outwork, sometimes placed in front of a gate to protect the draw-bridge, sometimes at a short distance from the main works to watch the approach of an enemy. BARTIZAN, a balcony, or platform, within a parapet, or the roof of tess tragic heroine, any building. BASE-COURT, ( Basse-cour , Fr.) a yard attached to a castle or large mansion, around which the culinary and biotechnology thesis, other offices were built. BASTILE, a tower, or bulwark in the fortification of tess as a essay, a town.  BATTLEMENT, a parapet on the roof of a building, cut into loops or embrasures to shoot through.
BAY, 1. an opening: 2. an arbitrary measure of size in a building: 3. and principally, the several lights in a window between, the mullions, frequently called (though erroneously) days . BAY-WINDOWS, an oriel, or projecting window. Thesis. Sometimes improperly called a bow window. BELFRY, a tower for bells. BOTTEL, 1. the perpendicular shafts of tess heroine essay, a clustered column. 2. Such shafts attached to thesis, the jambs of windows or, doors. 3. Any round moulding. It is the old English term for the torus of the Italian architects.
BOSS, a round protuberance, usually placed at as a tragic heroine essay the junction of the thesis ribs in a vaulted roof, or to finish the end of any projecting moulding. These were variously carved. BRACKETT, ( brachium , Lat.) a projection intended to support a statue or other ornament, or to sustain the ribs of the roof; frequently synonymous with corbel. BUTTRESS, a pillar built against the wall to as a heroine, strengthen it. CANTED, (adj.) of a polygonal plan, as, a canted window or oriel. CAROL or CARREL, a little pew or closet in a cloister to sit and read in; so called from the carols, or sentences inscribed on the walls.--(Qu. Is it not more probably derived from Quarr¨ , the French for school worksheets square.) CASEMENT, 1. a light or compartment, within the mullions of tess as a tragic essay, a window; or 2. and chiefly, a frame enclosing part of the glazing of a window, 'witja hiuges to open and shut. CHAMFER, the angle of the jamb of resume lnc, a door or of an arch, c. canted, or cut off diagonally.
CHEVERON, see Zigzag . CHEVET, a French term for the end of as a, a Church terminating on a semi-circular plan. The great Churches of erp case study using, France terminate generally at the East end, in tragic heroine essay a semi-circle or half polygon. Nietzsche. This end is as a tragic heroine essay, called the chevet . CINQUE-FOIL, an ornamental figure resembling the thesis middle school worksheets herb clover, from whence its name.  CLERE-STORY, the upper story of a tower, Church, or other building. COIN, or QUOIN, the outward corner of tragic heroine, a building.
COMPASS-ROOFED, this term applies to roofs, the timbers of which form a sort of pointed arch, by the inclination of the braces. COMPASS WINDOW, a bay window, or oriel. COPE, COPING, the covering-stones of a wall, or battlement, or of the projections of a buttress, c. CORBEL, CORBET, or CORBETEL, a bracket; a projection from a wall or buttress, to resume lnc, support an image; or the springing of an arch, c. CORBIE-STEPS, battlements rising like steps on the sides of tess heroine, gables, so called because the crows ( corbeau ) were observed to perch upon them. CORBEL-TABLE, a projecting battlement, parapet, or cornice, resting on biotechnology thesis, corbels. CORNICE or CORNISH, the, highest projection of mouldings, serving as a crown to cover and finish any design. COVER, a turret or cupola on a roof of a hall or kitchen, pierced at the sides to tess as a tragic, let out smoke and ias mains science papers, steam. Tess As A Tragic Heroine Essay. See Louvre . CRENELLE, the opening of a battlement, an embrasure. CRENELLATED, embattled, having the parapet or top of the science wall, cut into crenelles.
CREST, an imagery or carved work, to adorn the head or top of any thing. CREST-TILE, ridge tiles to cover the top of a roof, which anciently were often curiously moulded into tragic essay the form of little battlements or leaves. CROCKET, CROCHET, CROTCHET, ( crochet , Fr.) the projecting parts of the foliage running up arches, pinnacles, c. The earliest consisted of a simple curve turning downwards; the second variety had the point of the leaf returned upward. r he diversity of foliage carved on crockets is very great: and in a few of the latest buildings of the 15th century, animals were sculptured creeping on papers, the angles, in heroine essay place of crockets. CUSP, a modern term for resume lnc those segments Of circles placed in compartments to form trefoils, quatrefoils, or other tracery. DAIS, the as a tragic heroine plat form or raised floor at the upper end of antient dining halls, where the high table stood. Term. Also, a seat with a high back and as a tragic heroine, a canopy, for guests of rank.  DANCETTE, a term applied to political, the ancient Norman zigzag moulding. DAY, the same as Bay ; the light of a mullioned window. DIAPER, any panel, or flat surface, flowered either with carving in relief; or with colours and gilding, was said to tess as a tragic, be diapered . DORMANT or DORMER WINDOW, a window set upon ias mains political science the sloping side of a roof. Tess Heroine. DRIP, the thesis projecting edge of a moulding, channelled beneath, for the rain to drip from it. DONGEON, the chief tower of a castle: the Keep . EMBRASURE, see Crenelle . ENTAIL, a term much used in ancient times, to signify any fine and delicate carving.
ENTERCLOSE, a passage connecting two rooms. ENTER-SOLE, a story of small rooms betwixt two floors of larger ones. FALSE-ROOF, the open space between the ceiling and the rafters. FANE or VANE, a plate of tess as a tragic heroine essay, metal turning on a spindle at middle worksheets the top of a tower or pinnacle, to show the course of the wind. FERETORY, a shrine, properly a bier or coffin, but applied to standing monuments. FESSE, FACE, or FASCIA, a flat member of architecture, with but little projection.
FILLET, a narrow, flat moulding; also called list or annulet. FINIAL, the tess tragic heroine essay top or finishing of a pinnacle or gable, as it is now generally understood; but antiently an entire pinnacle was sometimes described by this term. FOOT-PACE, see Dais . FOOT-STALL, the plinth, or base of a pillar. FRET-WORK, FRETTED, any thing made rough with carving or entail, as small leaves, flowers, c. Biotechnology Thesis. applied to ceilings, doors, c. GABLE, or GAVEL, the pyramidal wall which cavers the end of a roof: It is also extended in signification to the whole end wall of a building. GABLE-WINDOW, the end window of a Church or other building, however large and magnificent. GABLET, a little gable, a common ornament for tess tragic essay tabernacles, screens, c. Previous to the 14th century these resembled the real gable of a roof. Afterwards, however, they were gracefully curved and terminated in a finial.  GARGLE or GARGYLE, the figure of a serpent or monster, with the mouth pierced, for the water spout of a roof, or a fountain to run through. GARLAND; a band of ornamental work, surrounding the top of a spire, tower, c. GENTESE, see Cusp . GREES, steps, or stairs.
GROIN, the intersection of two vaulted roofs, crossing each other. The diagonal lines formed by such compound vaulting, constitute the groin. HERSE, or HEARSE, a frame set over a coffin, and covered with a pall. A hearse of brass is over sap, the statue in the monument of Earl Warwick in Beauchamp chapel, on which a drapery was formerly suspended. HOOD-MOULD, the outer moulding over the head of tess as a essay, a door, window, or other opening, so called because it covers the other mouldings within. The ends of the hood-mould are sometimes finished by a return, sometimes by ias mains science papers a head, or a corbel. HOUSES, or HOUSINGS, niches for statues. HOVEL, the canopy over the head of tess tragic, a statue. JUBE, A gallery with a sort of thesis statement middle, pulpit attached to the front, carried over the entrance into the choir of a Cathedral, for the reader of the lessons.
KEEP, see Dongeon . KERNEL, the same as Crenelle . It required royal license formerly, for any man to have his house or castle kernellated or embattled. KNOB, KNOPPE, see Boss . Tess As A Tragic Essay. A small compartment of elements for critical essays, a painted window, if of a round form, quatrefoil, or such shape, was also called a knot. LABEL, the same as Hood-mould , which see. LANTERN, a turret or cupola: see Cover. Also a smaller tower or turret, full of windows, and on the top of a steeple, or tower. LATTEN, LATTIN, or LATEN, brass. LECTERN, or LETTERN, a desk for a large book to lie on. LIGHT, each distinct opening of a mullioned window. LOOP or LOOP-HOLE, a narrow window to light a stair case or closet. Tess As A Tragic Heroine. Also the crenelle or embrasure of a battlement. LOUVRE, the same as Cover .  LUCAINE, a window set upon the sloping side of a roof: a garret window.
See Dormant. MACHECOULIS, or MASCHECOULIS, commonly called macchicolations . Grooves or openings within the parapet of a fortified tower, for the purpose of ias mains papers, throwing down stones, molten lead, hot sand, or boiling water, upon the heads of assailants, or to shoot down upon them unseen. MANTLE TREE, a beam laid across the opening of a large fire-place. MULLION, or MUNNION, the frame-work of a window, divided into two or more lights or compartments. NECK-MOULD, a small projecting moulding, which surrounds the neck of a column or pinnacle, beneath the capital or finial. NOSING, the projecting edge of a moulding. See Drip . NUNNERY, a term employed by as a essay some writers, for the triforium or gallery, between the roof of the ailes and the clere-story. OEILLET, EYLET, or OYLET, a loop-hole; a small window. OGEE, or OGYVE, a form of moulding with a double curve, the cima or cimatium of Vitruvius.
ORIEL, or ORVEL, a bay window or compass window: sometimes applied to resume lnc, signify recesses, or closets, or a boudoir . PANE, the light of a mullioned window: the pieces of as a tragic heroine, glass in it: the side of a spire or tower, or of a cloister. PANEL, a compartment enclosed with mouldings. The same, sometimes, as Pane . PARAPET, a low wall in any situation, but generally applied to that which guards the gutters of a roof. If a parapet is cut into embrasures, it is called a battlement . PARVIS, a porch, or court of nietzsche term papers, entrance to a great Church, or palace. PENDANT, a term usually restricted by modern writers to ornaments hanging down on the inside of roofs.
PERCH, PERK, PEARCH, see Brackett and Corbel . PINNACLE, a turret: a spire: any tall perpendicular ornament. POMEL, a knob, any round protuberance finishing the top of a pinnacle, or similar ornament.  POOP, the as a high ends of the seats in resume lnc the antient Churches, with finials or crests carved on their tops. PRESEYTERY, the eastern parts of large Churches, kept exclusively for the use of the clergy. PURFLED, trimmed with knots, crockets, or flourishings at the edges. QUARREL, a pane of tess tragic heroine, glass, oblong or square, but usually of the diamond or lozenge shape.
QUARTER, a square panel. QUATREFOIL, an ornament of tracery composed of four intersecting circles, and resembling a flower with four leaves. REREDOS, a screen or partition wall: the back of a fire place, an altar piece. RESPOND, or RESPONDER, a half column or pilaster attached to a wall, and responding to another, or to a pillar opposite to it. ROOD-LOFT, a gallery over the entrance into ias mains political science the choir of the greater Churches, so called from the Rood or cross, which stood in front.
Since the Reformation the Rood lofts have become Organ lofts. ROOD-TOWER, the tower or steeple built over as a tragic heroine, the intersection of the body and cross ailes of a Church. ROUND, a turret of a circular form: also a room or closet within such turret. ROSE-WINDOW, a circular window, sometimes called a Catharine wheel window, from the resemblance of such windows to ias mains papers, a wheel in the farm of their mullions. SCONCE, a branch to set a light upon: a screen or partition to tragic heroine essay, cover or protect any thing a head or top. SCUTCHEON, a shield of arms: also a quoin or angle buttress. SHAFT, a bottel , or slender perpendicular part of a clustered column. SHRINE, a case wherein the remains of saints were preserved. SPANDRIL, applied to the arches formed within a square of a ceiling, door, or other opening: the open (or ornamented) space between the outward moulding of an biotechnology thesis, arch, from its impost to as a tragic heroine essay, the horizontal line which surmounts it above. STALL, a seat for an ecclesiastic in the choir or chancel of a Church.
Every stall was enclosed for a single person only to sit in. STANCHEON, the upright iron bars of a window. STOUP, a post, or small pedestal for a statue. TABERNACLE, a stall or niche with a canopy above, for an image to be placed in ias mains political papers an arched canopy over a tomb: a shrine. TRACERY, a term much used by modern writers for the ornamental pattern formed by the tracing or interweaving of the mullions in as a tragic heroine a window, or the fret-work in a roof. TRANSEPT, a cross aisle.
TREFOIL, an ornament resembling the three-leaved clover. TRELLICE, a gate or screen of open work, whether wood or metal. TURN-PIKE, a flight of resume lnc, stairs winding round a centre. VICE, a spiral stair case; the tess heroine same as the foregoing. VIGNETTE, an ornamental carving in imitation of the tendrils and foliage of a vine. WEEPERS, small statues of children or friends placed on the sides of a tomb, around the principal figure. ZIGZAG, one of the varieties of fretwork used in buildings of the 12th century, erected by the Normans. EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES.
THE upper half of this plate presents various modes of forming Gothic arches, copied from ias mains science 'Pugin's Specimens,' and tess as a tragic heroine, selected from several edifices in England. a , the common semicircular arch, usually called the Roman arch, and never to be admitted in buildings of the Gothic style. b , the four-centred pointed arch. The dots shew the place of the compasses in describing this arch. c , the equilateral, where the nietzsche term papers points of the as a heroine base and crown are equi-distant. This may be called the standard form of the biotechnology thesis pointed arch, and is reckoned, by tess tragic heroine essay many, the most beautiful. d , the lancet arch, described from two centres outside the arch. e , the three-centred pointed arch. f , the four-centred pointed arch in another form.
g , the ogee arch, an ornamental variety, sometimes used over doors and windows on a small scale. h , the four-centred ogee arch. i j , other varieties of the same, employed chiefly in florid tracery. k , a pointed arch, formed by the crossing of straight lines, the curves being drawn through the intersections, by the hand. 1, m, n , are four-centred obtuse arches, the centres of term papers, which are upon the diagonal lines, which are formed by tragic heroine dividing the base line into more or less parts, according to nietzsche papers, the height intended. The lower half of the plate presents several figures of Gothic door-ways and doors, from the same author.
o , south door-way of Tattershall Church. The waving line across the bottom, shews the plan of the mouldings. One half only is laid down in the plate, [32/33] the other half being precisely in the same form. The date of this building is A. D. 1455. p , door-way from tess tragic heroine essay Oultin, Norfolk.
q , door-way from Horn Church, Essex, A. IX 1440. Fig. s . shews the thesis statement middle school ground plan of the same. r , door of the refectory of St. George's Chapel, Windsor. aa , specimen of tess as a tragic essay, panel from St. Ias Mains Political Science. Paul's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. pp , specimen of panel from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. oo , specimen of panel from the monument of Henry IV, in Westminster Abbey. rr, specimen of panel from Bishop Longland's Chapel, Lincoln Cathedral, ss , specimen of panel from the same. qq , specimen of panel from the same. ff , specimen of panel from the same.
kk , specimen of panel from Magdalen College. mm , specimen of panel from the heroine palace of Hampton Court, bb , a Gothic cross, in the florid style. dd , buttress and pinnacle, at Oxford. gg , finish of one of the small turrets of the palace at statement middle worksheets Hampton Court. ee , niche, or tabernacle and canopy of a buttress, from the tess tragic essay South side of erp case, Magdalen Church, Oxford. The usual plan for these recesses was a hexagon, half recessed and half projecting. ll , finial over the door-way of St. As A Tragic Essay. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. nu, niche of Bishop Beauchamp, from St. George's Chapel, Windsor, shewing the crocketted canopy, with its finial.
xx , part of the foliated crest which finishes the thesis top of the above niche, enlarged. tt , finial, from as a heroine essay Corpus Christi College. uu , finial, from Brazen Nose College, Oxford.  vv , plan of the tracery of the ceiling in the aile of Henry the Seventh's Chapel, shewing one fourth of a compartment. ww , one half of the arch of the great window over the entrance to Westminster hall.
The tracery is confined by perpendicular lines, continued upwards from the mullions of the chief lights. The hood-mould of the arch is terminated by the figure of a hart, collared and chained, the badge of Richard II. aaa , elevation of Chancel, drawn for St. Paul's Church, Burlington, Vt. Shewing the pulpit with its canopy, the desk, the communion table, the chairs, and the doors immediately behind them, leading into the vestry room.
bbb , section of the above, shewing the canopy over the pulpit, the using desk, the altar, the Chancel railing, and the steps, according to their several projections. ccc , ground plan of the tess same. These three figures are drawn according to the scale of feet, which is at the top of the middle plate, to the right. ddd , pedestal which gives an appropriate form either for a baptismal font or a pulpit, taken from Westminster hall. ccc , canopy for a pulpit or a niche, from All Soul's College, Oxford. fff , ggg , hhh shew an enlarged view of the parts which belong to a confessional in St. Mary's Church, Oxford. iii , one half of a window from King's College Chapel, Cambridge. kkk , turret from the as a tragic essay entrance tower of Brazen nose College, Oxford. lll , turret, with a niche below, from the same. mmm , enlarged tracery shewing how to lay out biotechnology thesis, all similar figures, from the oriel window of Balliol College, Oxford.
THIS plate represents the interior of tess as a essay, a plain village Church, with several of the external parts, viz. A, section of the end which contains the tower, shewing the frame-work o the roof, the thesis belfry, the stairs leading to the same; the organ gallery with an tess essay, appropriate organ case, the doors below, opening into the vestibule, the two front windows, and the Gothic pilasters, with the Gothic arches, connecting them, and terminating in the main arch of the ceiling. In this plan, the tower contains the vestibule and the stairs ascending to political science, the organ gallery and belfry, in the first story: in the second story it is divided by a partition into two portions, of which the front portion contains the stairs ascending to the belfry, and the other portion contains the organ gallery as shewn in the plate. Its third story, also shewn in the plate, contains another flight of as a tragic essay, stairs, above which is the platform where the frame-work for the bell should be placed. The windows opposite the bell may be left open, as represented in the plate, but they look much better closed with boards, planed very thin, not less than five or six inches wide, and about the biotechnology thesis same distance apart, set in the manner of a Venetian blind, sloping downwards at an angle of tess as a essay, about forty-five degrees, and painted a dark stone color.
The sound of the bell will not be obstructed by such blinds as these, and the beauty of the tower will be much improved. Lens. But in painting the tower, the tess as a tragic essay common colors of white and green should never be employed. Stone colors of different shades are the only proper colors for a Gothic building. See on this subject, Chapter VI. B. This figure shews a section of the chancel and of the interior, with the frame work of the roof, the end windows, the Gothic pilasters connected with their arches, as before; the pulpit, from the centre of which, at each side, a Gothic screen extends to the end of the chancel railing, and is then turned at nietzsche papers right angles to the wall, forming an enclosure for the steps which descend to the vestry room in the basement story, and also for those which ascend to the pulpit. Where there is tess as a heroine, no basement, this space may be easily managed so as to afford accommodation for a robing room; without which, an Episcopal Church should never be erected. Below [35/36] the pulpit, is seen the desk; on each side of middle school worksheets, which, are the doors of the screen.
Below the desk appears the communion table, and at each end of the chancel, is a gothic chair. In front, is the tess chancel railing, in the centre of which is placed the font for baptism. The wall behind and above the screen shews an appropriate finish, which may be given by using sap painting; the two oblong squares representing tablets containing the Lord's prayer, the Creed, the ten commandments, or any other parts of Scripture, according to the choice of the minister; and as a tragic, the centre of the wall exhibiting the sentence, HOLINESS TO THE LORD, or any other short and impressive text, in larger characters. Papers. In the plate, I have surmounted this sentence with the well known and as a heroine essay, ancient symbol, I. H. S., signifying, Jesus Hominum Salvator , with the political papers cross rising out of the as a tragic middle letter a symbol to which I confess myself strongly attached on account of its solemn and affecting signification. Many pious people are afraid of this figure of the cross, because it is used so extensively by the Church of resume lnc, Rome; but this is a weak and unworthy argument for laying aside any thing, which, in itself, possesses an tess as a heroine essay, edifying and wholesome character. There would be a great improvement in for critical lens essays the Christian philosophy of our day, if some of our brethren could discover, that there may be as much superstition in quarreling with the Church of Rome, as in agreeing with her.
C. As A. This figure represents on a distinct scale, the ornamental heading of the windows of the tower outside, with the Gablet, Crockets and Finial, belonging to the enriched and florid variety of the Gothic style. They may be carved at term an expense which would not exceed forty or fifty dollars for the whole four windows; and they may also be cast in lead or pewter, and as a heroine essay, nailed on. I have used them in both ways, and thesis, consider them the most beautiful finish, in tragic heroine essay this or any other kind of architecture. It is worksheets, not necessary, however, that they should be put up when a Church is first erected, but it should be planned with regard to their being added at a future day. D. Heroine. This figure represents the ornamental heading of the other windows of the Church, with the lattice sash which properly belongs to the best specimens of the Gothic style. When these can be cast in lead, they should be much smaller than is here represented; but when they are of wood, they cannot be conveniently [36/37] made, in most cases, of a size much less than the ordinary window sash. It is always important, however, that they should be considerably longer in their perpendicular, than in their transverse dimension s: and I should recommend a much greater difference than the plate exhibits.
The reader will find in some of the figures of the term papers three first plates, much better models for the construction of the details of window heads and mouldings, than this. E. This figure shews an elevation of tess tragic heroine, a baptismal font, which may be made square, the top containing a basin of resume lnc, marble, silver, or china, according to circumstances. But stone should be preferred, and tess as a tragic heroine, the cost of marble for such a purpose, is inconsiderable. It should be observed, however, that the square form is by no means so good as the hexagon or octagon. F. This figure exhibits a side elevation of the buttress, with its pinnacle and its coping. These buttresses are built into the wall, thereby strengthening and securing it. If the Church be of brick, they may be one brick and a half oil the face, which face continues the same breadth from the bottom to the top. Their projection must be not less than a brick and a half beyond the wall at the bottom, where they should be built of resume lnc, stone with the rest of the foundation. At the water table where the tess as a tragic heroine stone work of a brick edifice usually terminates, the buttresses fall back half a brick in statement middle school the form of a coping as represented in the plate: see the sections marked A and B. And opposite to the middle part of the wall, or a little below it, they fall back another half brick, leaving a projection of the remaining half brick to continue up to the top of the wall, and then extending inwards upon the wall, they are carried up to a height sufficient for the battlements, and a little above the top of the battlements, as in the plate, they finish square, a brick and a half each way, ending with a pinnacle. In a large Church, these dimensions should be proportionably increased, and in a building altogether of stone, it will be advisable to allow something more for tess tragic heroine the buttresses in each direction.
I have been thus particular, because the buttresses are an indispensable feature in the Gothic style, and workmen are in need of nietzsche term, minute instruction in regard to them, because they are not of frequent occurrence in our country. The copings where the buttresses fall back, should be of as a, stone below; but above, where they have nothing to bear but the weather, they may be of wood, built in, [37/38] and painted to agree with the rest of the wall. Their form in such case is marked in fig. F, by dotted lines; but the projection of the term papers outward slope which casts off the water, ought to as a tragic heroine, have a groove or channel below , which the plate should have represented. The pinnacles are best made of stone, but where economy must be studied, they may be made of plank or thick boards, filled with brick and mortar, and set down in mortar upon the buttresses.
In this mode they will not cost more than one or two dollars apiece, and will last, if well put together and painted, for many years. G. This figure represents the erp case organ gallery of fig. Tess As A Tragic Heroine Essay. A on sap, a larger scale, so as to shew distinctly the top of a plain single Gothic pillar, with the tess as a tragic essay corner and pinnacle above, and the panel work, the battlement, and the connexion of the arch beneath. The most simple method of producing the effect of the Gothic panel is here designed. The front of the gallery is first wainscotted, leaving a sufficient projection to study, the corner posts for the subsequent finish, then the panels are cut out separately, each being a distinct piece: the inner edge is chamfered three quarters of an inch each way, and the panels thus prepared, are nailed side by tess as a tragic side upon the wainscotting. Erp Case Using Sap. A fillet of about an tragic, inch square is then nailed over the joints, intersecting with the study using sap same above and below, as in the plate. The same plan is applicable to the panel of the arch, the corner post, c. the screen behind the pulpit, and every other part where the effect to be produced is similar. The thicker the plank out of which the panel is cut, the richer will be the effect, but a full inch board will look well, and tess tragic heroine, the appearance of it when finished, will be greatly improved, by literary for critical painting the inside or bottom of the wainscotting, two or three shades darker than the tess tragic heroine rest; as in the plate. This minute detail may appear trifling, but it must be remembered that I am not writing for architects, nor for papers men of taste and science in this branch of the heroine arts, but for the clergy who may never have paid the attention of a moment to the subject, until, in some distant region of our extensive country, they are called upon to preside over the erection of a Church, with none but ordinary house carpenters around them.
To men thus circumstanced, my own experience of such little difficulties is a sufficient proof that these practical hints will he valuable. I furnish them for this reason, without any [38/39] regard to the criticisms of those for whom they were not intended. Utility, not fame, is ias mains political, my object. As A Essay. Happily for me,--let me take the liberty of adding,--if fame were within my reach, I should value it only in proportion as it was founded upon utility. This plate represents a perspective view of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, the building mentioned in the preface, as being the political lint fruits of the necessity which turned my attention to the study of Church architecture. The best part of the exterior of tess tragic, this building is the tower, which exhibits an resume lnc, example of the flying buttress, taken from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. The pinnacles of the tower are finished with crockets and finials, or purfled , according to tess heroine, the phraseology of the thesis school Gothic style. Fig. 4, shews a method of striking a Gothic arch from four centres, which may be recommended as in good proportion.
Fig. 5, shews the method of laying out a compound Gothic window with its tracery, the part at the left exhibiting the skeleton, and the other half shewing the filling up of the detail. Fig. 6, shews the base and the capital of tragic, a single Gothic pillar, taken from St. George's Chapel, Windsor. Fig. 7, shews the flying buttress on a larger scale. Fig. 8, shews a pendant of the ceiling, taken from Crosby hall, London.
Fig. 9. This figure represents, according to the scale below, an ias mains political papers, arrangement of the chancel, in which the pulpit and as a tragic heroine, the desk are at papers each side, and tragic, the altar in the middle, with a richly ornamented Gothic window over it. Between the window and the buttresses at thesis statement worksheets the side are tablets, containing sentences from Scripture; [39/40] under which are the chairs. Tess As A Tragic Heroine. The entrances to the desk and pulpit are in the rear, through two low Gothic doors. The light transmitted over term, the altar is from the vestry room, which stands immediately behind the whole chancel. There are canopies over the pulpit and desk, on each side of which rises a buttress enriched in the florid style, taken from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. In the front is the Gothic railing of the chancel, with a baptismal font in heroine essay the centre. Upon this plan the pulpit and desk are in the same form, the pulpit being only a little higher. Fig. 10. This figure represents the literary elements construction of a triple Gothic pillar, which should always be preferred when the expense can be afforded, as it is both richer and more delicate in its effect.
There is a fault in essay the plate, however, which must be carefully avoided. The circles are too large. Instead of ias mains political, cutting into each other, they should have just met, which would have given the best proportion. Fig. 11, shews a good form for a Gothic pulpit. Fig. 14, another for as a essay the same.
Fig. 15, shews the enriched buttress used in No. 9, on a larger scale. Fig. Middle. 17, shews the tess heroine essay railing of the chancel in biotechnology No. 9. on a larger scale. Fig. 13. This figure exhibits a perspective view of the ceiling, the front of the tess tragic heroine essay galleries, and ias mains papers, the chancel, in Trinity Church, Pittsburg. The ceiling is perfectly flat, but in order to give somewhat of the effect of the enriched Gothic style, it is crossed by spandrils from the heads of the pillars.
Where these meet along the centre, there are pendants, made in the form of that, represented in Plate 5, and the whole is tess essay, filled up with a representation in painting of Gothic tracery, done in nietzsche term various shades of stone color. When fresh, and for several years afterwards, this kind of finish looks extremely well, if skilfully executed; because it gives an accurate picture of the exquisite fretwork of the English Gothic Churches. But it requires to be renewed in time, and workmen are not often to be found who can do it justice. Fig. Essay. 12, represents the head of one of the pillars with its spandrils, as in No. 13, but on a larger scale. Fig. 16, shews the plan of the ceiling in No.
13, the part at the left exhibiting the skeleton, and that, at the right, shewing the filling up, in imitation of thesis statement, fretwork. Fig. Tess Tragic Heroine Essay. 19, shews the border of foliage which surrounds the oval and the segments [40/41] of circles in No. 16, on a larger scale. The idea of the whole of this is ias mains, derived from the Chapel of tess as a heroine, Henry the Seventh. Fig. 18, a perspective view of the battlements which finish the top of the galleries in Trinity Church, Pittsburgh,
THE principal figure in this plate represents a perspective view of a design for elements for critical a Gothic Church, with an tess as a tragic, octagonal steeple, instead of thesis, a tower. The top of the steeple is not shewn, but a ball and vane is the usual and appropriate finish. Tess As A Essay. In this design the windows are in a single row, and not doubled, as in Plate 6. And therefore this design is better, because it accords with the principle set forth in the first chapter; viz, the giving force to the perpendicular line, as far as practicable. The building at the end, is a vestry room, which agrees with the style of the main building, and term papers, the window above is to throw light into the chancel, over the altar, where the plan laid down in Plate 6, No. 9, is preferred. In such case, however, the window over the altar should be either filled with stained glass, or covered with a transparency, to subdue the light; for otherwise it would pain all but the strongest eyes in the congregation. Fig. 21, shews a ground plan with two ailes; but three ailes are better. A, is the vestibule, containing the tragic heroine essay stairs to the organ gallery.
B, is the resume lnc space between the altar and the chancel railing which should be not less than from four to six feet. The centre of the railing shews the tess as a place for the baptismal font. C, is the altar, or communion table, at each end of which stands a Gothic chair. D E, the desk and pulpit, both entered from the vestry room behind. F, the middle school worksheets vestry room, shewing the stairs leading to the desk, from as a tragic essay which a plat form passing along to thesis worksheets, the other end leads to the pulpit. Fig. 22. This figure shews a section, explanatory of a simple plan to save the roof in a Gothic building. In order to understand it, the tess as a heroine reader will bear in mind that the finishing the wall with a battlement is constant characteristic of the [41/42] Gothic style This, however, produces what is called by workmen a valley gutter that is, the sloping roof meeting with the wall which forms the battlement, makes a valley, or hollow, from which the water must be carried through pipes to the ground Now the practical difficulty in this case is, that no degree of care in the construction of these valley gutters, is usually able to keep them from leaking In the summer half of the year, they do well enough, but in winter, the freezing and thawing of the snow upon the roof, almost invariably produces leakage, which ruins, in time, the ceiling below, occasions the biotechnology plaster to crack and fall down, and makes the building both unsafe and unsightly. The mode in which I think the whole of tess tragic heroine essay, this difficulty can be avoided, is shewn in the fig marked 22, which is a section exhibiting the wall, the roof, the biotechnology eavetrough, and the battlement, as follows, viz. c , the tess as a tragic heroine essay buttress, through which the eave-trough passes the whole length of the building.
d , the erp case using sap plank which forms the tess tragic battlement, which is spiked or screwed to the eavetrough in such a manner, that the middle worksheets openings or embrasures of the battlement are a little below the edge of the eave-trough The triangular piece which projects backward from this plank, is merely to tess as a heroine essay, give the appearance of thickness from below, without which, the battlement would seem to want substance. e , the eave-trough, hollowed, as usual, out of solid timber, and having the outer edge an inch lower than the inner The piece of plank below the using sap trough, is for ornament, as is also the fillet outside, and the appearance of the whole is shewn accurately in the perspective view above it, in the same plate. The operation of tragic heroine, this is, that the battlement does not form a valley at all It is school worksheets, not, as in the ordinary cases, a continuation of the wall, but it is attached to the eave-trough and whenever the eave-trough fills in frosty weather, and a thaw succeeds, the openings of the battlement, being as low, or a little lower than the outer edge of the eave-trough, ard an escape for tess tragic essay the water, which effectually prevents its using above the edge of the ias mains science roof; and flowing inwards upon heroine essay the wall It is cheaper than the other method, because the application of tin or lead to the valley [42/43] gutter is rendered unnecessary; and the beauty of the effect is political science, so far from being diminished by the projecting of the battlement outwards, that I think it is rather increased. Care, however, must be taken to have the buttresses project sufficiently to allow of this finish, without having any part of the as a work to come within an resume lnc, inch of their face. Essay. The inspection of the perspective view marked No. 20, will make this plain.
THE figure in the plate, marked No. 23, exhibits the front view of the same building of for critical lens, which the rear was presented in tess as a heroine essay Plate 7. The upper part of the steeple is quite too short for a proper proportion, and should be about twice as high from the resume lnc base of the pyramid to the top. The size of the plate did not admit of its being so represented; but any one who likes the draught in essay other respects, can easily make the alteration. The rest of the tower is in reasonably good style, and if well executed, would look sufficiently imposing. Biotechnology Thesis. The windows in the body of the building are, much more numerous and nearer together than necessity requires, though not more so, perhaps, than the as a tragic heroine essay beauty of the building would justify, provided they were filled with stained glass, or well covered with transparencies. Their number, however, can be diminished, at pleasure. But there is elements for critical lens, one defect in tess as a heroine this plan that would produce considerable inconvenience. It is the want of more passages of ingress and egress; the single door through the tower being by no means sufficient for the convenience of a congregation.
The best method of supplying the deficiency would be that which is shewn in Plate 10, fig. 25. This plate presents a perspective drawing of a design for a small cathedral, in which the roof is concealed by a rich screen of tracery, the thesis water, however, having the same means of escape provided as formerly described, through the lower [43/44] row of small Gothic arches. The large tower, containing the chancel and vestry room, should be placed towards the East, according to ancient custom, derived from the Temple at Jerusalem. And two doors, one at each side of the heroine tower would be necessary, in addition to the western door, shewn in thesis school worksheets the plate, for the ingress and egress of the as a heroine essay congregation. The octagonal towers would afford room for winding stairs to ascend into the organ loft and the galleries. These octagonal towers are taken from King's College Chapel, and the great octagonal tower from the celebrated Fonthill Abbey. THE principal figure in this plate, numbered 25, represents Skirlaw Chapel in erp case study using Yorkshire, and is copied from as a essay Britton's Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain. It is a much admired specimen of Gothic architecture for biotechnology the purposes of a parish Church.
Fig. 26, represents a quatre foil opening, from Red Mount Chapel, Lynn, Norfolk. Fig. 27, exhibits a font from Binham Priory Church, Norfolk. Fig. 28, shews the capital and base of a Gothic pillar from Red Mount Chapel. THIS figure, numbered 29, presents a drawing of a Church, in simple elevation, according to the manner used for tess tragic heroine essay workmen. The scale is one tenth of an political science, inch to tess as a essay, the foot.
THE principal figure in this plate, No. 30, shews the front elevation, and fig. 31 shews the rear elevation of the same building, the nietzsche term papers side of as a tragic heroine essay, which is exhibited in the last plate. Fig. Ias Mains Science Papers. 32, is a perspective drawing, taken from Britton, of St.
Botolph's tower, which is surmounted by a lantern, supported by flying buttresses. It is a remarkable example of the kind. THESE figures are two of the Crosses, so common formerly in England, at which the people were in the habit of stopping to pray, and where the preaching friars delivered sermons to the surrounding multitudes on the Lord's day. I have added them to this little work, partly as an interesting relic of former days, but more because I think they might furnish beautiful models for Gothic monuments, in as a heroine commemoration of 'the dead, who die in study the Lord.' The figure on the left is the Cross at Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire; and that, on tess tragic, the right, represents the Cross at Winchester, Hampshire. This last is 43 1/2 feet high. There is, on the frontispiece, a representation of another,--the Black-Friars' Cross, at sap Hereford--which, though in ruin, retains enough of its original character o afford a useful example of the Gothic style. THE reader must have remarked, that nothing has been said of any arrangement for warming Churches, nor any place marked out for tess as a essay flues or chimneys.
The reason is, because these are matters which have no particular connexion with the style of architecture. Chimneys are deformities in every public edifice, and all that can he done, so long as they are necessary, is to dispose of them where they shall attract the smallest possible observation. In the Gothic style, however, the buttresses afford an opportunity for carrying up flues with great convenience, and by making the pinnacles of those buttresses of cast iron, with the opening at the side which is farthest fom the spectator, the whole purposes of chimneys may be provided for, without any violation of elements for critical, good taste. Tess As A Tragic Essay. And where this plan may not be thought advisable, the chimney may be so designed as to resemble a turret, with battlements above, and thus be kept in erp case study sap consistency with the style of building. As to the modes of applying heat for the purpose of warming Churches, it is [45/46] beside the object of this little work to enlarge upon them. I would only as a tragic heroine, observe, that where a supply of heated air can be introduced below, it is, on political science papers, many accounts, to as a heroine essay, be preferred before the common plan of erecting stoves in the Church itself. Papers. Best of all, perhaps, would be a recurrence to the practice of our ancestors, who used no artificial heat whatever in the house of God. But if this be too much to as a heroine, expect from the effeminacy of our day, it might be well to consider whether the end could not be sufficiently accomplished by conducting, at the side of each aile, a stove pipe, made square, instead of round, and erp case study using sap, secured by brick or stone work so as to form a part of the floor of the building. In conclusion, I have only to remind the tess as a tragic essay reader of the humble rank to which this volume lays claim.
It is but the essay of an amateur, designed chiefly for those who have not made architecture their study. No man can be more sensible than myself, of its defects; yet, well knowing the want of some plain and for critical lens essays, simple directory of the kind, I lay it upon the altar of utility with the tragic heroine essay hope that it may be found acceptable to term, some of my brethren, and save them from many of those perplexities which commonly attend an tragic heroine, attempt to erect the earthly sanctuary of nietzsche term papers, God. Heroine Essay. With regard to credit, emolument, or reputation, I may well apply the adage, 'Happy is he that expecteth nothing, for political papers he shall not be disappointed.' To supply the wants of the as a essay Church, in any and every department within my power, is the main business of my life; and if I have succeeded in this design to any reasonable degree, my labor will not have been in vain.