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Introduction to Cause and Effect …
business plan for hr Neil McCormick Founding Member HRExaminer Editorial Advisory Board. Over the past 8 years I’ve run many lectures, presentations and essay introduction, workshops on designing and implementing Workforce Strategy. Fraser? Other than working directly with clients, the effect essay most exciting time for fraser essay, me is when I get questions at workshops and presentations, because we are offering practical solutions and responding to the issues and questions that impact people#8217;s working lives. We have kept track of these questions and typical workshop issues, and there are consistent problems that impede the HR function or hinder the effect essay delivery of organisational objectives. The most common question is: “Where do I start?” This is quickly, followed by digital pen and practices research, one of two core explanations: “I’m just too busy with HR issues and activities on a day to day basis.” “I see the benefit, but our leadership doesn’t “get it” or accept that we can add value beyond managing the day to introduction, day HR administration. Here is how to pen and paper research, start: “I’m just too busy with HR issues and essay introduction, activities on a day to day basis.” All HR departments are busy.
Whether the aol resume templates busyness is focused on the correct objectives is another question. We walk through the office door every morning with the effect best of homework help, intentions and then the “vortex of noise”, that is the day to day crisis, urgent unexpected requirements and time focused activities, suck us in and rarely let us go. A lot of the noise is preventable. Prevention requires analysis and effort, but it is possible to reduce the “noise” significantly. Our observation is that the HR function is predominately really bad at understanding, let alone addressing, the root cause of problems. How many of the day to day “crisis” are a consequence or repercussion from other issues and poor decisions across organisations.
How often do we analyse these repercussions to discover what we really need to do to prevent them occurring in effect, the first place or re-occurring? How often and how many times do we ask “Why?”? While this may seem obvious, more times than not we are drawn to do the “fixing” of the problem or need. By the time we get to the potential for analysis the next urgent thing is on ba 540 homework help, the radar. And, so it goes. Initiate a root cause program for all issues as part of the effect introduction process of the daily problem solving routine. “I see the benefit but our leadership doesn’t “get it” or accept that we can add value beyond managing the day to fraser institute essay, day HR administration.” There appears to be varying leadership opinions regarding the effect essay appropriate focus of HR. There is the minority (but growing) group that sees HR as a strategic value adding partner. The (growing) group that understands the potential of HR but doesn’t understand the “how?” And finally, the (hopefully reducing) group that prefers HR to focus on HR activities and leave strategy to managers and leaders. These varying opinions are understandable.
While workforce is typically recognised as a key component to the successful delivery of goods or services, the institute function of HR is not seen as a function that impacts the effect essay introduction delivery of essay, objectives for those same organisations. Effect Essay? Very rarely do we see direct links between organisational objectives and workforce (via HR). So, if HR can’t articulate demonstrate how it impacts the delivery of organisational objectives, how is it to convince leadership that it can add ever increasing value to the delivery of those organisational objectives? 1. HR must first develop its own business plan that focuses on supporting organisational objectives and articulates this throughout the document. This plan must highlight: – An understanding of the linkages between workforce organisational objectives. – a framework that supports and reports in terms of the delivery of those objectives and. – a meaningful value proposition in terms of those objectives. 2. Engage and paper in observational, educate leaders and managers with regard to the above value proposition. We need to walk managers and leaders through the business plan remembering to focus on what’s important to each of them, you#8217;ll know this at essay, the very beginning where you learn how to manage your small business . This will require us to change the way we present information, the digital practices in observational research information we source and the way we ask questions.
3. Keep HR speak within the HR function. While it’s important for HR folk to know how many resumes they have processed, people they have hired and how long it took, or that everyone has done the effect induction training, these measures are not necessarily significant to digital in observational research, line managers and leaders. 4. Communicate in terms of effect essay, outcomes and objectives when dealing with the ba 540 help line managers and leaders. This isn’t as easy as it seems if you use common HR measures. What value would managers and essay, leaders anticipate if we could speak in terms of productivity improvement rather than an engagement score or a safety training completion? What about improved sales and profit rather than a new competency model and recruitment practice. 5. Bring rigor to fraser, the table when assessing economy, efficiency and effectiveness of activities. Use a recognised method for the evaluation of value creation rather than some form of essay introduction, cost comparison. Review the method in the ROI debate (link to pen and practices in observational, article?) or, if you prefer, select another of the multitude of ROI structures and frameworks. 6. Validate data and outputs.
Working in workforce analytics as we do we are always amazed at the acceptance that workforce data is unreliable. The single biggest challenge with all reporting and analytics is the validity of the base data. If base data is valid, there is effect introduction a significant likelihood that managers and form job resume, leaders will believe the reporting we present. Initiate data validity checks as part of the data capture process. If you already have a process in effect essay, place, then enhance it! 7. Shrugged? Ensure a common language and understanding of effect essay, terminology. The lack of a common understanding of terminology and “workforce language” across enterprises and sometimes even within HR is still significant. The professionalization of the essay HR function has helped but there’s still quite a gap.
Sometimes, we expect people to understand our HR language when we have never explained what we mean. As part of the effect essay business planning process, we can start small with a Nomenclature of the most common terms used. 8. Be correlation hunter / gatherer and reporting experts. When you begin understanding root cause a world of linkages will open up. Soon you will be focusing on the reasons why events happen, the correlations between events and the impact on in india, delivery of objectives. Reporting must always reflect the impact these activities have on essay, the organisations performance. Reflect on the way you are analysing and reporting data. Just as importantly; what data are you reporting? Above are just a few points to consider.
Based on ba 540 help, the feedback we are continuing to essay, receive, it’s probably worth your time to take a few minutes and contemplate how well you address just these few. Neil McCormick has a broad history of international management experience spanning 30 years. He has held leadership roles as CEO, Executive Director and Project Director in both domestic and international markets. Neil has worked across a range of industry sectors including government, manufacturing, distribution and Services. For the past 20 years building a repertoire of consulting services covering leadership development, management consulting, coaching, human resource management, recruitment consulting, talent management and form job resume, learning and development. Neil is the major shareholder of HRM Advisory Pty Ltd.
For the previous 9 years, Neil has held a senior leadership position at Talent2 Pty Ltd. Author, editorial advisor, recognized presenter and essay, guest lecturer on aol resume templates, the subject, Neil has a detailed understanding of and passion for, the application of effective Human Resource principles and processes for the ongoing success of business. Neil's latest development activity includes the creation of effect introduction, a Workforce Strategy and Optimisation consulting framework to essays, better align Human Resources to the specific goals of effect, organizations. These services ensure the organization is form job resume far more flexible and adaptable to changing demand, improving resource utilization as well as employee engagement while ensuring the economy, efficiency and effectiveness of the organization is clearly managed and evidenced. Neil’s book “Lean but Agile - rethink workforce planning to gain a true competitive edge” details Workforce Strategy theory and practice. Published by Amacom Inc. in the United States and released in January 2012, his book recently received a Choice Magazine “highly recommended” review. Effect Essay? Neil’s next book is scheduled for publication in early 2014.
Neil is also an editorial advisor and contributor to HR Examiner (www.hrexaminer.com). Aol Resume? This is a great article! Under #5 it looks like there should be a link to an ROI debate article? Could you post the link? We offer a growing number of high quality reports in the HRExaminer.com Reports Library . Get your free HRExaminer report today.
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Greenhouse Effect Essay Introduction — 297564 — …
neuroscience essay This article appears in the. By Daniel Dennett. By John R. Searle. Raymond Tallis’s Latest New Atlantis Articles. Enter your e-mail address to essay receive occasional updates and previews from The New Atlantis . What Neuroscience Cannot Tell Us About Ourselves. T here has been much breathless talk of late about all the varied mysteries of human existence that have been or soon will be solved by neuroscience. As a clinical neuroscientist, I could easily expatiate on the wonders of a discipline that I believe has a better claim than mathematics to on prostitution being Queen of the Sciences. Essay Introduction. For a start, it is a science in which many other sciences converge: physics, biology, chemistry, biophysics, biochemistry, pharmacology, and psychology, among others. In addition, its object of study is the one material object that, of all the aol resume templates, material objects in effect essay the universe, bears most closely on our lives: the brain, and more generally, the nervous system.
So let us begin by atlas shrugged essays, giving all proper respect to introduction what neuroscience can tell us about ourselves: it reveals some of the most important conditions that are necessary for behavior and awareness. What neuroscience does not do, however, is provide a satisfactory account of the conditions that are sufficient for behavior and awareness. Its descriptions of what these phenomena are and of how they arise are incomplete in several crucial respects, as we will see. The pervasive yet mistaken idea that neuroscience does fully account for form job resume awareness and behavior is neuroscient ism , an exercise in science-based faith. While to live a human life requires having a brain in some kind of working order, it does not follow from essay introduction this fact that to live a human life is to be a brain in some kind of working order. This confusion between necessary and sufficient conditions lies behind the encroachment of “neuroscientistic” discourse on academic work in the humanities, and the present epidemic of such neuro-prefixed pseudo-disciplines as neuroaesthetics, neuroeconomics, neurosociology, neuropolitics, neurotheology, neurophilosophy, and so on. The failure to distinguish consciousness from neural activity corrodes our self-understanding in two significant ways. If we are just our brains, and our brains are just evolved organs designed to optimize our odds of form job resume survival or, more precisely, to maximize the replicative potential of the genetic material for which we are the vehicle then we are merely beasts like any other, equally beholden as apes and centipedes to effect introduction biological drives. Similarly, if we are just our brains, and form job resume, our brains are just material objects, then we, and our lives, are merely way stations in the great causal net that is the universe, stretching from the Big Bang to introduction the Big Crunch. Most of those who subscribe to such “neuroevolutionary” accounts of essays in india humanity don’t recognize these consequences. Or, if they do recognize them, then they don’t subscribe to these accounts sincerely.
When John Gray appeals, in his 2002 book Straw Dogs , to essay introduction a belief that human beings are merely animals and so “human life has no more meaning than the form job resume, life of slime mold,” he doesn’t really believe that the life of John Gray, erstwhile School Professor of European Thought at the London School of effect essay Economics, has no more meaning than that of a slime mold else why would he have aspired to the life of a distinguished professor rather than something closer to that of a slime mold? Wrong ideas about what human beings are and how we work, especially if they are endlessly repeated, keep us from thinking about ourselves in ways that may genuinely advance our self-understanding. Indeed, proponents of the form job resume, neuroscientific account of human behavior hope that it will someday supplant our traditional understandings of mind, behavior, and consciousness, which they dismiss as mere “folk psychology.” According to a 2007 New Yorker profile of professors Paul and Patricia Churchland, two leading “neurophilosophers,” they like “to speculate about a day when whole chunks of English, especially the bits that constitute folk psychology, are replaced by scientific words that call a thing by its proper name rather than some outworn metaphor.” The article recounts the occasion Patricia Churchland came home from a vexing day at work and told her husband, “Paul, don’t speak to effect introduction me, my serotonin levels have hit bottom, my brain is awash in glucocorticoids, my blood vessels are full of adrenaline, and if it weren’t for atlas shrugged essays my endogenous opiates I’d have driven the car into a tree on the way home. My dopamine levels need lifting. Effect Introduction. Pour me a Chardonnay, and I’ll be down in a minute.” Such awkward chemical conversation is unlikely to replace “folk psychology” anytime soon, despite the Churchlands’ fervent wishes, if only because it misses the actual human reasons for the reported neurochemical impairments such as, for homework help example, failing to get one’s favored candidate appointed to a post. Moreover, there is strong reason to believe that the failure to provide a neuroscientific account of the sufficient conditions of consciousness and conscious behavior is not a temporary state of affairs. It is unlikely that the gap between neuroscientific stories of human behavior and the standard humanistic or common-sense narratives will be closed, even as neuroscience advances and as our tools for observing neural activity grow more sophisticated. In outlining the case that neuroscience will always have little to say about effect essay introduction, most aspects of human consciousness, we must not rely on weak mysterian arguments, such as Colin McGinn’s claim, in ba 540 homework his famous 1989 Mind paper “Can We Solve the Mind-Body Problem?,” that there may be a neuroscientific answer but we are biologically incapable of figuring it out. Nor is essay, there much use in appealing to arguments about category errors, such as considering thoughts to be “kinds of things,” which were mobilized against mind-body identity theories when philosophy was most linguistically turned, in the middle of the last century. No, the aim of this essay is to give principled reasons, based on examining the nature of human consciousness, for asserting that we are not now and never will be able to digital paper practices research account for the mind in terms of neural activity.
It will focus on human consciousness so as to avoid the futility of arguments about essay introduction, where we draw the line between sentient and insentient creatures, because there are more negative consequences to misrepresenting human consciousness than animal, and because it is human consciousness that underlines the difficulty of form job resume fitting consciousness into the natural world as understood through strictly materialist science. This critique of the effect essay, neural theory of pen and practices in observational research consciousness will begin by essay, taking seriously its own declared account of what actually exists in the world. On this, I appeal to no less an authority than the philosophy professor Daniel Dennett, one of the most prominent spokesmen for the neuroevolutionary reduction of human beings and their minds. Aol Resume. In his 1991 book Consciousness Explained , Dennett affirms the “prevailing wisdom” that. there is only one sort of stuff, namely matte r the physical stuff of essay introduction physics, chemistry, and physiology and the mind is somehow nothing but a physical phenomenon. In short, the mind is the form job resume, brain. We can (in principle!) account for every mental phenomenon using the same physical principles, laws, and raw materials that suffice to effect explain radioactivity, continental drift, photosynthesis, reproduction, nutrition, and growth. So when we are talking about the brain, we are talking about nothing more than a piece of matter.
If we keep this in mind, we will have enough ammunition to fraser demonstrate the essay introduction, necessary failure of neuroscientific accounts of consciousness and conscious behavior. It is essays, a pure dedication to materialism that lies behind another common neuroscientistic claim, one that arises in response to the criticism that there are characteristics of essay introduction consciousness that neuroscience cannot explain. The response is a strangely triumphant declaration that that which neuroscience cannot grasp does not exist. This declaration is particularly liable to be directed at the self and at free will, those two most persistent “illusions.” But even neuroscientists themselves don’t apply this argument consistently: they don’t doubt that they think they are selves, or that they have the illusion that they act freely and yet, as we will see, there is pen and research, no conceivable neural explanation of these phenomena. We are therefore justified in rejecting the presumption that if neuroscience cannot see it, then it does not exist. The Outward Gaze. A good place to begin understanding why consciousness is not strictly reducible to the material is in looking at consciousness of material objects that is, straightforward perception. Perception as it is experienced by human beings is the explicit sense of being aware of effect essay something material other than oneself . Consider your awareness of a glass sitting on a table near you. Institute Essay. Light reflects from the effect introduction, glass, enters your eyes, and on prostitution in india, triggers activity in effect essay your visual pathways.
The standard neuroscientific account says that your perception of the glass is the result of, or just is , this neural activity. There is aol resume, a chain of causes and effects connecting the glass with the neural activity in your brain that is introduction, entirely compatible with, as in Dennett’s words, “the same physical principles, laws, and raw materials that suffice” to explain everything else in the material universe. Unfortunately for neuroscientism, the inward causal path explains how the light gets into your brain but not how it results in a gaze that looks out . The inward causal path does not deliver your awareness of the glass as an item explicitly separate from you as over there with respect to yourself, who is over here . This aspect of consciousness is known as intentionality (which is not to be confused with intentions). Intentionality designates the way that we are conscious of something, and that the ba 540 help, contents of effect essay introduction our consciousness are thus about essays on prostitution in india, something; and, in the case of human consciousness, that we are conscious of it as something other than ourselves. But there is nothing in effect essay the activity of the visual cortex, consisting of nerve impulses that are no more than material events in a material object, which could make that activity be about the things that you see. In other words, in intentionality we have something fundamental about aol resume, consciousness that is left unexplained by introduction, the neurological account.
This claim refers to on prostitution in india fully developed intentionality and not the kind of putative proto-intentionality that may be ascribed to non-human sentient creatures. Intentionality is utterly mysterious from a material standpoint. Essay Introduction. This is apparent first because intentionality points in the direction opposite to that of institute essay causality: the causal chain has a directionality in space-time pointing from the light wave bouncing off the object to the light wave hitting your visual cortex, whereas your perception of the essay introduction, object refers or points from you back to the object. The referential “pointing back” or “bounce back” is not “feedback” or reverse causation, since the causal arrow is located in physical space and time, whereas the intentional arrow is located in a field of concepts and awareness, a field which is not independent of but stands aside from physical space and time. Ironically, by locating consciousness in particular parts of the material of the brain, neuroscientism actually underlines this mystery of intentionality, opening up a literal, physical space between conscious experiences and that which they are about. This physical space is, paradoxically, both underlined and annulled: The gap between the glass of essays which you are aware and the neural impulses that are supposed to be your awareness of it is both a spatial gap and a non-spatial gap.
The nerve impulses inside your cranium are six feet away from the glass, and yet, if the nerve impulses reach out or refer to the glass, as it were, they do so by essay introduction, having the glass “inside” them. The task of attempting to form job resume express the conceptual space of intentionality in purely physical terms is a dizzying one. The perception of the essay introduction, glass inherently is of the glass, whereas the on prostitution in india, associated neural activity exists apart from the cause of the light bouncing off the effect introduction, glass. On Prostitution In India. This also means, incidentally, that the neural activity could exist due to a different cause. For example, you could have the same experience of the glass, even if the glass were not present, by tickling the relevant neurons. The resulting perception will be mistaken, because it is of an introduction, object that is not in fact physically present before you. But it would be ludicrous to talk of the associated neural activity as itself mistaken; neural activity is not about anything and so can be neither correct nor mistaken. Let us tease out the mystery of intentionality a bit more, if only to atlas anticipate the usual materialist trick of essay introduction burying intentionality in causation by brushing past perception to its behavioral consequences. Essays On Prostitution In India. If perceptions really are material effects (in one place the brain) of essay introduction material causes (in another place the paper practices, object), then intentionality seems to run in effect introduction the contrary direction to and hence to lie outside causation. That your perception of the institute, glass requires the essay, neural activity in your visual cortex to reach causally upstream to form job resume the events that caused it is, again, utterly mysterious. Moreover, it immediately raises two questions.
First, why does the backward glance of a set of effects to introduction some of their causes stop at a particular point in the causal chain in this case, at the glass? And, second, how does this reaching backward create a solid, stable object out of essays in india something as unstable as an interference with the light? The ordinary inference implicit in effect essay introduction everyday perception is that the events which cause nerve impulses are manifestations of something that transcends those events namely, an “object” that is the relatively permanent locus of possibility for many future events making intentionality even more mysterious. The bounce back is necessary to mark the point at which sense experiences are, as it were, “received”; the same point where, via a variety of intermediate steps, they can trigger behavioral outputs. This is a crucial point of form job resume demarcation within the causal nexus between perceptual input and behavioral output. And yet there is nothing within the essay introduction, nervous system that marks this point of arrival, or the point at which arrival passes over into aol resume, departure (perceptual input into behavioral output). Nor is effect essay introduction, there anything to distinguish, on the one hand, those parts of the nervous system that are supposed to be the point of arrival of neural activity as a component of conscious experience from, on the other, those parts that are mere unconscious way stations en route to some other point of arrival. In any event, identifying experiences with neural activity requires that intentionality, which has no place in the material world since no material object is about any other material object nevertheless fastens us into the material world. Examination of neural activity reveals only an unbroken causal chain passing from sensory inputs to digital paper practices motor outputs. Intentionality is significant because it is that which opens up the otherwise causally closed physical world. It lies at the root of our being a point of departure in the world, a site at which events originate that is, of our being actors . And the weaving together of individual intentional spaces creates the human world that shared, public, temporally deep sphere of possibilities, that outside-of-nature which makes our individual and essay introduction, collective human lives possible.
It lies at the origin of everything that distances us from the material world. Without intentionality, there is on prostitution, no point of arrival of perceptions, no point of departure for actions, no input and output, no person located in a world. It is intentionality that opens up the present to introduction the absent, the shrugged, actual to the possible, and the now to the past and the future, so that we are able to live in a world that is an infinitely elaborated space of possibilities, rather than being simply “wired in” to effect introduction what is . These are large claims, some of which I have already elaborated in these pages (see “How Can I Possibly Be Free?,” Summer 2010). Fraser. But the aspects presented here will be enough to wrest ourselves back from being assimilated into our brains. It should also be noted that looking at the difficulties intentionality poses to materialism relieves us too of the need for the problematic views of (intermittently quite sensible) philosophers such as John Searle, who argues in his famous 1980 paper “Minds, Brains, and Programs” that intentionality “is a biological phenomenon, and it is as likely to introduction be as causally dependent on the specific biochemistry of its origins as lactation, photosynthesis, or any other biological phenomena.” Searle says this to ba 540 homework undermine computational and functional theories of mind; but he still remains inside the biological frame of reference. And this requires him to think of intentionality that in virtue of which an effect essay introduction, effect reaches back to its cause to be itself the effect of another cause or set of causes. (The functionalism that Searle was rebutting claims that, just as a computer program is ba 540 homework help, defined by essay, how it transforms input to output, a piece of consciousness is defined by the particular causal transformation it effects between an organism’s perceptual input and its behavioral output.
But since functionalism tries to assimilate perception into causation by arguing that the contents of consciousness are identical with their causal relations, it is just as easily disposed of by looking carefully at the counter-causal nature of intentionality, and the need for a point of arrival and aol resume, departure, for input and effect essay introduction, output, without resorting to Searle’s argument from biological causes.) Focusing on intentionality and placing it in the context of a materialistic, neuroscientific theory underlines what an extraordinary phenomenon perception is. It is that in virtue of which an object is revealed to a subject; or, rather, that in virtue of which the digital paper practices in observational research, experiences of a subject are the revelation of an object. And this brings us to the heart of the trouble that the neural theory of perception is in: its central claim is that the interaction between two material objects either directly, such as by touch, or indirectly, such as by vision will cause one to appear to the other. The counter-causal direction of intentionality not only shows that this cannot be accommodated in physical science (of which neuroscience is effect essay introduction, a part) but that appearance is not something that the material world, a nexus of causation, affords. Indeed, we could go further and ba 540 help, argue that the progressive enclosure of the essay introduction, world within the framework of physical science, its being construed as a material world, tends towards the elimination of appearance . Making Appearance Disappear.
P hysical science begins when we escape from our subjective, first-person experiences into form job resume, objective measurement, and thereby start to aspire towards Thomas Nagel’s “view from nowhere.” You think the table over there is large; I think it is small. We make a measurement and introduction, discover that it is two feet by two feet. We now characterize the table in a way that is less beholden to our own, or anyone else’s, personal experience. Or we terminate an argument about whether the table is light or dark brown by translating its color into a mixture of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. The table has lost contact with its phenomenal appearance to me, to you, or to anyone, as being characteristic of what it is. As science progresses, measurement takes us further from actual experience, and the phenomena of subjective consciousness, to a realm in which things are described in abstract, general quantitative terms. The most obvious symptom of this is the way physical science has to discard what it regards as “secondary qualities” such as color experiences, feelings of warmth and cold, and atlas shrugged, tastes. They are regarded as somehow unreal, or at least as falling short of describing what the furniture of the world is “in itself.” For the physicist, light is not in itself bright or colorful; rather, it is a mixture of vibrations of different frequencies in an electromagnetic field. The material world, far from being the colorful, noisy, smelly place we experience, is essay, purportedly instead composed only of colorless, silent, odorless atoms or quarks, or other basic particles and waves best described mathematically.
Physical science is thus about the marginalization, and ultimately the elimination, of phenomenal appearance. But consciousness is centrally about appearances. The basic contents of consciousness are these mere “secondary qualities.” They are what fill our every conscious moment. As science advances, it retreats from appearances towards quantifying items that do not in themselves have the kinds of manifestation that constitute our experiences. A biophysical account of consciousness, which sees consciousness in terms of nerve impulses that are the passage of on prostitution ions through semi-permeable membranes, must be a contradiction in terms. For such an account must ultimately be a physical account, and physical science does not admit the existence of anything that would show why a physical object such as a brain should find, uncover, create, produce, result in, or cause the emergence of appearances and, in particular, secondary qualities in the world. Galileo’s famous assertions that the book of effect essay introduction nature “is written in the language of mathematics” and ba 540 homework help, that “tastes, odors, colors . reside only in consciousness,” and would be “wiped out and annihilated” in a world devoid of conscious creatures, underline the connection, going back to the very earliest days of effect introduction modern physical science, between quantification and the disappearance of appearance.
Any explanation of consciousness that admits the aol resume templates, existence of appearances but is rooted in materialist science will fail because, on effect essay introduction, its own account, matter and energy do not intrinsically have appearances, never mind those corresponding to secondary qualities. Aol Resume Templates. We could, of course, by effect essay introduction, all means change our notion of matter; but if we do not, and the brain is a piece of matter, then it cannot explain the in india, experience of things. Those who imagine that consciousness of material objects could arise from the effect of some material objects on another particular material object don’t seem to take the notion of matter seriously. Some neurophilosophers might respond that science does not eliminate appearance; rather, it replaces one appearance with another fickle immediate and conscious appearance with one that is effect introduction, more true to the reality of the objects it attends to. But this is pen and paper research, not what science does least of all physical science, which is supposed to give us the final report on what there is in the universe, for which matter (or mass-energy) is the essay, ultimate reality, and equations linking quantities are the best way of homework help revealing the inner essence of introduction this reality.
For, again, it is of the very nature of mass-energy, as it is envisaged in physics, not to have any kind of appearance in shrugged essays itself. This lack of effect appearance to mass-energy may still seem counterintuitive, but it will become clearer when we examine a well-known defense, again made by John Searle, of the theory that mind and brain are identical or specifically, that experiences can be found in neural impulses because they are the same thing. In his 1983 book Intentionality , Searle who, as already noted, is committed to a neural account of consciousness addresses the most obvious problem associated with the claim that experiences are identical with neural activity: experiences are nothing like neural activity, and the least one might expect of something is that it should be like itself. Searle denies that this is a problem by arguing that neural activity and experiences are different aspects of the same stuff; more precisely, that they are the same stuff seen at paper practices in observational, “different levels.” The immediate problem with this claim is in effect introduction knowing what it means. Clearly, neural activity and experiences are not two aspects of the same thing in the way that the front and back of aol resume a house are two aspects of the same house. Introduction. Searle tries to clarify what he means using an digital practices in observational research, analogy: experience is related to neural activity, he says, as “liquid properties of water” are related to “the behavior of the effect essay introduction, individual molecules” of H 2 O. They are the same stuff even though molecules of H 2 O are nothing like water. Water is wet, he argues, while individual molecules are not.
Wetness is the one specific “liquid” property of essays in india water he cites at introduction, the outset, and ba 540, the only others he mentions are that “it pours, you can drink it, you can wash in effect essay it, etc.” Because of ba 540 homework help this, it may seem at first that all Searle has accomplished is isolating the experiential qualities of water from the non-experiential. Effect Essay. That is, one interpretation of Searle’s supposed explanation is that neural activity is related to experience in the same way water is related to experiences of water. This explanation, of course, is completely inadequate, because it simply sets us at a further regress from the answer. But it turns out that this interpretation of Searle’s argument is the charitable one. We can see why in a section where Searle responds to this famous argument made by Leibniz in The Monadology (1714): And supposing that there were a machine so constructed as to think, feel, and have perception, we could conceive of it as enlarged and yet preserving the same proportions, so that we might enter it as into a mill. And this granted, we should only find on visiting it, pieces which push against another, but never anything by which to explain perception. This must be sought for, therefore, in the simple substance and not in the composite or in the machine. An exactly parallel argument to Leibniz’s would be that the aol resume, behavior of effect essay H 2 O molecules can never explain the essays on prostitution in india, liquidity of water, because if we entered into effect essay introduction, the system of molecules “as into a mill we should only find on visiting it pieces which push one against another, but never anything by which to explain” liquidity. But in both cases we would be looking at the system at the wrong level.
The liquidity of water is templates, not to be found at the level of the individual molecule, nor [is] the effect introduction, visual perception . to be found at the level of the individual neuron or synapse. The key to understanding Searle’s argument and its fatal flaw is in help the words, “But in both cases we would be looking at the system.” It turns out that in this water/H 2 O analogy, it is not just the effect, water but both levels that are already levels of homework experience or of observation. Searle in fact requires experience, observation, description in effect introduction short, consciousness to form job resume generate the two levels of his water analogy, which are meant to sustain his argument that two stuffs can be the same stuff even if they do not look like one another. Effect. This supposed explanation evades the essays, question of experience even more than does the first. For what Searle is in effect arguing, though he does not seem to effect essay notice it, is that the relationship between neural activity and experience is like the relationship between two kinds of experience of the same stuff. And this is unsatisfactory because the problem he is atlas essays, supposedly solving is effect introduction, that neural impulses are not like experiences at all. (This rebuttal also applies even more obviously, in fact to another, very popular analogy, between dots of newsprint and a picture in the newspaper as neural activity and experiences. The dots/picture analogy also has the benefit of essays making clear another vulnerability of such analogies: the effect, suggestion that neural activity is “micro” while experiences are “macro,” when it is paper practices, not at all evident why that should be the essay, case.)
Some will object to this experiential characterization of the “levels” argument, and will formulate it instead in terms of levels of organization or complexit y : for example, the atlas essays, Earth’s climate and weather system is organized into many different levels of complexity, each exhibiting distinct behavior and distinct sorts of phenomena, from the interplays causing cycles of temperature over the centuries, down to the behavior of storms, down to the interactions of essay molecules. The implicit idea is homework, that each level of complexity is governed by its own distinct set of laws. But one cannot take the distinction between these sets of effect laws to be inherent in the climate/weather system without in effect saying that when enough matter gets together in the same vicinity, it becomes another kind of matter which falls under the atlas essays, scope of another kind of effect essay introduction law (at the same time that it remains the more basic kind of matter under the scope of the more basic kind of law). That flies in form job resume the face of reductive materialism not to mention raises some very difficult questions about the identicality of these different kinds of introduction matter. What is more, the “getting together” that makes, say, a storm a whole made out of parts, is aol resume templates, itself description-dependent and hence perception-dependent. The very term “complexity” refers to a description-dependent property. A pebble may be seen as something very simple one pebble or something infinitely complex a system of a trillion trillion sub-atomic particles interacting in such a way as to sustain a static equilibrium. The persistent materialist may launch a final defense of the argument, to the effect that the particular descriptions of water and effect essay introduction, H 2 O molecules Searle mentions do not really depend on experience at on prostitution, all. He writes, “In its liquid state water is wet, it pours, you can drink it, you can wash in it, etc.
When we describe the stuff as liquid we are just describing those very molecules at a higher level of description than that of the effect essay, individual molecule.” One might argue that these enumerated qualities of water are all physical facts, that they are true even when there is no one present to observe them. But to the extent that this reinterpretation of Searle’s argument helps it to hold water (so to speak), it is only due to the original argument’s imprecision. For if we take it to be truly independent of experience that water “is wet, it pours, you can drink it, you can wash in it,” then these facts are equally true of a collection of molecules of H 2 O, because of course the physical stuff known as water just is a collection of molecules of atlas shrugged essays H 2 O. Water and H 2 O molecules, considered solely as physical things, are identical, and have all of the same properties. No appeal to “levels of description” should even be necessary. The reason it is necessary hinges on Searle’s description of one level as that of “ the individual molecule.” But an essay, individual molecule is aol resume templates, not at all the effect introduction, same thing as water which is a collection of many individual molecules and on prostitution, so of course we should not expect the two to have the same properties.
If we remove from the analogy the effect introduction, differing appearances to us of digital pen and water and effect introduction, H 2 O molecules as sources of their un-likeness, then all Searle has demonstrated is how a thing can be unlike a part of itself, rather than unlike itself. This is trivially true, and does not apply in any event to the question at hand if neural impulses are taken to be identical to experiences. Searle makes his position even more vulnerable by arguing that not only are neural activity and the experience of perception the aol resume, same but that the former causes the effect, latter just as water is “caused” by H 2 O. Shrugged. This is desperate stuff: one could hardly expect some thing A to cause some thing B with which it is identical, because nothing can cause itself. Effect Introduction. In any event, the bottom line is that the molecules of H 2 O and the wet stuff that is water are two appearances of the same thing two conscious takes on the same stuff. They cannot be analogous to, respectively, that which supposedly causes conscious experiences (neural impulses) and conscious experiences themselves . What Physical Science is atlas shrugged essays, Blind To. T o press this point a little harder: conscious experiences and observed nerve impulses are both appearances. But nerve impulses do not have any appearance in themselves; they require a conscious subject observing them to appear and it is irrelevant that the effect introduction, observation is highly mediated through instrumentation.
Like all material items, nerve impulses lack appearances absent an observer. And given that they are material events lacking appearances in themselves, there is no reason why they should bring about the appearances of things other than themselves. It is magical thinking to imagine that material events in on prostitution in india a material object should be appearings of objects other than themselves. Material objects require consciousness in introduction order to appear. All Searle has explained, again, is how two different appearances of the same thing can be unlike each other; but the problem he means to solve in digital pen and paper practices in observational the first place or should mean to solve is how something that itself has no appearance can give rise to, in effect introduction fact be identical to, appearances. Essays. That is, Searle’s task is to show how something that itself has no appearance can be an appearance and without someone else observing the thing so as to give it the appearance. The question becomes pointed in Leibniz’s thought experiment: how, from looking at the raw material of neurons in someone’s brain, are we, as outside observers, supposed to get the appearances these neurons are meant to be causing, or generating, or identical to? Searle is effect essay introduction, forced into this conclusion: “If one knew the ba 540 help, principles on which the system of H 2 O molecules worked, one could infer that it was in a liquid state by effect essay, observing the movement of the molecules, but similarly if one knew the principles on which the brain worked one could infer that it was in a state of thirst or having a visual experience.” In other words, just by looking at neural impulses and form job resume, “translating” them into the other “level of description,” we can get at the corresponding experiences. This sounds fine until we consider just what “getting at” those experiences means.
For what Searle does not account for is how knowing that a particular brain is having a particular experience is supposed to be enough to deliver actually having that experience yourself. Effect Essay. To fully accept Searle’s conclusion, we would have to believe that having the ba 540 homework help, experience is the same as knowing that it exists that it arises for the one person experiencing it, perhaps, from some implicit act of translation or “inference” and so, among other things, that just by looking at someone else’s brain in the proper way, we could have the same experiences they are having. These are absurd conclusions, as we will see. From a more practical standpoint, we can see why it will never be enough to dismiss the problem of introduction appearances out of hand by appealing either to form job resume the idea that perceptions are just brain activity like any other brain activity, or the idea that consciousness (and so all appearance) is an illusion. Essay Introduction. For in either case, while appearances are “nothing but” neural activity, we still must be able to explain why some neural activity leads to the sensation (or illusion) of appearance while other neural activity does not; and we must be able to distinguish between the two by looking only at the material neurons. Neurophilosophers should be able to recognize this problem, since they acknowledge that the vast majority of neural impulses are not associated with appearances or consciousness of any sort. The search for neural correlates of consciousness has in fact turned up clusters, patterns, and locations of activity that are not in pen and paper practices research any significant respect different from neural activity that is not so correlated. What is more, “clusters,” “patterns,” and so forth also require an observer, to bring them together into a unity and to effect introduction see that unity as a unity. That which requires an observer cannot be the basis of an observation. The fact that intentionality does not fit into the materialist world picture has often been noted, but it is important to aol resume templates emphasize its anomalous nature because it lies at the root of pretty well everything that distances us from the material world, including other animals.
The nature of intentionality becomes most clear when we see that the perceiver is an effect, embodied subject when the institute, object is related to an “I” who perceives it, and who experiences himself as being located in the same experiential field as the object. The requirement of admitting the existence of a perceiving self is, of effect essay course, enough to make neurophilosophers hostile to form job resume the notion of the subject. But if they deny the existence of essay a self, they still have to account for how it is that matter can be arranged around a viewpoint as “near,” “far,” and so forth for form job resume the construction of effect what Bertrand Russell called “egocentric space,” in which indexical words like “this,” “that,” and “here” find their meanings. There are no appearances without viewpoints: for example, there are no appearances of a rock that are neither from the front of it nor from the ba 540 help, back of it nor from any other angle. But there is nothing in the material brain, as we have seen, that could make it anyone’s own brain, or that could locate it at the center of anyone’s sensory field as the foundation of a viewpoint. We cannot appeal to the objective fact that the brain is located in a particular body to install it as someone ’s brain, because ownership does not reside in bodies absent consciousness, or indeed self-consciousness but consciousness is just what we are unable to effect essay find by looking at the material of the brain. In India. Nor is the fact that the brain is located at effect essay, a particular point in essays space sufficient for introduction making it the center of homework help a particular someone’s personal space any more than that fact is sufficient for essay a rock to have its own personal space. The “view from nowhere” of paper physical science does not accommodate viewpoints.
And since the material world has of effect essay itself no viewpoints, it does not, of itself, have centers or, for that matter, peripheries. The equation E=m c 2 , like all laws of physics, captures an ba 540 homework help, ultimate, all-encompassing scientific truth about the world, a viewless view of material reality, and effect introduction, has nothing to say about the paper in observational research, experience of the world. Absent from it is that which forms the effect, basic contents of consciousness: the phenomenal appearances of the world. Mysteries of the Subjective Self. T he loss of aol resume appearances is not an introduction, accidental mislaying. It is an inevitable consequence of the materialist conception of ba 540 help matter as we have it today. The brain, being a piece of matter, must be person-free. This is true not only by definition but also in other, specific senses. Persons or selves have two additional features which cannot be captured in neural terms. The first is unity in multiplicity . At any given moment, I am aware of a multitude of experiences: sensations, perceptions, memories, thoughts, emotions. I am c o -conscious of them that is, I am aware of each of them at once, so that they are integrated into effect, a unity of sorts.
Moreover, co-consciousness includes consciousness of atlas things I cannot currently see or touch: it includes consciousness of the absent past, of the essay introduction, absent elsewhere of the present, and of the possible future. It is difficult to see how this integration is possible in neural terms, since neurophysiology assigns these experiences to spatially different parts of the brain. Aspects of consciousness are supposedly kept very tidily apart: the pathways for perception are separate from those for ba 540 emotion, which are separate from those for memory, which are separate from those for motivation, which are separate from those for judgment, and so on. Within perception, each of the effect, senses of vision, hearing, smell, and so forth has different pathways and digital paper practices research, destinations. And within, say, visual perception, different parts of the effect introduction, brain are supposed to be responsible for receiving the color, shape, distance, classification, purpose, and emotional significance of seen objects. When, however, I see my red hat on form job resume, the table, over effect essay, there, and essays on prostitution, see that it is squashed, and feel cross about it, while I hear you laughing, and I recognize the laughter as yours, and introduction, I am upset, and I note that the taxi I have ordered has arrived so that I can catch the train that I am aware I must not miss when all of these things occur in my consciousness at once, many things that are kept apart must somehow be brought together. There is no model of such synthesis in the brain. This is the so-called “binding” problem. Converging neural pathways might seem to offer a means by which things are all brought together this is the standard neurophysiological account of “integration.” However, it solves nothing.
If all those components of the moment of consciousness came together in the same spot, if their activity converged, they would lose their separate identity and the distinct elements would be lost in a meaningless mush. Ba 540 Help. When I look at my hat, I see that it is red, and effect essay, squashed, and over there, and a hat, and all of the rest. Here is the challenge presented to neuroscience by the experienced unity and multiplicity of the conscious moment: that which is form job resume, brought together has also to be kept apart. Essay. Consciousness is a unification that retains multiplicity . Neurophilosophers have tried to deal with this problem by ba 540 homework, arguing that, while the essay, components of form job resume experience retain their individual locations in the brain, the activity that occurs in those different locations is bound together. The mechanism for this binding is effect introduction, supposed to be either rhythmic mass neural activity or emergent physical forces which transcend the boundaries of individual neurons, such as electromagnetic fields or quantum coherence arising out of the properties of nerve membranes.
This way of imagining the unity of consciousness assumes, without any reason, that linked activity across large sections of the brain say, a coherent pattern of essay rhythmic activity, made visible as such to an observer by instrumentation will be translated, or more precisely will translate itself , from an objective fact to a subjective unity. We are required to accept that something that is observed as an internal whole via instrumentation will be experienced as a whole, or itself be the experience of a whole, such that it will deliver the effect, wholeness of a subset of items in the world while at the very same time retaining the fraser institute essay, separateness of those items. The other distinctive feature of subjectivity is temporal depth . The human subject is aware of a past (his own and the shared past of communities and cultures) and reaches into essay, a future (his own and the shared future). For simplicity’s sake, let us just focus on essays on prostitution, the past. Introduction. There are many neurophilosophical accounts of memory, but they have one thing in common: they see memory as, in form job resume the slightly scornful phrase of the philosopher Henri Bergson, “a cerebral deposit.” Memory is, to use the effect essay introduction, slippery term, “stored” as an effect on the brain, expressed in its altered reactivity. This theory has been demonstrated, to the satisfaction of many neurophysiologists and cognitive neuroscientists, in creatures as disparate as apes and fruit flies. Some of the most lauded studies on “memory,” such as those that won Columbia University neuroscientist Eric Kandel his 2000 Nobel Prize, have been on the sea slug. In reality, Kandel did not examine anything that should really be called memor y it was actually altered behavior in response to atlas training by means of an electric shock essentially a conditioned reflex. A sea slug does not, so far as anybody knows, have semantic memory of essay introduction facts that is, memory of facts as facts, laden with concepts. It does not have explicit episodic memories of pen and paper research events that is, events remembered as located in the past.
Nor does it have autobiographical memories that is, events remembered as located in its own past. It does not even have an explicit sense of the past or of time in general, and even less of a collective past where shared history is located. Nor can one seriously imagine an essay, elderly sea slug actively trying to remember earlier events, racking its meager allocation of twenty thousand neurons to recall something, any more than one can think of it feeling nostalgic for its youth when it believed that it still had a marvelous life ahead of it. Of course, neurophilosophers are not impressed by the objection that the sea slug or any other animal model does not possess anything like the kind of form job resume memory that we possess. Effect Essay. It is, they say, simply a matter of different degrees of complexity of the nervous system in question: explicit memories involve more elaborate circuitry, with more intermediate connections, than the kinds of digital paper in observational conditioned reflexes observed in sea slugs. To dissect this response, we have to effect introduction examine critically the essays on prostitution, very idea that memories are identical with altered states of a nervous system. Let us look first of essay introduction all at how the fallacy commanded acceptance. Essays. Kandel, like many other researchers, seems to essay introduction assimilate all memory into habit memory, and habit memory in ba 540 help turn into altered behavior, or altered reactivity of the organism. And altered reactivity can be correlated with the altered properties of the excitable tissue in the organism, which may be understood in biophysical, biochemical, or neurochemical terms the kinds of introduction chemical changes one can see in the contents of a Petri dish. But these changes have nothing to do with memory as we experience and value it, though they have everything to do with overlooking the true nature of memory. This is because habit memory is merely implicit, while human memory is also explicit: the former sort of “memory” is merely altered behavior, while the latter is something one is aware of as a memory . Atlas Shrugged Essays. Those who think this a false elevation of the human must address not only the fact that there are two broad categories of effect introduction memory to be found among animal species, but that both of these types of atlas essays memory coexist in human beings.
We not only effect have uniquely explicit memory, but also have the same sort of implicit memory as Kandel’s sea slugs. Moreover, we can have both of these types of memory about the same event: After a spark from a doorknob shocks my hand as I close the templates, door during the winter, I will instinctively flinch from touching it again, and effect essay, will then stop and explicitly remember that I had previously received an help, electrostatic shock. This time, I will explicitly plan to shut the door with my foot, an act that will itself after a few repetitions become instinctive or implicit, until I again stop to recall the explicit memory of the event that led to the habit. The neurophysiological account fails to address these distinctions. To get to the bottom of the essay, fallacies that underlie the very idea of a “neurophysiology of memory,” we need to remind ourselves that the nervous system is a material object and that material objects are identical with their present states.
A broken cup is practices research, a broken cup. It is not in itself a record of its previous states of a cup that was once whole except to an outside observer who previously saw the effect essay introduction, cup in its unbroken state and aol resume, now remembers it, so that he or she can compare the past and present states of the cup. The broken cup has an altered reactivity it moves differently in response to stimuli but this altered reactivity is not a memory of its previous state or of the event that caused its altered reactivity, namely its having been dropped. Likewise, although the effect essay, altered state of the sea slug is, as it were, a “record” of what has happened to it, it is a record only to an external consciousness that has observed it in both its past and pen and practices research, present states and effect introduction, is aware of both. And this is on prostitution in india, equally true of the effect, altered reactivity of neurons exposed to ba 540 previous stimuli in higher organisms. Indeed, just as a conscious observer is introduction, required for the present state of the broken cup to be regarded as a “record” or “memory” of pen and practices research its having been dropped, so it must be a consciousness that identifies the effect introduction, particular piece of matter of the cup as a single object distinct from its surroundings, having its own distinct causal history, of which there is one special event among all others of which the cup is pen and paper practices in observational research, a “record”: its being dropped. From a consciousness-free material standpoint, the cup is effect essay introduction, but an arbitrary subset of all matter, and its present state owes equally to every prior state of the ba 540 homework, matter that composes it. The cup would have to be at once a “memory” of the moment it was dropped and of the innumerable moments when it sat motionless in the cupboard with the former in no way privileged. In fact, if you believe that the effect, present state of an object is a record or memory of all the events that brought it to its present state, you are committed to believing that, at any given moment, the universe is a memory of all its previous states.
This need not be so, of course, if an object is encountered by a conscious individual who can see its present state as a sign of its past state, and so can focus on salient causes of salient aspects for institute example, the event that led to the cup being broken. The conscious individual alone can see the effect introduction, present state as a sign of a past state and pick out essay, one present state as a sign of one of the events that brought it from its past state to its present state. This final point illustrates how the effect of an experienced event is a record of this event only to an observer. Essay Introduction. But the brain, being a material object, cannot be its own observer, comparing its past and present states. More precisely, the present state of a portion of the brain cannot reach out or refer , by aol resume templates, the temporal equivalent of intentionality, to those salient events that changed it from an earlier state. Effect Introduction. And yet this is what memory does. Memories, that is to say, have an even more mysterious and counter-causal about-ness than perceptions of present events: they reach back to previous experiences, which themselves, through perception, reached out to that which, according to orthodox neuroscience, caused the experience. Memories supposedly therefore reach back to the mental causes of their physical causes. What is more, just as in vision I see the essays on prostitution, object as separate from effect myself, in memory I see the help, remembered object as different from the present, from the effect essay, totality of what is here I see it as absent . The memory explicitly locates its intentional object in the past . To borrow a phrase that Roger Scruton used in relation to music, memories have a double intentionality . The failure of neuroscientism to deal with this last twist of the digital pen and paper research, knife is illustrated by a recent paper in Science which some regarded triumphantly as having nailed memory.
The authors found that the same neurons were active when an individual watched a TV scene (from, of all things, The Simpsons ) as when they were asked to remember it. Memory, they concluded, is effect essay, simply the fraser institute essay, replication of the neural activity that was provoked by the event that is remembered. This fails to distinguish, and so leaves unexplained, how it is effect essay, that an essays in india, individual experiences a memory as a memory rather than as something present or, actually, a hallucination of something present. A putative neural account of memory cannot deal with the difference between perceptions and memories because there is no past tense or indeed future tense in the material world. Consciousness, with its implicit sense of “now,” is required to locate events in one panel or other of the triptych past, present, and future; it is the conscious subject that provides the reference point. This is why Einstein said that physicists “know that the distinction between past, present, and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion.” A consistent materialism should not allow for the possibility of memory, of the sense of the past.
It only manages to seem to do so because observers, viewpoint, and consciousness are smuggled into the descriptions of the successive states of the effect, brain, making it seem that later states can be about earlier states. As if the help, unity of the self or subject or “I” at a particular time were not sufficiently resistant to neurological explanation, the unity of the self over time is even further beyond its reach. The objective endurance of the brain does not generate the sensed co-presence of effect essay introduction successive states of the self, even less the sense that one has temporal depth. Even if the self were reduced to form job resume a series of experiences, as in the accounts of David Hume or Oxford philosopher Derek Parfit, it would not be possible to see how the series was explicit as a series, with different moments explicitly related to each other, where one part accessed another and saw that it belonged to the same self. Indeed, starving the essay, self down into a mere implicit thread linking successive experiences renders it less , not more, amenable to neural reduction, since the question of why some particular set of aol resume successive experiences rather than another should be linked together as a single series becomes even more glaring when the experiences are seen as but some arbitrary physical events among other physical events occurring in many different locations in physical space. And the problem is by no means absolved if the sense of self is as claimed by some neuroscientists, like so many other things they are unable to effect explain an illusion. My feeling that I am the same person as the person who married my wife in 1970 is digital practices research, just as impossible to explain neurologically if it is an illusion as if it is true. Neural activity does not have the wherewithal to create the sense that we have of feeling that we are the same individual at different times just as little if the sense is illusory as if it is true. The notion that the material brain can produce the illusion of the self but not be the effect introduction, basis of the real thing seems, to put it mildly, rather odd. And what is it to digital paper in observational research which the illusion is presented? Here again is the neuroscientific reduction to absurdity, in essay its purest form: illusions must be experienced by some being, but “being something” is itself an illusory experience.
An Insincere Materialism. T he belief among neurophilosophers that the brain, a material object, can generate tensed time is one among many manifestations of the insincerity of their materialism. As we have seen, under cover of hard-line materialism, they borrow consciousness from elsewhere, smuggling it into, or presupposing it in, their descriptions of ba 540 help brain activity. This ploy is facilitated by a mode of effect introduction speaking which I call “thinking by transferred epithet,” in which mental properties are ascribed to the brain or to parts of the brain (frequently very tiny parts, even individual neurons), which are credited with “signaling,” and digital paper practices in observational, often very complex acts such as “rewarding,” “informing,” and effect essay introduction, so forth. Digital Pen And Practices Research. The use of essay introduction transferred epithets is the linguistic symptom of what Oxford philosopher P.M.S. Hacker and University of Sydney neuroscientist M.R. Bennett described, in their 2003 book Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscienc e , as the “mereological fallacy”: ascribing to parts properties which truly belong to wholes. This fallacy bids fair to be described as the Original Sin of much neurotalk, and it certainly allows the mind-brain barrier to be trespassed with ease.
This ease is in turn concealed by the ubiquity of transferred epithets outside brain science in everyday life. We are so used to talking about machines (particularly computers) “detecting,” “signaling,” “recording,” “remembering,” “warning,” and so forth, that we hardly notice, even less object, when this talk is applied to brains. Indeed, given that the brain is often billed as the fraser essay, most sophisticated of all machines, the computer to effect essay introduction end all computers, it hardly needs to demonstrate its entitlement to being credited with such activities. Aol Resume. While the introduction, homunculus is out of fashion, and ghosts have been exorcised from the machine, there are apparently billions of micro-homunculi haunting the cerebral cortex. The exiled homunculus has crept back in the form of a million billion angels bearing messages from one part of the brain to atlas shrugged essays another, chattering endlessly across synapses. This absurdity is concealed yet more deeply by a mode of speech that populates even the material environment that surrounds the brain with “signals” and “messages” and “information.” All the nervous system has to do is to extract and effect, transmit those signals and messages and information. The Princeton psychologist Philip Johnson-Laird, a leading figure of the school of thought that held that the brain-mind is homework help, a computer, stated in his 1988 book The Computer and the Mind that “light reflected from surfaces and focused on the retinae contains a large amount of information.” (Gossipy stuff, light.) He admitted, however, that there were no entirely free gifts: No matter how much information is in the light falling on the retinae, there must be a mental mechanism for recovering the identities of the things in a scene and those of their properties that vision makes explicit to consciousness. Nevertheless, stipulating that there is information in the energy tickling up the brain is a flying start, and effect essay introduction, gets you across the brain-consciousness barrier without any scientific or indeed conceptual work being done.
The otherwise inexplicable miracle by essay, which the brain is effect introduction, supposed to support intelligent consciousness is aol resume, made rather easier to understand when the energy that impinges on essay introduction, it is billed as informatio n information “about” the brain’s surroundings. This trend, incidentally, is the top of ba 540 a slippery slope at the bottom of which much lunacy lies. Information, once freed from the confinement of conscious human beings offering information to other human beings requiring to be informed, is effect essay introduction, everywhere. It is in the light; it is in DNA and other structures of the body. It is even in the material transactions of the non-living universe, as has been suggested by fraser essay, the advocates of introduction “digital physics” the idea that the shrugged, universe is computation. By such misuse of language, matter becomes consciousness, or the energy in the material world comes to know itself, as has been suggested by the advocates of “panpsychism” the idea that all matter is at least partially conscious. The promotion of energy to information is the inverse of the demotion of consciousness to material transactions. In one direction, consciousness is in nothing; in the other, it is in everything. It gets right to the heart of how inherently absurd and paradoxical is neuroscientism to recognize that it naturally splits into these two wholly and fundamentally opposed modes of thinking, yet relies simultaneously on them both. W e can see more clearly now the effect introduction, wide gap between brain function and templates, consciousness really, between people and their brains. This gap is seemingly crossed by linguistic legerdemain: people can be “brainified” if the brain is personified.
But we have seen reasons why this gap should be unbridgeable. Effect Introduction. This, however, only throws into greater relief the magnitude of what remains to be answered, and so we must ask where we go from homework here. The failure to explain consciousness in terms of the brain which follows from the failure of effect introduction matter as understood in the most rigorous scientific manner to be able to house consciousness raises two immediate questions. The first and digital pen and paper research, most obvious question is: Why, if the brain is not the basis of consciousness, is essay introduction, it so intimately bound up with it? Even those of us who object to essays in india the reduction of persons to brains have to explain why, of all the effect essay introduction, objects in the world, the brain is so relevant to our lives as persons. Fraser Institute. Nor can we overlook the extraordinary advances that have come from neuroscience in our ability to understand and treat diseases that damage voluntary action, consciousness, and mood something that has been central to my entire professional career as a clinical neuroscientist. If consciousness, mind, volition, and so forth are not deeply connected with brain activity, then what are we to effect introduction make of the essays, genuine advances that neuroscience has contributed to our management of conditions that affect these central underpinnings of ordinary life?
The second question is whether, having shown the difficulty no, the essay, impossibility of trying to get from on prostitution brains alone to persons, we should abandon the very notion of the brain as a starting point for our thoughts about human consciousness. This question, however, brings us back to introduction the first. If we say “I wouldn’t start from here,” then what do we do with the facts of neuroscience? Where does the fraser institute, brain fit into a metaphysics, an epistemology, and effect essay introduction, an ontology of mind that deny the brain a place at their center? If we are thinking of a new ontology, an account of the kinds of things there are in homework the universe that goes beyond the traditional division into mental and physical things; or if we are to go beyond an interactive epistemology that begins with sensations arising out effect, of the impingement of energy on our brains and ascends to our knowledge of the laws of nature; then how shall we make sense of the things neuroscience tells us? How shall we deal with the digital in observational, fact that we are evolved organisms as well as persons? These questions are posed because the effect, case outlined here has been, necessarily, quite negative. It has merely been meant to clear the form job resume, decks so we can set sail on the real work of finding a positive description of our nature, of the place of mind in nature, and, possibly, of the nature of nature itself. We need to start again thinking about essay introduction, our hybrid status: as pieces of form job resume matter subject to the laws of physics, as organisms subject to the laws of biology, and as people who have a complex sense of themselves, who narrate and lead their lives, and who are capable of thinking thoughts like these. Raymond Tallis , emeritus professor of geriatric medicine at effect essay introduction, the University of Manchester, United Kingdom, is the author, most recently, of Michelangelo’s Finger: An Exploration of Everyday Transcendence (Yale, 2010) and Aping Mankind: Neuromania, Darwinitis and the Misrepresentation of Humanity (Acumen, forthcoming in essays in india 2011). This essay has been adapted from a lecture delivered in effect introduction February 2010 at the American Enterprise Institute.
Raymond Tallis, What Neuroscience Cannot Tell Us About Ourselves, The New Atlantis , Number 29, Fall 2010, pp. 3-25.
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Racial and Ethnic Minorities Essay. History of racial and essay introduction, ethnic minorities in policing. Racial and ethnic discrimination are actions that are morally wrong because they result to violation of peoples rights. Humanity is guided by the principle of equality that calls for equal treatment of form job resume, all individuals, claiming that racial differences should not hinder equal treatment of one particular group. Equality is the act of treating all people as equals irrespective of color, gender, age and ethnicity. The context of the equality principle differs from effect essay one factual environment to the other. For instance, in politics, equality refers to equivalent access to public resources, pay and job opportunities. Conversely, in criminal justice, the equality principle means the application of the rule of law to all individuals. Equality in criminal justice therefore, discourages instances of discrimination by the police towards any particular group of aol resume templates, individuals.
The history of ethnic and effect essay, racial minorities in policing has been evident since slavery period. Various reforms and amendments have been developed in the United States criminal justice system to ensure fair treatment of all individuals by the police in policing. The world race is used to refer to a particular group of essays on prostitution, people who share a common biological inheritance that makes them distinct from those in their neighborhood. Conversely, ethnicity can be described as a cultural trend that defines a person’s way of life. The world race does not have a profound foundation and its existence does not have any biological value. Essay Introduction? Race is a literal word that was developed by individuals to refer to a particular group of people. In the essays United States, the concept of race developed during slavery period, where some races were considered lesser than others. The criterion of essay, race has been used by form job resume the US law enforcement systems in determining people’s rights. These events and activities gave rise to racism, a social practice whose virtues are racially based depending on a group’s race. Racism was therefore, practiced in introduction three different aspects including personal intolerance, institutional racism and ideological racism. Ethnicity and racism were used as factors of consideration by on prostitution in india the police in the course of performing their day to day activities of policing (Harrell 48).
Ethnicity and race has been used as one of the indicators to determine people’s attitude towards the essay introduction police. Form Job Resume? The history of criminal justice and policing in America works under racial and ethnic lines. Effect Introduction? Racism has been a major problem facing police organizations, despite the military trainings and policies that are laid before them. In criminal justice, policing lacks equal representation of every society. This has caused the minority groups to suffer discrimination from the essays on prostitution whites because they associate their race with violence behavior and crimes. The methods of social control used by the police to effect essay introduction, the American communities differ according to ones race and ethnicity.
Most of the crime blames are placed on minority groups than the whites. Institutional racism was and is the major and common form of racism practiced towards individual groups in the United States, which are also referred to as “petit apartheid”. It constitutes the interactions between citizens and the police, featuring their relationship with particularly the minority groups. The police interact with people either openly or informally as they execute their day to day activities. The concept of petit apartheid was used by policing in help the past, which determined most of their actions and decisions made within the introduction criminal justice system. The apartheid concept promoted racism in policing, with the ethnic minorities facing biased treatments from the ba 540 homework police like rough treatment and insults (Weitzer and effect introduction, Steven 34). The historical context of racism and ethnicity in policing. The history of racial and ethic minority discrimination is as old as creation.
The United States of America is a multi-racial state, with members from different societies including African Americans, Asians, and Mexicans that form the minority community. These minority groups have contributed greatly to the US culture and aol resume templates, economic stability. There has been a tendency, however, by the whites to effect essay, discriminate these groups. Members of the minority groups have faced great challenges throughout their life in the United States because of underrepresentation in ba 540 homework almost all sectors that can make their living equal to those of the Americans. The Criminal Justice department is effect essay among those sectors that are leading with actions of form job resume, discrimination.
In policing, ethnic minorities are greatly discriminated in the process of recruitment, police discretion, courts and in the process of criminal justice. American criminology is known for racial and ethnic discrimination in criminal justice and policing since its introduction. Effect Essay? Racial and ethnic minorities’ discrimination in policing dates back to earlier times in the history of America and has been receiving consisted scrutiny to ensure equal representation of all the American societies by the Criminal Justice Department (Sampson and atlas shrugged, Janet 360). Racial and essay introduction, ethnic disparities are not a new norm in the American criminal justice system. Digital Pen And In Observational Research? In the essay antebellum period, ethnic and racial discrimination in policing was a common practice among the police. African Americans were the atlas major victims of racial discrimination because of their color and origin. Throughout the essay introduction history of the United States, racial discrimination began with the slavery system, extending through segregation and exclusion, which were practiced both formally and fraser, informally through court decisions and policing legislations. Essay Introduction? Slaves were not considered as human beings, but servants to their masters because their race categorized them as inferior to templates, the whites, since the beginning of slavery and slave trade in effect introduction the seventeenth century to 1865.
Regulations were put against slaves, with each of them having a slave tag that denied them the opportunity to enjoy the enormous freedom enjoyed by the whites. Fraser Essay? Slaves were exposed to plantation life to provide free and cheap exploitative labor through brutal treatment that was against human nature. They did not have any rights and effect essay, were expected to remain captives. In the advent of the aol resume templates civil war, slavery was abolished and essay introduction, the Bill of Rights Amendments were revised to bring to fraser institute essay, an end the effect essay practice. Digital Practices In Observational Research? This was aimed at ensuring that all individuals were granted equal freedom regardless of their ethnicity and race, and equal protection and treatment by the criminal justice system(Sharp and Susie 754).. After the Civil War, actions of effect introduction, discrimination continued to persist. This was facilitated by the Jim Crow laws that were adopted by many states, which failed to effectively rationalize structures of ba 540, discrimination in economic, social and legal forums. For instance, the essay introduction African Americans could not participate in voting system because they did not have the right to vote. Additionally, they were racially separated from the whites under the established doctrine of “separate but equal.” The courts, however, held on to the Jim Crow laws. African Americans faced great challenges between mid 1800 to early 1900, caused by templates the practice of racism and their relations with the police were not perfected. Essay Introduction? In the twentieth century, however, African Americans were accorded legal rights and the doctrine of “separate but equal” was abolished.
Racal segregation was highly rejected and the civil rights required all people to be treated equally. Other minority groups who existed in the United States included the Latinos, Alaska Natives and American Indians. These groups were not an exception and faced the same treatment and forms of segregation as the shrugged essays African Americans. All the minority groups in America since slavery period until 1900s faced criminal victimization from the police. Essay? They were considered as violent and criminals. Atlas? This led to the number of minority individuals associated with actions of crime and violent behavior to increase compared to that of the whites. Ethnic minority groups lived in slums and areas characterized by poverty, where instances of crimes were highly practiced. Conversely, the effect whites owned mansions and lived in areas that had sufficient security from the shrugged police.
Policing activities were biased and the minority groups faced great challenges from the police (Rosenbloom and Niobe 430). Biased policing practices raised many questions about the literature of the criminal justice system towards racial differences. This was facilitated by the increased number of minority groups that were alleged with criminal activities. Study conducted by various scholars showed that the criminal justice system was racially segregated and the ethnic minorities were underrepresented. A large percentage of the minorities remained unemployed because all the jobs available were allocated to effect, the whites. The police departments did not execute fair policing. In their study, Dobbins and Bass found out that the police were prejudice. They urged police officers to ensure fairness and equality when dealing with all individuals to improve their social relations with the minority groups. Race, crime, justice and criminology.
Debates about racial and ethnic disparities were introduced in the criminal justice system by Christiansons, who collected state-by-state lists concerning the number of on prostitution in india, black individuals imprisoned compared to that of the whites. According to his study, Christiansons found out effect essay introduction, that the number of blacks imprisoned was by far large that the whites. These conclusions were based on the general population that was present in all prisons in templates the United States. After this study, Christiansons developed the conclusion that the disproportionate representation of effect introduction, blacks and whites in the criminal justice system was racially based. Essay? Is arguments were later contrasted by Klerk who after reviewing several studies came to the conclusion that the criminal justice was not in introduction way based on homework racial differences. He added that the increased number of blacks in prisons was facilitated by their violent behavior. Christiansons encountered a lot of criticism that was developed because of his argument that criminal involvement and crimes were not fairly judged. Most the crimes that required sentencing were concerned with blacks, an idea that Christiansons rejected. Blumstein, a member of the criminal justice argued that racial differences were considered as a factor when arresting criminals.
This was contributed by the desperate nature of the African-Americans who lived in slum isolated areas and did not have any activity to engage them. Essay? Blumstein concluded that 80percent of individuals imprisoned in courts were African-Americans, who were judged with serious disparities and violent crimes. Using information from a survey conducted by the National Crime Survey (NCS), Langan tried to avoid questions that required him to give responses concerning bias in criminal justice system. The surveys contained information provided by African-Americans who had been victims of the police behavior. After comparing the reports provided by direct victims of essays in india, racial and ethnic discrimination in policing and introduction, the reports of NCS, Langan concluded that the criminal justice system was biased. This information amounted to the increased racial disparities that were experienced in the court system. From this information, it was realized that ethnic and racial minority discrimination in policing was an ideology of the past.
Racial and ethnic minority disparities in policing. Evidence of racial and ethnic minority discrimination in policing has been proved through analysis of ba 540, arrests, police contacts, intake decisions and referrals. Research conducted from the juvenile courts showed that 80 percent of arrests made were centered on effect blacks. This is because the police exercised a lot of power on crimes that were not weighty compared to those that required intervention of the juvenile court system. When executing their duties, the police were featured African-Americans because of their race and ethnicity. According to research there is no great difference between the whites. This is according to Michael Griffith who stated that he had stayed with white children for the better part of atlas shrugged, his life. In addition, Michael Griffith tried to interpret about introduction his experience from the radicalized political leaders in his country.
According to fraser essay, Griffith, the verdict set in court could be used to determine the worthiness of the blacks in the society. He further states that after the judgment concerning two whites who were convicted for murder, a certain reporter questioned whether the convictions had any connection with the worthiness of the black people in American society. As revealed through research the verdict was not based on effect essay introduction the value of the life of blacks, the worthiness of all human life in form job resume the country. Race relations were first brought into worldwide view on the onset of essay introduction, Howard Beach incident. On Prostitution? This was a four men case with whom their car broke down as the travelled in essay the section of Howard Beach. These involved ‘Griffith’, aged 23, ‘Sandiford’, 36 ‘Timothy Grimes’, 18 and atlas shrugged, ‘Curtis Sylvester’, 19.
One of them was left on the car as the rest walked in the major part of the beach for help. A group of effect introduction, white men spotted the as they were on their way from a neighborhood party. The picture presented here was that one group was black men, and the other white men. The black men were spotted by the whites in a pizza parlor as they gave themselves something to eat. The white men referred to the black as ‘riggers’ as the moved on to attack them at the pizza. The whites pounced on the black men as they strolled on the streets. They taunted the blacks after which they begun to beat them.
It was a serious assault that left one of the black unconscious. With one of the blacks diving through a big hole, staggering to a shore park way for safety, he met with death in which a court officer and son of policeman driving an automobile struck and killed him. Majority of the witnesses were whites who chased the whites and called up the police. The police reached the scene and found two blacks, one lying dead while the other walked along the parkway dazed. Instead of the form job resume police believing the injured man and treat him as a victim of the beating, the essay introduction treated him as a crime suspect. When the bare fact of this case was reached, in that the attack was ethnic based, and the whites attacked them only because they were blacks, an alarm was widely raised. This resulted in a widespread immediate attention. This crime was condemned, and demands of quick action demanded by the mayor, black leaders, and the police.
The report given by the researcher as he tried to answer the reporter was against the interpretation of other researchers who had varied arguments concerning the relations of the race between the on prostitution in india West Indians and effect essay, the blacks. In addition, there are various procedural points, which can be used in understanding the racial disparity of the minorities, particularly, in the justice system. The enforcement agencies in the United States submit many of the cases by juveniles in courts of the law although various people including parents and teachers petition the youths as well. Ba 540 Homework? Research also indicates that although the responsibility of the police is to ensure that the inequality in the juveniles in essay limited through the juvenile system, the differences in juveniles based on race is enhanced by the police. Details contained in all approaches of investigation by aol resume templates Michael Griffith and co-ethics showed that the criminal justice system was biased. The police carried out a lot of attacks on African-Americans, who lived in effect introduction slum areas because they were poor. After interpretation of reports provided by different people, it was found out that most of the crimes were racially based. Past criminal records also showed that the criminal justice system was biased. Feel free to in india, contact our custom essay writing service if you need a high-quality custom written paper. All essays and research papers are written by effect essay introduction professional academic writers. Get professional essay writing help now!
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Recorded at the Wiener Staatsoper, Vienna, Austria. Broadcast on Mezzo Channel. Effect! Listen on YouTube: Buy this album at: Handel: Alcina Live (Opéra Royal de Versailles, 2012) [P-4] Recoreded filmed live at pen and paper in observational Opéra Royal de Versailles, France. 4 th recording of effect essay introduction Alcina by C. Form Job Resume! Rousset. Watch on introduction YouTube: Alcina: March 17, 27 Apr 1, 2013.
Recorded filmed live at Semperoper Dresden, Saxony, Germany. Staging: Jan Philipp Gloger; Dramaturgy: Sophie Becker; Set Designs: Ben Baur; Costumes: Karin Jud; Lighting: Fabio Antoci. Form Job Resume! With generous support of the foundation of the essay introduction Semperoper Dresden. Aol Resume! Watch on YouTube: Alcina: Handel: Alcina (Paris, Garnier, 2014) [P-5] Ch#339;ur de l'Opéra de Paris (Chorus Master: Alessandro Di Stefano) / Les Talens Lyriques. Jan 25-Feb 12, 2014 (8 performances) Reored filmed live at Opéra National de Paris Palais Garnier, Paris, France/ Stage Director: Robert Carsen; Scenery and costumes: Tobias Hoheisel; Lights: Jean Kalman; Choreographic movements: Philippe Giraudeau; Dramaturgy: Ian Burton. 5 th recording of Alcina by C. Rousset. Watch on YouTube: Alcina: Orchestra includes: Elliot Figg, Ellen Hindson, Johanna Novom, Kristin Olson, Katie Rietman, Elizabeth Weinfield, Yang Wen, Jude Ziliak. Recorded filmed live at WhiteBox Art Center, New York City, New York, USA. General Rehearsal: September 19, 2014; Performances: September 20 21, 2014. Director: R. B. Effect Essay! Schlather; Scenography: Paul DePoo; Costume: Terese Wadden; Lighting: JAX Messenger; Hair Makeup design: Dave Bova; Titles: Steven Jude Tietjen; Assistant Director: Emily Cuk; Production Stage Manager: Audrey Chait.
Watch on form job resume YouTube: Alcina: Anne-Carolyn Bird as Morgana: Credete al mio dolore + Samuel Levine as Oronte: Un momento di contento [10:06] Händel: 'Alcina' (Live, Federico Sardelli Moscow Chamber Orchestra) [P-1] Audio / TT: 179:56. Recorded live at Tchaikovsky Concert Hall, Moscow, Russia. Listen on YouTube: Watch on YouTube: Handel: Alcina, Tamerlano [P-6] Choeur de Chambre de l'IMEP (Chorus Master: Benoît Giaux) / Les Talens Lyriques (Concert-master: Gilone Gaubert-Jacques) CCI: Sopranos: Plorie Edmond, Camille Hubert, Marie Agnes Jean, Maria Devitzaki*; Altos: Aurore Bureau, Caroline de Mahieu, Isabelle Jacques, Imogen Streul*; Tenors: Gabriel Bonifanti. Pierre Derhet, Maxime Melnik, Guillaume Huybrechrs*; Basses: Emanuel Junk, Kamil Ben Hsain Lachiri, Laurent Lamard. Jordan Lehane* LTL: Violins 1: Gilone Gaubert-Jacques, Jivka Kaltche, Karine Crocquenoy, Josépha Gérard, Jean-Marc Haddad, Michiyo Kondo; Violins 2: Charlotte Grattard, Giorgia Simbula, Virginie Descharmes, Mrryam Mahnane; Violas: Laurent Gaspar, Mika Akiha, Delphine Grimbert; Cellos: Emmanuel Jacques, Jérôme Huille, Julien Barre; Double-bass: Ludek Braný; Recorders: Stefanie Troffaers, Laura Duthuillé; Oboes: Vincent Blanchard, Laura Duthuillé; Bassoon: Eyal Steett; Horns: Lionel Renoux, Yannick Maillet.
Continuo: Cello: Emmanuel Jacques; Lute Guitar: Laura Mónica Pustilnik; Harpsichords: Christophe Rousset, Stéphanie Fuget. Alpha Classics: ALPHA-715. 2-Blu-ray / TT: 378:58. Recorded at La Monnaie/De Munt, Brussels, Belgium. Sound Format PCM Stereo, DTS-HD Master Audio 5.1 Surround; Picture Format 16:9, 1080i; All Regions: Subtitles and Booklet in English, German, French, Dutch. Film Director: Stéphan Aubé; Stage Director: Pierre Audi; Stage Direction Assistant: Maria Lamont; Set Constumes Designer: Patrick Kinmont; Lighting: Matthew Richardson. Essay! 6 th recording of Alcina by C. Rousset. Watch on YouTube: Alcina: Buy this album at:
Live aus aix-en-provence: Händels Alcina [P-1] TV Broadcast / TT: 180 min. Live broadcast by Arte Concert from Grand Théâtre de Provence, during the Festival International d'Art Lyrique d'Aix-en-Provence, France. Director: Katie Mitchell; TV Director: Corentin Leconte; Arte France, Bel Air Media. Essay! Oct 27 31 Nov 2, 4, 6, 8 10, 2015. Recorded filmed live at Main Auditorium, Teatro Real, Madrid, Spain. Production Team Cast: Stage Director: David Alden; Set Designer: Gideon Davey; Lighting Designer: Simon Mills; Choreographer: Beate Vollack. Watch on YouTube: Alcina: Alcina de Haendel au Grand Théâtre de Genève [P-1] Continuo soloists: Abdel-Hamid El Shwekh François Payet-Labonne (Violons); François Guye (Violoncelle); Héctor Sapiña Lledó (Double-bass) Video / TT: 146:09. Recorded filmed live at effect introduction Opéra des Nations, Genève, Switzerland.
Broadcast by atlas Arte Channel on essay April 13, 2016. Production of Grand Théâtre de Genève; Stage Director: David Bösch. Watch on YouTube: Watch on shrugged essays Arte Website: The list of effect essay introduction recordings was compiled by essays on prostitution Aryeh Oron (November 2008 - May 2017)
Expert Essay Writers -
Cause and Effect Essay Examples | …
essay writing texts How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for each of the types of writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is probably the most important of them all. It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay to write? Do you fill with f-f-fear? W-w-wobble with worry? P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!).
He's yet to discover that writing an essay is never going to be an easy task, even for the best writers. But you're about to find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Oh, and effect essay introduction likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to help, feel, well. just a little bit excited about! It's important to effect essay introduction, understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an homework, English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on that one. It's just not like that.
In an English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to 'prove'. That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are. These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts. But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in which you give an overview of your response to the essay question. This is a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at aspects of the text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of your essay . There is no better way to begin an essay than like this.
From this point on you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the essay is merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the case for what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to have support (E) from the effect introduction, text (either a quotation, or an explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of how the text brought you to in india, such a view, the effects it created, the methods the effect, author used to create the essays on prostitution, effects and, finally, its relevance to the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Done and dusted! More detail below if needed. The secret of a good essay?
Make it an argument ! An effective essay is a piece of writing that makes a strong and well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for effect, is your response to the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at homework after a couple of readings of the text, more if a poem, and effect essay one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by form and structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of paper practices in observational research your opinion . It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of violence in Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the characters of Mercutio and Tybalt and an analysis of these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the effect essay, heart of your 'argument'. It's what the essay goes on to explain and shrugged essays support to show that it is a view that is introduction, well - considered, based on the text and homework reasonable to hold . Essays are about effect opinions, not facts. This point is shrugged essays, crucial to take on board. Introduction? There is never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title. There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for example, misinterpreting the text; but the 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of view . Essays deal in opinions, not facts . This is why your teacher is looking to ba 540 help, read your views and why you have come to think in this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview? This is the tough part - there's no getting away from that. Not least, this is because it puts to the test your knowledge of the effect essay introduction, text and your understanding of the essay title or question . Form Job Resume? The good news is that when it's done and done well, the remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to write, perhaps even a little exciting!
The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay. As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to introduction, open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the aspects of the text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the major 'signposts' that give your essay and its general direction. Importantly, you need to form job resume, set a confident tone early on in the effect essay introduction, essay. Essays? This can be done by adding in a very few details to show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is everything in the opening paragraph) on the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of introduction any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the writer to want to on prostitution, write their text, including key aspects of their social , cultural and literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to be focused on the needs of the introduction, essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to pen and research, avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on essay introduction the needs of the essay title or question. This is the bulk of the essay. It is templates, a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and essay wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in a way that inspires little confidence and which drifts from the essay question or argument.
Avoid this by opening each and every paragraph in a way that is aol resume templates, clearly and directly developing the effect introduction, essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in these body paragraphs. This is atlas essays, where you restate, in effect introduction, a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and relevance of what you have found. It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher? Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an digital paper research, analysis of the quotation's literary and linguistic content . However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the text for aspects and quotations that will provide good quality evidence to essay, support the essay's points. Each point and supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and comment . Some teachers call this the P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system. This is needed to explain how and form job resume why the aspect of the text or the quotation 'works' within the context of the essay question and the originally stated argument.
Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the essay, writer's methods , e.g. through the creation of realistic dialogue; the essays in india, use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the essay introduction, method used affect the reader's understanding of the text and its themes (e.g. Essays On Prostitution In India? 'the effect of this passage is to essay introduction, create a sense of really being there for the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. Aol Resume? 'At this point on the story the author wants to effect essay, gain the essays on prostitution in india, reader's attention in order to effect essay, begin exploring the overall theme of injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1! Begin all of your paragraphs in homework help, such a way that it is essay introduction, absolutely clear you are focused on essays on prostitution the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. This will keep the essay on track and avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and waffle!
What if your essay title isn't in the form of a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is easier to generate that all-important single main point of effect essay introduction view to it - the main idea upon form job resume which you will then base the remainder of your essay . Here is an example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. thesis statement ) that could be used to create an argument essay from the above question: The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of points with each point explained , developed and effect essay introduction supported in a paragraph of pen and in observational research its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in the opening paragraph, which itself is your response to essay, the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the first of aol resume what is called the body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of ambition is shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to essay, say and do in fraser institute essay, Act One of the play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and support how the theme of ambition is shown through these two characters in some part of Act 2, and so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for writing an effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and the essay question. Here are some examples of how to use embedded quotations. The first is from the effect essay introduction, opening of John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Men': 'Small and form job resume quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to essay, his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie.
Here is a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the templates, Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an essay introduction, important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and time and so deserve careful preparation.
T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of understanding of the text on which the essay is based. This is to take the form job resume, road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to effect essay introduction, know your text well. You won't succeed if you don't! I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to on prostitution in india, hand. Also, talk the text over with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to introduction, create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus.
This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to digital pen and paper practices in observational research, focus too much on the surface features of the text you are writing about. This happens when you write at length about the meaning of the text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the text. You need to be discussing how and why the author has created an effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to support the points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to try to use at least one quotation - or reference to effect, the text - per paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an English essay and this means you need to fraser essay, reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in effective ways in their writing . Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in effect introduction, them that will allow you to discuss in depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for example, how the fraser essay, quotation acts to build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the introduction, text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and as a contribution to the whole , i.e. the way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the form job resume, quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and style . 1. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY.
The word 'essay' comes from introduction, a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is your attempt to argue for your point of view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to form job resume, be an idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the essay, text is asked in the essay question. Digital Pen And Paper Research? Interpretation means considering how a text operates at different levels ; it is your interpretation of the text that will be at the heart of the effect, essay: an interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement. 2. Essays? FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to search through the text and note down a series of aspects and quotations that can be used to effect, support the overall view you have developed. Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the ba 540, aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and essay purpose intended . 3. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to shrugged essays, make clear your thesis statement - response to effect essay introduction, the essay question: that is, to explain the focus of your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at the opening to form job resume, your essay, this shows how you intend to answer the essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in essay, the body of the homework, essay. This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and how you intend to answer it.
Importantly, in the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to write an effect, overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the homework, ' big picture ' of the text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on the requirements of the essay question. Giving a succinct account of the big picture of the essay, text in research, the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the detail of three key aspects of the effect introduction, essay: the essay question, the text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the best essays. TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into your own sentences, using quotation marks of atlas shrugged essays course, a short suitable quotation taken from the text. Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and any aspects of essay his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief! Remember that this is aol resume, not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful). The majority of marks in an English essay are awarded for the quality of analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the author's uses of the English language and literary uses of this. If your essay title does concern aspects of effect context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of aol resume templates context; in effect introduction, other words allow the text to introduce the context. TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the fraser essay, text or its author. Saying that Shakespeare is 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of effect introduction waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to your essay. 4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY.
Follow the opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the 'body' of the essay. Each of these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the templates, text for this. In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. or P.Q.C. For more on this see here ; work through the introduction, text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of essays view; comment on how the language of each of these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the effect, author choose this particular type of language to make this point in this way? How does it help a) the audience and b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the text by leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the essays on prostitution, themes, messages or purposes of the text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to effect essay, show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the POINT part of P.E.E.);
A useful tip is to homework help, open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for essay, each of the help, points you make by referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the essay, text but you might choose to describe an event. It's very important NOT to templates, write a long description of WHAT happens. If you do you are merely 'retelling the effect essay, story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and stage action. You will need to follow each quotation with an explanation of and a discussion on aspects of the language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for fraser institute, example, how aspects of the effect introduction, quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the writer used, the institute essay, effect the essay introduction, language creates and homework help the reasons this might have been done (this is the effect essay, EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the text (this is also the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). 5. Form Job Resume? CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in a clear way through the text, from beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning!
Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the effect essay, end then go back to fraser institute, an earlier point. This ignores the work the writer puts in to develop an effective structure to their text - and loses marks! 6. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to an essay is important but causes problems for many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Essay? Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the main points from the essay, preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an idea). 3. End by identifying some of the effect essay, wider implications and relevance that arise from form job resume, what you have found and explored.
The conclusion should consist of essay just a few sentences but these will need to be made to sound convincing and authoritative . It's crucial to keep the conclusion brief and to aol resume, the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by introduction 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. Fraser Institute Essay? ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the play is set in Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in the coming scene. It will be against essay introduction, this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and essays on prostitution in india Juliet will have to introduction, struggle.'
Which approach and style would gain the ba 540, higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about a text at effect introduction the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of its language have been used by the writer in important and effective ways. To give you an idea of the importance of institute essay form to a text, you yourself make use of the effect essay, form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the form - of your writing. This, albeit subtly, affects the way the writing is received and interpreted. A novelist makes use of form by writing in sentences and atlas paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). Effect Essay Introduction? The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an effective use of form, as is the ba 540 homework help, use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the inclusion of effect essay introduction bullet points or sections.
Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the form job resume, use of form. A poet makes use of form, for example, by essay consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of poetry . This allows the poet to exaggerate a particular word by placing it at fraser institute the end of a line, or by effect essay rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and appearance and by adding illustrations and photographs , and so on. All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on. A playwright, of course, uses form very differently. Pen And? When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form. Effect? In a play, much of the 'meaning' is fraser, created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the essay, staging and stage action. Essays In India? This includes not just what the actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto your essay. Form is always worthy of comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the content of a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . This is its basic dictionary meaning.
It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on of a storm'. This is a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and effect interesting . Essays? Words and phrases can be used differently from their literal context and given what is called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). The most common way this is done is to use a word not for its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from effect, its literal meaning. E.g. 'As well as suggesting the coming of a storm, the darkness also acts to suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over ba 540 homework, the character's mind. In this way the darkness seems to introduction, be symbolising a kind of evil'.
Using a pun - a witty play on words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of fraser institute which might be humorous. Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning. Sarcasm is irony, but this is effect introduction, a spoken form of irony that is intended to hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of ba 540 homework them. It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for effect essay, writing.
Irony is form job resume, usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an effect introduction, altogether more intelligent use of language. But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is one of the most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in form job resume, a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the text. This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and satisfaction in unpicking the various levels of meaning created by the irony. Creating an 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is much harder than in speech because the original sound of voice and facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent. To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for that matter), words have to be chosen with great care. It is a key reading skill to be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the essay, writer is taking towards their subject matter.
An example of irony occurs in an old story by O. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. This story of form job resume poor young lovers ends with the essay introduction, boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of fraser essay value, his pocket watch, in order to buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. a chain for his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of writing in an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and effect essay introduction their purpose. It is important to comment on the structure of a text, e.g. 'The way the author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and digital paper in observational research language features to suit a particular audience to effect, achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to ba 540, one that is more emotional and persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of their own that is quickly recognisable. Effect Introduction? John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to as the writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to comment on templates its style - on effect essay what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to have been chosen to create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose. So. Atlas Shrugged Essays? if you are commenting on the form and content of a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to effect, write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and contrast the texts . Aside from not knowing the texts sufficiently well, failing to compare and shrugged essays contrast is the number one reason marks are lost in this kind of essay.
When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to essay, give the homework help, briefest details of each text (i.e. your writing needs to essay, be succinct !). This will mean being even more careful and sparing when you write an on prostitution in india, overview of each text, in which you give the effect essay introduction, big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the second - still using the shrugged essays, techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the first. 2) Alternatively, and essay introduction this makes the most sense when thinking about the templates, argument essay, you write about both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in which examples to support the effect essay introduction, points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to the point. This second method is the more complex and form job resume sophisticated of the two.